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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897190/differences-in-quality-of-life-and-cognition-between-the-elderly-and-the-very-elderly-hemodialysis-patients
#1
Fernanda Siqueira Viana, Yolanda Eliza M Boechat, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de Matos
INTRODUCTION: In the last decades, there was an expressive increase in the number of elderly patients with chronic kidney disease starting hemodialysis. Thus, our goal was to evaluate the profile of the elderly in chronic hemodialysis and to compare the cognition and quality of life of the younger elderly with those of the very elderly. METHODS: Patients on hemodialysis for at least 3 months, who were 65 years of age or older when they started dialysis were invited to participate, and stratified according to age (under or over 80 years)...
March 18, 2019: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30896268/cortisol-stress-reactivity-in-women-diurnal-variations-and-hormonal-contraceptives-studies-from-the-family-health-patterns-project
#2
William R Lovallo, Andrew J Cohoon, Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Kristen H Sorocco
Women have smaller cortisol responses to psychological stress than men do, and women taking hormonal contraceptives (HC+) have smaller responses than HC- women. Cortisol secretion undergoes substantial diurnal variation, with elevated levels in the morning and lower levels in the afternoon, and these variations are accompanied by differences in response to acute stress. However, the impact of HC use on these diurnal relationships has not been examined. We tested saliva cortisol values in 744 healthy young adults, 351 men and 393 women, 254 HC- and 139 HC+, who were assigned to morning (9:00 am) or afternoon (1:00 pm) test sessions that were held both on a rest day and on a stress day that included public speaking and mental arithmetic challenges...
March 21, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895707/ten-year-time-trends-in-mental-and-physical-health-correlates-of-weight-shape-overvaluation
#3
Danilo Dias Santana, Deborah Mitchison, Scott Griffiths, Jose Carlos Appolinario, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between weight/shape overvaluation, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional role impairment (days out of role [DOR]) in the general population over 11 years. METHOD: Five cross-sectional surveys of men and women representative of the South Australian population were conducted in 2005, 2008, 2009, 2015, and 2016 (ntotal  = 15,140). Data were collected on demographics, overvaluation, HRQoL, DOR, and eating disorder behaviours...
March 21, 2019: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893804/associations-between-home-foreclosure-and-health-outcomes-in-a-spanish-city
#4
Mariola Bernal-Solano, Julia Bolívar-Muñoz, Inmaculada Mateo-Rodríguez, Humbelina Robles-Ortega, Maria Del Carmen Fernández-Santaella, José Luís Mata-Martín, Jaime Vila-Castellar, Antonio Daponte-Codina
The financial crisis has caused an exponential increase of home foreclosures in Spain. Recent studies have shown the effects that foreclosures have on mental and physical health. This study explores these effects on a sample of adults in the city of Granada (Spain), in terms of socio-demographic, socio-economic and process characteristics. A cross-sectional survey was administered to obtain information on self-perceived changes in several indicators of physical and mental health, consumption of medications, health-related behaviors and use of health services...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893127/associations-between-lifetime-traumatic-experiences-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-amongst-young-men-living-in-informal-settlements-in-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-analysis-and-structural-equation-model
#5
Andrew Gibbs, Abigail Hatcher, Rachel Jewkes, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Laura Washington, Kristin Dunkle, Sarah Magni, Dean Peacock, Mzwakhe Khumalo, Nicola Christofides
BACKGROUND: Qualitative research emphasizes men's experiences of trauma increase HIV-risk. We seek to understand associations between experience of traumatic events and HIV-risk behaviours amongst heterosexual men in two trials in urban informal settlements in South Africa. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys among men in Johannesburg and Durban, South Africa, enrolled in intervention trials. Adjusted logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM) assessed associations between men's experiences of poverty and traumatic events, and HIV-risk behaviours (inconsistent condom use, transactional sex, number of sex partners)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893126/elevated-depressive-symptoms-are-a-stronger-predictor-of-executive-dysfunction-in-hiv-infected-women-than-men
#6
Leah H Rubin, Gayle Springer, Eileen M Martin, Eric C Seaberg, Ned C Sacktor, Andrew Levine, Victor G Valcour, Mary A Young, James T Becker, Pauline M Maki
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV+) women appear to be more vulnerable to neurocognitive impairment than HIV+ men, perhaps in part due to mental health factors. We assessed the association between elevated depressive symptoms and NCI among HIV+ and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women and men. SETTING: Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). METHODS: 858 HIV+ (429 women; 429 men) and 562 HIV- (281 women; 281 men) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D; 16 cutoff) scale and measures of psychomotor speed/attention, executive, and motor function over multiple visits (or time points)...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892642/americans-health-mindsets-content-cultural-patterning-and-associations-with-physical-and-mental-health
#7
Alana L Conner, Danielle Z Boles, Hazel Rose Markus, Jennifer L Eberhardt, Alia J Crum
BACKGROUND: Health mindsets are mental frameworks that help people recognize, organize, interpret, and respond to health-relevant information. Although mindsets shape health behaviors and outcomes, no study has examined the health mindsets of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse Americans. PURPOSE: We explored the content, cultural patterning, and health correlates of diverse Americans' health mindsets. METHODS: Two studies surveyed approximately equal numbers of African American, Asian American, European American, and Latinx American men and women of lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES)...
