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Shakhawat Chowdhury
Desalinated seawater is the major source of drinking water in many countries. During desalination, several activities including pretreatment, desalination, stabilization, mixing, storage and distribution are performed. Few disinfectants are used during these activities to control the biofouling agents and microbiological regrowth. The reactions between the disinfectants and natural organic matter (NOM), bromide and iodide form disinfection by-products (DBPs) in product water. The product water is stabilized and mixed with treated freshwater (e...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Weijie Zhang, Igor Bado, Hai Wang, Hin-Ching Lo, Xiang H-F Zhang
Metastasis to bones is determined by both intrinsic traits of metastatic tumor cells and properties appertaining to the bone microenvironment. Bone marrow niches are critical for all major steps of metastasis, including the seeding of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) to bone, the survival of DTCs and microscopic metastases under dormancy, and the eventual outgrowth of overt metastases. In this review, we discuss the role of bone marrow niches in bone colonization. The emphasis is on complicated and dynamic nature of cancer cells-niche interaction, which may underpin the long-standing mystery of metastasis dormancy, and represent a therapeutic target for elimination of minimal residue diseases and prevention of life-taking, overt metastases...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
Jonas Schnittert, Ruchi Bansal, Jai Prakash
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the major contributor to the aggressive, metastatic, and resilient nature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has a poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 8%. PSCs constitute more than 50% of the tumor stroma in PDAC, where they induce extensive desmoplasia by secreting abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In addition, they establish dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells and other stromal cells, which collectively supports tumor progression via various inter- and intracellular pathways...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
Laura J den Hartigh
Obesity and its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are straining our healthcare system, necessitating the development of novel strategies for weight loss. Lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and caloric restriction, have proven effective against obesity in the short term, yet obesity persists because of the high predilection for weight regain. Therefore, alternative approaches to achieve long term sustainable weight loss are urgently needed. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid found naturally in ruminant animal food products, has been identified as a potential anti-obesogenic agent, with substantial efficacy in mice, and modest efficacy in obese human populations...
February 11, 2019: Nutrients
Shuo Deng, Muthu K Shanmugam, Alan Prem Kumar, Celestial T Yap, Gautam Sethi, Anupam Bishayee
Autophagy, also known as macroautophagy, is a tightly regulated process involved in the stress responses, such as starvation. It is a vacuolar, lysosomal pathway for the degradation of damaged proteins and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy also plays a key role in various tissue processes and immune responses and in the regulation of inflammation. Over the past decade, three levels of autophagy regulation have been identified in mammalian cells: 1) signaling, 2) autophagosome formation, and 3) autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation...
February 12, 2019: Cancer
Motahar Basam, Anna Tsay, Vikram Attaluri, Elisabeth C McLemore
In the treatment of colorectal cancer, total mesorectal excision (TME) has risen as the gold standard in the surgical treatment of this disease in order to obtain negative distal and circumferential radial margins. Since introduction in 2010, transanal TME has aimed to decrease the rate of positive margins and improve the quality of the dissection while decreasing the complications associated with a transabdominal low pelvic dissection. We retrospectively reviewed 25 cases of transanal TME completed between December 2014 and August 2017...
October 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Beverly Tambe, Clara V Wang, Erik Noren, M Philip Duldulao, Afsaneh Barzi, Sang W Lee
For stage II/III rectal cancer patients, comprehensive multidisciplinary care (MDC) affects outcomes. Randomized trials have shown the effectiveness of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy in treatment of these patients. However, the effectiveness of collaboration within MDC is undetermined. It is possible that regional variation in survival outcomes may be tied to treatment facility. We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of patients with stage II/III rectal cancer who received MDC at any location and underwent oncologic colorectal resection at a tertiary care center (TCC) between 2005 and 2011...
October 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Gonzalo Villaverde, Alejandro Baeza
The use of nanoparticles as drug carriers has provided a powerful weapon in the fight against cancer. These nanocarriers are able to transport drugs that exhibit very different nature such as lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs and big macromolecules as proteins or RNA. Moreover, the external surface of these carriers can be decorated with different moieties with high affinity for specific membrane receptors of the tumoral cells to direct their action specifically to the malignant cells. The selectivity improvement yielded by these nanocarriers provided a significative enhancement in the efficacy of the transported drug, while the apparition of side effects in the host was reduced...
2019: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Ritesh Agarwal, Sahajal Dhooria, Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad, Ashutosh N Aggarwal
The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes surgical resection with curative intent in early-stage disease and chemoradiation in the advanced stage disease. Therefore, an accurate preoperative mediastinal lymph node staging is required not only to offer the appropriate treatment but also to avoid unnecessary invasive procedures including thoracotomy. The mediastinal lymph nodes can be sampled using several techniques including mediastinoscopy, surgery (open or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA)...
January 2019: Journal of Cytology
Paola Maroni
Bone is the primary site where some cancers develop secondary growth, particularly those derived from breast and prostate tissue. The spread of metastasis to distant sites relies on complex mechanisms by which only cells endowed with certain characteristics are able to reach secondary growth sites. Platelets play a pivotal role in tumour growth, by conferring resistance to shear stress to the circulating tumour cells and protection against natural killer cell attack. Mature polyploid megakaryocytes (MKs) reside in close proximity to the vascular sinusoids of bone marrow, where their primary function is to produce platelets...
