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Estrogen therapy

Dina N Greene, Gabrielle Winston McPherson, Jessica Rongitsch, Katherine L Imborek, Robert L Schmidt, Robert M Humble, Nicole Nisly, Nancy J Dole, Susan K Dane, Janice Frerichs, Matthew D Krasowski
BACKGROUND: The complete blood count (CBC) is a cornerstone of patient care. Several of the normal values for the components of the CBC differ by sex and, therefore, male-specific and female-specific reference intervals are required to interpret these laboratory results. Transgender individuals are often prescribed hormone therapy to affirm their gender, with resulting serum hormone concentrations similar to those of cisgender individuals. Gender-specific reference intervals for transgender men and women have not been established for any laboratory measurements, including hematology...
February 13, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Masuyo Miyake, Akimitsu Yamada, Kentaro Miyake, Itaru Endo
BACKGROUND: The esophageal metastasis of breast cancer is rare. Moreover, it is extremely unusual for patients to experience the symptoms of esophageal metastasis during their lifetimes. We present a case of dysphagia caused by esophageal metastasis after a long interval following a primary mastectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman with a history of heterochronous bilateral breast cancer and under treatment for pleural dissemination recurrence originating from right breast cancer complained of dysphagia...
February 15, 2019: Surgical Case Reports
Jacek Szymański, Kornelia Zaręba, Grzegorz Jakiel, Aneta Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak
Vulvovaginal atrophy accompanied by lower urinary tract dysfunction related to low levels of estrogen and androgens is labeled as genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Although this condition affects most postmenopausal women worldwide, it seems to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. Women should be properly advised to choose an adequate treatment modality to improve their quality of life, sexual relationships and social activity. The aim of this article to is increase knowledge of GSM. The current treatment options, both hormonal and non-hormonal, are reviewed...
December 2018: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Jakub Malinowski, Miłosz Wilczyński, Adam Depta, Andrzej Malinowski
Vulvovaginal atrophy accompanied by lower urinary tract dysfunction related to low levels of estrogen and androgens is labeled as genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Although this condition affects most postmenopausal women worldwide, it seems to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. Women should be properly advised to choose an adequate treatment modality to improve their quality of life, sexual relationships and social activity. The aim of this article is to increase knowledge of GSM. The current treatment options, both hormonal and non-hormonal, are reviewed...
December 2018: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Tomoko Arakawa, Shinya Fukuda, Tetsuya Hirata, Kazuaki Neriishi, Yu Wang, Arisa Takeuchi, Ai Saeki, Miyuki Harada, Yasushi Hirota, Takashi Matsumoto, Kaori Koga, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Masatoshi Kurihara, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
In cases of extragenital endometriosis or microscopic endometriosis lesions, pathological diagnosis can be challenging because endometriotic stroma and glands represent only a minor component of fibrotic endometriotic lesions. For better accuracy of diagnosis, the development of a sensitive and specific epithelial marker is beneficial. Previous studies showed that PAX8 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for primary and metastatic Mullerian epithelial tumors. Therefore, we sought to examine whether PAX8 is a highly sensitive marker for glands in extragenital endometriosis...
February 14, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Fabio Barra, Giovanni Grandi, Matteo Tantari, Carolina Scala, Fabio Facchinetti, Simone Ferrero
Endometriosis is a chronic benign estrogen dependent disease characterized by the presence of endometriotic glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Although combined hormonal contraceptives and progestins, currently available first-line treatments for endometriosis, are efficacious and well tolerated for treating disease-related pain, some women experience partial or no improvement of pain or its recurrence is frequent after discontinuation of the therapies. For these reasons, new drugs are under investigation for the treatment of endometriosis...
February 14, 2019: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Xiaochen Shu, Yun Jiang, Tao Wen, Shun Lu, Lu Yao, Fang Meng
AIM: There is no consensus regarding the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk of meningioma so far. We conducted the first study among Chinese female patients to investigate the influence of HRT use on the risk of meningioma. METHODS: We retrospectively collected records of diagnosis of meningioma for women aged 50 years and above during 2011-2016 and dispense of HRT prior to meningioma diagnosis in three tertiary hospitals in China. Meningioma cases were matched with controls at a ratio of 1:2 by using nearest neighbor propensity scores matching in order to balance the baseline characteristics between groups, which generated a total of 629 cases with 1258 controls...