March 20, 2019: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30892422/rape-in-brazil-and-relationships-with-alcohol-consumption-estimates-based-on-confidential-self-reports
#8
Luciana Teixeira Dos Santos Massaro, Leila Adesse, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Raul Caetano, Clarice S Madruga
This study presents the rape prevalence and its relationship with alcohol consumption based on the analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2012 Second National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, which used a cluster-stratified probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population. We included 1,918 men and 2,365 women, for a total sample of 4,283 individuals. Our results estimate the over-lifetime rape prevalence at 2.6% for the entire population, 1.7% for men and 3.5% for women. For both sexes, the highest prevalences were concentrated among those aged between 26 and 59 years (3...
March 14, 2019: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890196/the-vulnerability-paradox-in-global-mental-health-and-its-applicability-to-suicide
#9
Michel L A Dückers, Lennart Reifels, Derek P De Beurs, Chris R Brewin
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified a vulnerability paradox in global mental health: contrary to positive associations at the individual level, lower vulnerability at the country level is accompanied by a higher prevalence in a variety of mental health problems in national populations. However, the validity of the paradox has been challenged, specifically for bias from modest sample sizes and reliance on a survey methodology not designed for cross-national comparisons.AimsTo verify whether the paradox applies to suicide, using data from a sizable country sample and an entirely different data source...
March 20, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30889157/suicide-in-the-elderly-a-37-years-retrospective-study
#10
Carlo Crestani, Vittoria Masotti, Natalia Corradi, Maria Laura Schirripa, Rossana Cecchi
BACKGROUND: The rates of suicide increase with age and reach their highest levels in the oldest age groupings and are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. The number of deaths due to suicides after the age of 60 years in Italy is 1,775 (41.36%) in 2013; there is a constant increase of elder population over the last ten years and elderly are almost twice of young. It is in this context that suicide arises, a risk factor during old age. METHOD: This is a retrospective study of autopsy and police reports of suicide from January 1979 through December 2015...
January 22, 2019: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888262/gender-specific-predictors-of-methadone-treatment-outcomes-among-african-americans-at-an-urban-clinic
#11
Jamey J Lister, Suzanne Brown, Mark K Greenwald, David M Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND: African American patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) have demonstrated poorer methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) outcomes compared with white patients. This issue is further complicated in urban settings, where African Americans experience high rates of poverty and publicly funded treatment. Despite interrelated factors that disadvantage African Americans, the literature focusing on this population is scant. To address this shortcoming, we conducted the first investigation of gender differences and gender-specific MMT outcome predictors among African Americans (or any racial minority population)...
March 19, 2019: Substance Abuse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877632/the-us-mortality-crisis-an-examination-of-non-hispanic-white-mortality-and-morbidity-in-yavapai-county-arizona
#12
Michelle Anne Parsons, Steven D Barger
Midlife non-Hispanic white mortality in the United States is rising, particularly in small metro and rural counties. This article responds to calls for county-level studies. We examine social determinants of morbidity and mortality among adult non-Hispanic whites in Yavapai County, Arizona, as part of an integrative study. We report overall mortality trends in Yavapai County using CDC Wonder data and then examine social determinants of reported physical health and mental distress in Yavapai County data using 6 years (2011-2016) of the Arizona Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Community Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874778/association-of-methadone-treatment-with-substance-related-hospital-admissions-among-a-population-in-canada-with-a-history-of-criminal-convictions
#13
Angela Russolillo, Akm Moniruzzaman, Julian M Somers
Importance: People with criminal histories experience high rates of opioid dependence and are frequent users of acute health care services. It is unclear whether methadone adherence prevents hospitalizations. Objective: To compare hospital admissions during medicated and nonmedicated methadone periods. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study involving linked population-level administrative data among individuals in British Columbia, Canada, with provincial justice contacts (n= 250 884) and who filled a methadone prescription between April 1, 2001, and March 31, 2015...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871536/cognitive-decline-and-mortality-among-community-dwelling-chinese-older-people
#14
Xiaozhen Lv, Wenyuan Li, Yuan Ma, Huashuai Chen, Yi Zeng, Xin Yu, Albert Hofman, Huali Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether cognitive decline is related to a higher risk of death independent of the initial cognitive function is inconclusive. Evidence of the association between cognitive decline and mortality among Chinese older people is limited. We aimed to examine whether cognitive decline, assessed by the rate of decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, was associated with mortality independent of initial cognitive function (baseline MMSE score) among Chinese older people...