February 8, 2019: Cells
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Sundas Fayyaz, Priyank Raj, Matthew Goblirsch, Palmiro Poltronieri, George A Calin
Epigenetic abnormalities and aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs are two emerging features of cancer cells, both of which are responsible for deregulated gene expression. In this review, we describe the interplay between the two. Specific themes include epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor miRNAs, epigenetic activation of oncogenic miRNAs, epigenetic aberrations caused by miRNAs, and naturally occurring compounds which modulate miRNA expression through epigenetic mechanisms.
February 8, 2019: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Richard Garfinkle, Sebastian Lachance, Te Vuong, Alexandre Mikhail, Vincent Pelsser, Adrian Gologan, Nancy A Morin, Carol-Ann Vasilevsky, Marylise Boutros
BACKGROUND: Endorectal brachytherapy is an attractive option in the neoadjuvant setting for locally advanced rectal cancer, but it is not considered standard of care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare pathologic outcomes of patients with clinical T3 rectal cancer who underwent high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy with those who underwent conventional external beam radiotherapy. DESIGN: This study is a retrospective chart review. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in a single large tertiary academic colorectal surgery practice in Canada...
March 2019: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Pei Wang, Maryam Garza, Meredith Zozus
EHR-based, computable phenotypes can be leveraged by healthcare organizations and researchers to improve the cohort identification process. The ability to identify patient cohorts using aspects of care and outcomes based on clinical characteristics or diagnostic conditions and/or risk factors presents opportunities to researchers targeting specific populations for drug development and disease interventions. The objective of this review was to summarize the literature describing the development and use of phenotypes for cohort identification of cancer patients...
2019: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jeyan Arthur Moses, Sayantani Dutta, C Anandharamakrishnan
At present, cancer is one of the major diseases in the world affecting numerous lives. There have been various approaches to combat the disease, particularly involving chemical interventions (chemotherapy). However, owing to serious side effects of chemotherapy, employment of natural supplements in cancer therapy has been long desired. Nutraceuticals are currently being studied as a medicament, to act as both preventive and curative measure. Nutraceuticals provide both nutrition and therapeutic benefits; besides, they are natural and biocompatible, and therefore pose no side effects...
February 9, 2019: Nutrition and Cancer
Jürgen Scheller, Erika Engelowski, Jens M Moll, Doreen M Floss
Cytokines control immune-related events and are critically involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes including autoimmunity and cancer development. Accordingly, modulation of natural cytokine signaling by antibodies and small molecules has improved therapeutic regimens. Synthetic biology sets out to optimize immunotherapeutics, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immmunotherapy being the first example to combine synthetic biology with genetic engineering during therapy...
February 6, 2019: Trends in Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2019: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Tohid Hassanalilou, Saeid Ghavamzadeh, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gastric cancer, as the fourth cause of death in women and third in men with malignant tumors, is now threatening people's lives worldwide. Natural anti-tumor products are potential anti-cancer agents with fewer by-effects. Curcumin, an herbal product, has been used as a cosmetic and food additive and as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years in Asian countries. Several studies revealed that curcumin can inhibit the invasion and proliferation of gastric cancer cells...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Emily Yen Yu Chen, Jack S Chen, Shao-Yao Ying
MiRNAs are naturally occurring, small, non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of a large number of genes involved in various biological processes, either through mRNA degradation or through translation inhibition. MiRNAs play important roles in many aspects of physiology and pathology throughout the body, particularly in cancer, which have made miRNAs attractive tools and targets for translational research. The types of non-coding RNAs, biogenesis of miRNAs, circulating miRNAs, and direct delivery of miRNA were briefly reviewed...
January 2019: Heliyon
Kunal Singh, Niraj Kumar Jha, Abhimanyu Thakur
Over the course of evolution, nature has forced organisms under selection pressure to hardwire an internal time keeping device that defines 24 h of daily cycle of physiological and behavioral rhythms, known as circadian rhythms. At the cellular level, the cycle is governed by significant fractions of transcriptomes, which are under the control of transcriptional and translational feedback loop of clock genes. Intriguingly, this feedback loop is regulated at multiple stratums such as at the transcriptional and translational levels, which direct a cell towards producing a robust rhythm by sustaining the repeated stoichiometry of protein products...
February 2, 2019: Life Sciences
Clement G Yedjou, Ariane T Mbemi, Felicite Noubissi, Solange S Tchounwou, Nole Tsabang, Marinelle Payton, Lucio Miele, Paul B Tchounwou
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers in men. The global burden of this disease is rising. Its incidence and mortality rates are higher in African American (AA) men compared to white men and other ethnic groups. The treatment decisions for PC are based exclusively on histological architecture, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and local disease state. Despite advances in screening for and early detection of PC, a large percentage of men continue to be diagnosed with metastatic disease including about 20% of men affected with a high mortality rate within the African American population...
February 4, 2019: Nutrients
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