February 13, 2019: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ingeborg E de Kruijff, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Wendy Onstenk, Agnes Jager, Paul Hamberg, Felix E de Jongh, Marcel Smid, J Kraan, Mieke A Timmermans, John W M Martens, Stefan Sleijfer
The androgen receptor (AR) has potential clinical relevance in metastatic breast cancer (mBC) since it might be a treatment target and has been associated with endocrine resistance. A minimal-invasive way to determine AR expression on metastatic tumor cells is by characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Here, we assessed AR mRNA expression in CTCs (CTC-AR) and in matched primary tumor samples from mBC patients representing different breast cancer subtypes. In addition, we explored CTC-AR-status in relation to outcome on endocrine therapy...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ming-Yang Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Yao-Lung Kuo, Chiao Lo, Hung-Yu Sun, Yu-Jhen Lyu, Bo-Rong Chen, Jie-Ning Li, Pai-Sheng Chen
Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormone therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, which accounts for approximately 70% of all breast cancers. Although patients who receive tamoxifen therapy benefit with respect to an improved overall prognosis, resistance and cancer recurrence still occur and remain important clinical challenges. A recent study identified TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 (TARBP2) as an oncogene that promotes breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we showed that TARBP2 is overexpressed in hormone therapy-resistant cells and breast cancer tissues, where it enhances tamoxifen resistance...
February 12, 2019: Cancers
A M Sofie Berghuis, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Hendrik Koffijberg, Leon W M M Terstappen, Stefan Sleijfer, Maarten J IJzerman
PURPOSE: The estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 status are essential in guiding treatment decisions in breast cancer patients. In daily life, the ER/PR/HER2 status is expected to be commonly tested twice, i.e., at diagnosis using material from tumor needle biopsies, and after tumor resection using full tumor tissue material. This study explored the discordance of ER/PR/HER2 between tumor needle biopsies and full tumor resection material using real-world patient-level data from Dutch breast cancer patients...
February 13, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jonathan Q Purnell, Henryk F Urbanski, Paul Kievit, Charles T Roberts, Cynthia L Bethea
Whether hormone replacement therapy has beneficial metabolic effects in postmenopausal women remains controversial due to between-study differences in menopausal duration, estrogen formulations, and diet. Additionally, animal studies have not reflected the typical human obesogenic, Western-Style Diet (WSD). In this study, we determined the effects of immediate E (ImE) or delayed E treatment on weight and metabolism parameters in old ovo-hysterectomized rhesus macaques consuming a WSD over a 30-month period...
February 7, 2019: Endocrinology
Sean W Fanning, Geoffrey L Greene
One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime. Because estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is expressed in approximately 70% of patients, therapeutic intervention by ERα-targeted endocrine therapies remains the leading strategy to prevent progression/metastasis in the adjuvant setting. However, the efficacy of these therapies is diminished by the development of acquired resistance following prolonged treatment regiments. In preclinical models of endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancers that retain ERα expression, antiestrogens with improved efficacy and potency can overcome resistance to shrink tumors and prevent metastasis...
February 8, 2019: Endocrinology
Anna Serafini, Elizabeth Gerard, Pierre Genton, Arielle Crespel, Philippe Gelisse
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is both a frequent and a very characteristic epileptic syndrome with female preponderance. Treatment of JME in women of childbearing potential must consider multiple factors such as desire for pregnancy, use of contraception, seizure control and previously used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Approximately 85% of cases are well controlled with valproate, which remains the reference AED in JME but is nowadays considered unsafe for the expecting mother and her fetus. The prescription of valproate is now severely restricted in women of childbearing potential but may still be considered, at the lowest possible dose and when pregnancies can be reliably planned, with temporary alternatives to valproate prescribed before fertilization...