March 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866640/measurement-of-preconception-health-knowledge-a-systematic-review
#15
Zoe F Cairncross, Saranyah Ravindran, Shaira Yoganathan, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Joanne Enders, Lisa Graves, Catriona Mill, Deanna Telner, Hilary K Brown
OBJECTIVE: Preconception health is an important determinant of maternal, paternal, and infant outcomes. Knowledge is commonly used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to promote preconception health. Our objective was to examine how preconception health knowledge has been measured in the existing literature and to identify measurement gaps, biases, and logistical challenges. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and gray literature were searched from database inception to January 2018...
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865282/association-of-cohort-and-individual-substance-use-with-risk-of-transitioning-to-drug-use-drug-use-disorder-and-remission-from-disorder-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#16
Louisa Degenhardt, Chrianna Bharat, Meyer D Glantz, Nancy A Sampson, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura H Andrade, Brendan Bunting, Alfredo Cia, Giovanni de Girolamo, Peter De Jonge, Koen Demyttenaere, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Meredith G Harris, Yanling He, Hristo Hinkov, Aimee Nasser Karam, Elie G Karam, Andrzej Kiejna, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Victor Lasebikan, Sing Lee, Daphna Levinson, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate Scott, Dan J Stein, Hisateru Tachimori, Nathan Tintle, Yolanda Torres, Ronald C Kessler
Importance: Limited empirical research has examined the extent to which cohort-level prevalence of substance use is associated with the onset of drug use and transitioning into greater involvement with drug use. Objective: To use cross-national data to examine time-space variation in cohort-level drug use to assess its associations with onset and transitions across stages of drug use, abuse, dependence, and remission. Design, Setting, and Participants: The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys carried out cross-sectional general population surveys in 25 countries using a consistent research protocol and assessment instrument...
March 13, 2019: JAMA Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865222/within-person-associations-between-financial-hardship-and-cognitive-performance-in-the-path-through-life
#17
Kim M Kiely, Kaarin J Anstey, Peter Butterworth
The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between the experience of financial hardship and cognitive performance throughout adulthood. Three waves of data provided by 6,343 participants (49% men) were analyzed from a representative community based sample from Canberra, Australia (2003-2015). The outcome was a composite measure reflecting fluid cognitive abilities. Financial hardship was assessed by markers of scarcity (being unable to heat the home, missing meals, and going without other basic needs), and behavioral responses to hardship (pawning items and seeking help from community welfare organizations)...
March 13, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863030/associations-between-obesity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-the-chinese-elderly-an-observational-study
#18
Qingtao Hou, Yang Guan, Weihua Yu, Xintong Liu, Lihua Wu, Mingzhao Xiao, Yang Lü
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment in the Chinese elderly. Patients and methods: Patients aged 60 years or above were enrolled from the Department of Geriatrics of The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from March 2013 to May 2017. Mini-Mental State Examination scale was used to assess the cognitive function. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio were used to classify obesity...
2019: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862237/associations-of-the-built-environment-with-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-ugandan-outpatients-with-mental-health-problems
#19
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Sandra S Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys, James Mugisha
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether reported neighborhood variables explained variance in time spent walking, exercising, and being sedentary, in addition to mental health and demographic variables among Ugandan outpatients with mental illness. METHODS: Ninety-nine outpatients (78 men; 31.1 [8.6] y) of the Butabika National Referral Hospital in Uganda completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa, the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862218/impact-of-integrated-care-and-co-location-of-care-on-mental-help-seeking-perceptions
#20
Joseph H Hammer, Paul B Perrin, Douglas A Spiker
BACKGROUND: Integrated care may offer a solution to subpar mental health referral adherence, but people's openness to receiving psychological treatment in this setting is understudied. AIMS: The present study examined the influence of the integrated care context and co-location of care on people's help-seeking perceptions. METHOD: This study (N = 397) used an experimental vignette design to compare the impact of treatment type (integrated care vs...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Mental Health
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