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Lauren J Carlson, Natalie D Shaw
Irregular menstrual cycles due to anovulation are well-described in the first few years after menarche, but the normal developmental trajectory from anovulatory to mature ovulatory cycles during adolescence remains undefined. This paper presents our very limited understanding of this final stage of female reproductive axis development and why additional research in this area is critical to the health of women.
February 14, 2019: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Jo Wrigglesworth, Joanne Ryan, Nandita Vijayakumar, Sarah Whittle
Prior research indicates that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with prefrontal cortical (PFC) development in childhood and adolescence, however the mechanisms of this link are unclear. This study investigated whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity), mediated the association between neighborhood disadvantage and thickness of the PFC in adolescents. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured in 33 adolescents aged 12-13 years using the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas...
December 24, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Jonas Zaman, Eva Ceulemans, Dirk Hermans, Tom Beckers
For more than a century, researchers have attempted to understand why organisms behave similarly across situations. Despite the robust character of generalization, considerable variation in conditioned responding both between and within humans remains a challenge for contemporary generalization models. The current study aims to investigate the extent to which variation in behavior in a context of generalization can be attributed to differences in perception. We combined a fear conditioning and generalization procedure with a perceptual decision task in humans...
January 18, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Landon Yoder, Adam S Ward, Kajsa Dalrymple, Scott Spak, Rebecca Lave
Farmers' conservation decisions are central to addressing regional environmental challenges, such as biodiversity loss, water quality impairment, or climate change. However, three decades of substantial investment in agri-environmental programs has not yielded widespread adoption or improved environmental outcomes. It remains difficult to explain why farmers adopt despite an extensive body of research on the topic. One possible reason for this is that researchers are limiting the types of metrics they are analyzing to explain farmer decisions...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Lisa A Rodenburg, Damon A Delistraty
In order to understand the sources and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in several species of benthic biota, including clams (Corbicula fluminea), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Margaritifera falcata and Anodonta nuttalliana) at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (PHSS), their congener fingerprints were examined. First, diagnostic ratios of congeners known to be metabolizable vs. recalcitrant in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway were significantly lower in biota than in its co-located sediment, indicating metabolism may have occurred...
February 11, 2019: Chemosphere
Sophia Miliotis, Bryan Nicolalde, Mayra Ortega, Jackie Yepez, Andrés Caicedo
Mitochondria play an important role as an intracellular energy plant and signaling organelle. However, mitochondria also exist outside cells where they could mediate cell-to-cell communication, repair and serve as an activator of the immune response. Their effects depend on the mitochondrial state or the form in which it is present, either as a whole functional structure as fragments or only as mitochondrial DNA. Herein, we provide evidence of why extracellular mitochondria and their varying forms are considered regenerative factors or pro-inflammatory activators...
February 13, 2019: Mitochondrion
Aidan C Smith, Ryan C Holden, Sherry M Rasmussen, Michael R Hoane, Michael J Hylin
Age is a consistent predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although children and adolescents have the highest rate of hospitalizations and long-term disabilities, few preclinical studies have attempted to model and treat TBI in this population. Studies using nicotinamide (NAM), a soluble B-group vitamin, in older animals (3-6 months) have shown improved functional recovery in experimental models of TBI. The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the preclinical efficacy of NAM at different doses on behavioral outcomes in juvenile rats and examine the microglial response over time...
February 13, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Mary Jean Walker, Justin Bourke, Katrina Hutchison
Personalised medicine (PM) has been discussed as a medical paradigm shift that will improve health while reducing inefficiency and waste. At the same time, it raises new practical, regulatory, and ethical challenges. In this paper, we examine PM strategies epistemologically in order to develop capacities to address these challenges, focusing on a recently proposed strategy for developing patient-specific models from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) so as to make individualised treatment predictions. We compare this strategy to two main PM strategies-stratified medicine and computational models...
February 15, 2019: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Hiroshi Onishi
Sodium tantalate (NaTaO3) is the first semiconductor photocatalyst which produces hydrogen-oxygen mixed bubbles in the overall water splitting reaction, when properly doped with metal cations. A series of studies are reviewed here to answer the question of why doping with metal cations raised the quantum efficiency of the reaction. Infrared absorption of bandgap-excited photocatalysts demonstrated that cation doping reduced the electron-hole recombination rate and the steady-state population of charge carriers accordingly increased...
February 15, 2019: ChemSusChem
Cliff Berry, Brian Chviruk, Danny Hernandez, Matt Beaugard, Kelly B Stevens, Joe Polizzotto, Kerri Edwards, Lene Bjerregaard, Daan Purbrick, Elaine Spiers
Human Performance is an integrated risk management approach to improving systems, that includes human factors and systems safety, that leads to higher reliability and enhanced operational resilience. A clear picture of what Human Performance looks like in biopharma is available from the BioPhorum Operations Group (BPOG), where members of the Human Performance workstream have defined a blue-sky for the industry. This blue-sky document is both a guide and an assessment tool that will help to identify the steps to effective human performance integration with operations...