February 11, 2019: CNS Drugs
J Renwick Beattie, Antonia Sophocleous, M Clare Caraher, Olive O'Driscoll, Niamh M Cummins, Steven E J Bell, Mark Towler, Alireza Rahimnejad Yazdi, Stuart H Ralston, Aymen I Idris
Pharmacological therapy of osteoporosis reduces bone loss and risk of fracture in patients. Modulation of bone mineral density cannot explain all effects. Other aspects of bone quality affecting fragility and ways to monitor them need to be better understood. Keratinous tissue acts as surrogate marker for bone protein deterioration caused by oestrogen deficiency in rats. Ovariectomised rats were treated with alendronate (ALN), parathyroid hormone (PTH) or estrogen (E2). MicroCT assessed macro structural changes...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Su Lu, Yiyi Du, Fang Cui, Xinyi Feng, Yuanyuan Ma, Hong Liu
Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, is the most widely used endocrine therapy for patients with ER‑positive breast cancer. However, ~30% of tamoxifen‑treated breast cancers do not initially respond to tamoxifen, and neither do they eventually develop tamoxifen resistance. Bcl‑2‑associated athanogene 1 (BAG‑1) is a multifunctional protein that interacts with a wide range of molecules to protect cells from apoptosis otherwise induced by cytotoxic drugs, growth factor withdrawal, radiation and stress...
January 22, 2019: Oncology Reports
Suhail Al-Salam, Manjusha Sudhadevi, Aktham Awwad, Mohamed Al Bashir
BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma is the commonest cancer among UAE population and the most common cancer among females. Examination of the 5' promoter regions of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) gene has identified putative estrogen and progesterone receptor-DNA binding domains as direct response elements to estrogen and progesterone that are linked to breast functions or steroid regulation. The study was designed to determine the role of TFF3 in breast cancer chemoresistance with the aim of establishing TFF3 expression as a biomarker for drug resistance...
February 11, 2019: BMC Cancer
Jeffrey West, Mark Robertson-Tessi, Kimberly Luddy, Derek S Park, Drew F K Williamson, Cathal Harmon, Hung T Khong, Joel Brown, Alexander R A Anderson
PURPOSE: In an upcoming clinical trial at the Moffitt Cancer Center for women with stage 2/3 estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, treatment with an aromatase inhibitor and a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor combination will be investigated to lower a preoperative endocrine prognostic index (PEPI) that correlates with relapse-free survival. PEPI is fundamentally a static index, measured at the end of neoadjuvant therapy before surgery. We have developed a mathematical model of the essential components of the PEPI score to identify successful combination therapy regimens that minimize tumor burden and metastatic potential, on the basis of time-dependent trade-offs in the system...
February 2019: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Morten F Gjerstorff, Solmaz Shirjang, Zahra Asadzadeh, Vahid Khaze, Uffe Holmskov, Tohid Kazemi, Pascal H G Duijf, Behzad Baradaran
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are involved in the development of many types of malignant tumors, in particular, breast cancer. Among others, ERs affect cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-142-3p has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating various cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, cell migration, apoptosis, and invasion. It does so via targeting molecules involved in a range of signaling pathways. We surgically collected 20 ER-positive breast cancer samples, each with matched adjacent normal breast tissue, and measured the expression of miR-142-3p via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Corina Verónica Sasso, Flavia Eliana Santiano, Fiorella Campo Verde Arboccó, Leila Zyla, Silvana Noemí Semino, Martin Eduardo Guerrero-Gimenez, Virginia Pistone Creydt, Constanza Matilde López-Fontana, Rubén Walter Carón
Epidemiological studies describe estrogens as protectors in the development of colon cancer in postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy. However, the role of progesterone in colon cancer has been minimally studied and the results are controversial. For the above, the objective of this work was to determine the hormonal regulation exerted by natural ovarian steroids on proliferation and apoptosis in an experimental model of colon cancer in ovariectomized rats treated with 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone...
February 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
Stephanie Downs-Canner, Emily C Zabor, Tyler Wind, Armend Cobovic, Beryl McCormick, Monica Morrow, Alexandra Heerdt
BACKGROUND: Despite data from randomized trials supporting omission of radiation therapy (RT) for women ≥ 70 years of age with T1, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT), RT usage remains high. We reviewed our institutional experience to determine if risk factors for local recurrence or comorbidities influenced use. METHODS: Women ≥ 70 years of age with T1, ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) tumors undergoing BCT in 2010-2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database...
February 8, 2019: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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