February 15, 2019: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Giacomo Colletti, Federico Biglioli, Tito Poli, Margherita Dessy, Marco Cucurullo, Mario Petrillo, Stavros Tombris, Milton Waner, Enrico Sesenna
Vascular malformations are often found inside the orbit. Isolated venous malformations (frequently misnamed as cavernous hemangiomas) are the most frequent among these. However, also lymphatic and arteriovenous malformations can affect the orbit. The complex anatomy of the orbit and the fact that its content easily suffers from compartmental syndrome explain why treating orbital vascular malformations can be challenging and technically demanding. In this study, two institutions have retrospectively collected their cases, consisting in a total of 69 vascular malformations of the orbit...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Siddharth Shukla, Glen A Bjerke, Denise Muhlrad, Rui Yi, Roy Parker
PARN loss-of-function mutations cause a severe form of the hereditary disease dyskeratosis congenita (DC). PARN deficiency affects the stability of non-coding RNAs such as human telomerase RNA (hTR), but these effects do not explain the severe disease in patients. We demonstrate that PARN deficiency affects the levels of numerous miRNAs in human cells. PARN regulates miRNA levels by stabilizing either mature or precursor miRNAs by removing oligo(A) tails added by the poly(A) polymerase PAPD5, which if remaining recruit the exonuclease DIS3L or DIS3L2 to degrade the miRNA...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Cell
David Faraoni, James A DiNardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
James Richard Alexander Smith, John Abraham Mathews, Lindsay Osborne, Zoe Bakewell, James Leigh Williams
AIMS: Despite kneeling being an important and valued function of the knee, a proportion of patients are unable to kneel following arthroplasty. We explore the reasons for this, and assess whether neuropathic pain is a contributing factor. METHODS: In this observational study, data was collected prospectively for 134 knees. At one year follow-up, patients completed a semi-structured questionnaire, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and the painDETECT score. Ability to kneel was assessed by question 7 of the OKS...
February 13, 2019: Knee
Thomas Douglas, Laura Van den Borre
While many public health threats are now widely appreciated by the public, the risks from asbestos exposure remain poorly understood, even in high-risk groups. This article makes the case that asbestos exposure is an important, ongoing global health threat, and argues for greater policy efforts to raise awareness of this threat. It also proposes the extension of asbestos bans to developing countries and increased public subsidies for asbestos testing and abatement.
February 7, 2019: Health Policy
Christian S Meyhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Mirna Žulec, Danica Rotar-Pavlič, Zrinka Puharić, Ana Žulec
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs), the most common type of leg ulcerations, have long healing times and high recurrence rates; reimbursement rules and a general shortage of nursing staff have put self-treatment into focus. The study aimed to investigate why and how patients with VLUs self-treat their ulcers. METHODS: Patients with VLUs ( N = 32) were selected by criterion sampling for a multicentric qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analyzed via inductive qualitative content analysis...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eline Oeyen, Lucien Hoekx, Stefan De Wachter, Marcella Baldewijns, Filip Ameye, Inge Mertens
Diagnostic methods currently used for bladder cancer are cystoscopy and urine cytology. Cystoscopy is an invasive tool and has low sensitivity for carcinoma in situ. Urine cytology is non-invasive, is a low-cost method, and has a high specificity but low sensitivity for low-grade urothelial tumors. Despite the search for urinary biomarkers for the early and non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, no biomarkers are used at the present in daily clinical practice. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently studied as a promising source of biomarkers because of their role in intercellular communication and tumor progression...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rumi Tanoue, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Belinda Huerta, Tamsin J Runnalls, Akifumi Eguchi, Kei Nomiyama, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe, John P Sumpter
There is concern that psychoactive drugs present in the aquatic environment could affect the behaviour of fish, and other organisms, adversely. There is considerable experimental support for this concern, although the literature is not consistent. To investigate why, fish were exposed to three concentrations of the synthetic opiate tramadol for 23-24 days, and their anxiolytic behaviour in a novel tank diving test was assessed both before and after exposure. The results were difficult to interpret. The positive control drug, the anti-depressant fluoxetine, produced the expected results: exposed fish explored the novel tank more, and swam more slowly while doing so...
February 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Gaston Ofman, Trent E Tipple
Preterm birth is a primary cause of worldwide childhood mortality. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by impaired alveolar and lung vascular development, affects 25-50% of extremely low birth weight (BW; <1 kg) infants. Abnormalities in lung function persist into childhood in affected infants and are second only to asthma in terms of childhood respiratory disease healthcare costs. While advances in the medical care of preterm infants have reduced mortality, the incidence of BPD has not decreased in the past 10 years...
February 12, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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