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Psychology Of

Ulrike Hohenfellner
In specialist urology clinics, 50 - 70 % of patients have chronic urological diseases such as recurrent urinary tract infections, a somatoform overactive bladder, adult and infantile enuresis, a chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and the psychosomatic form of post-prostatectomy incontinence. The 12-month prevalence of psychological disorders in the general adult population is 28 % 1. As many as 20 % of children and adolescents are found to have psychological abnormalities 2. These are frequently accompanied by somatoform symptoms, often consisting of a psychosomatic voiding disorder with a consecutive complex pelvic floor dysfunction 3 4 5 6...
February 14, 2019: Aktuelle Urologie
Eric L Garland, Barbara L Fredrickson
The Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory (MMT) is a temporally dynamic process model of mindful positive emotion regulation that elucidates downstream cognitive-affective mechanisms by which mindfulness promotes health and resilience. Here we review and extend the MMT to explicate how mindfulness fosters self-transcendence by evoking upward spirals of decentering, attentional broadening, reappraisal, and savoring. Savoring is highlighted as a key, potential means of inducing absorptive experiences of oneness between subject and object, amplifying the salience of the object while imbuing the sensory-perceptual field with affective meaning...
January 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Hans Dietrich, Radwan Al Ali, Sefik Tagay, Johannes Hebebrand, Volker Reissner
INTRODUCTION: In January 2016, 2057 refugees from civil war-torn Syria and Iraq, aged 18.0 to 24.9 years, were first-time entrants into the German unemployment register and thus potentially eligible for the labor market. Civil war and forced migration may affect individuals' mental health. Traumatic experiences in particular are assumed to represent a major barrier, e.g., to labor-market integration. This study aimed to screen the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Former refugee studies have reported PTSD screening rates between 3% and 44%...
December 14, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Juliana Cassol Spanemberg, Juliana Andrade Cardoso, Edna Marcia Grahl Brandalize Slob, José López-López
Oral health is part of general health, and is recognized as an essential component of quality of life (QoL). For years, oral health was determined solely by the clinic, which did not allow an evaluation of the true impact of oral diseases on the patients' daily lives. The development of instruments for assessing QoL related to oral health has occurred due to the urgency of determining the effects of changes in the oral cavity of individuals. This study aims, through a bibliographical survey, to describe issues involving the relationship between QoL and oral health focusing on methodological and conceptual aspects as well as considering how oral health of adult individuals affects their QoL in a general way...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Alessandro Siani
Over the last decade, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported in developed countries around the world. In particular, measles outbreaks have been ongoing in the European Union since 2017, with the majority of cases concentrated in Romania and Italy. Measles has been identified as a powerful indicator of the status of vaccination programs in a region, as outbreaks have been reported to quickly emerge as a result of underlying problems in the immunisation routine. This paper aims to report and critically comment on the factors underpinning the recent measles outbreaks in Italy, considering the psychological, cultural, social and political causes of vaccine hesitancy and refusal amongst the population...
February 11, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Jerry E Murphy, Julio A Yanes, Lauren A J Kirby, Meredith A Reid, Jennifer L Robinson
Given the amygdala's role in survival mechanisms, and its pivotal contributions to psychological processes, it is no surprise that it is one of the most well-studied brain regions. One of the common methods for understanding the functional role of the amygdala is the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI tends to be acquired using resolutions that are not optimal for smaller brain structures. Furthermore, standard processing includes spatial smoothing and motion correction which further degrade the resolution of the data...
February 11, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Sena Cantas-Orsdemir, Erica A Eugster
Precocious puberty (PP) is one of the most common reasons for referral to pediatric endocrinologists. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) are the gold standard for the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) and have an impressive record of safety and efficacy. However, ongoing refinements in diagnosis and management continue to lead to important advancements in clinical care. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to cover current considerations and controversies regarding the diagnosis of CPP, as well as new findings in regards to etiology and treatment modalities...
February 12, 2019: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
L J van der Donk, J Fleer, R Sanderman, P M G Emmelkamp, T P Links, K A Tovote, M J Schroevers
AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate whether type of depressive symptoms (i.e. cognitive-affective or somatic) is related to a patient-perceived need for professional psychological care in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: In total 2266 participants were recruited as part of the screening procedure for a multi-center randomized controlled trial on the treatment of depressive symptoms among individuals with diabetes. Individuals were invited to complete Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)...
2019: PloS One
Carolien Christ, Marleen M de Waal, Jack J M Dekker, Iris van Kuijk, Digna J F van Schaik, Martijn J Kikkert, Anna E Goudriaan, Aartjan T F Beekman, Terri L Messman-Moore
Childhood abuse is a major public health problem that has been linked to depression in adulthood. Although different types of childhood abuse often co-occur, few studies have examined their unique impact on negative mental health outcomes. Most studies have focused solely on the consequences of childhood physical or sexual abuse; however, it has been suggested that childhood emotional abuse is more strongly related to depression. It remains unclear which underlying psychological processes mediate the effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms...
2019: PloS One
Ray Rodgers, Jodie Avery, Vivienne Moore, Michael Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabeth Stener-Victorin, Lisa Moran, Sarah Robertson, Nigel Stepto, Rob Norman, Helena J Teede
OBJECTIVE: Many complex diseases exhibit co-morbidities often requiring management by more than one health specialist. We examined cross-speciality issues that ultimately affect the health and wellbeing of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS was originally described as a reproductive condition but is now recognised to also be a metabolic and psychological condition affecting 8-13% of women of reproductive age. With a four-fold increased risk of type 2 diabetes (DM2), the Population Attributable Risk of DM2 that could be avoided if PCOS were eliminated is a substantial 19-28% of women of reproductive age...
February 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
Vera Atema, Marieke van Leeuwen, Jacobien M Kieffer, Hester S A Oldenburg, Marc van Beurden, Miranda A Gerritsma, Marianne A Kuenen, Peter W Plaisier, Alexander M F Lopes Cardozo, Yvonne E A van Riet, Gijsbert Heuff, Herman Rijna, Suzan van der Meij, Eva M Noorda, Gert-Jan Timmers, Bart C Vrouenraets, Matthé Bollen, Henk van der Veen, Nina Bijker, Myra S Hunter, Neil K Aaronson
PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT), with or without therapist support, on the perceived impact of hot flushes and night sweats (HF/NS) and overall levels of menopausal symptoms (primary outcomes), sleep quality, HF/NS frequency, sexual functioning, psychological distress, and health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors with treatment-induced menopausal symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomly assigned 254 breast cancer survivors to a therapist-guided or a self-managed iCBT group or to a waiting list control group...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Nadia Micali, Eline Tombeur
Avoidant and restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a « new » diagnosis introduced in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) in 2013. ARFID is a heterogeneous disorder that seems to be common in clinical settings and is associated with high levels of physical and psychological comorbidity and impact on physical health and psychosocial functioning. We present an overview of the available literature on ARFID and describe the current understanding of its correlates...
February 13, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Y V Raghava Neelapala, Riya Raja, Aishwarya Bhandary
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyse the freely available online information on the causes of neck pain based on the biopsychosocial model of pain. METHODS: A preliminary biopsychosocial analysis tool was developed, after an extensive literature review of the pathoanatomical and psychosocial contributors for neck pain. The websites that commonly appeared after the search term "causes of neck pain" in the first two pages of the search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing) were selected for the biopsychosocial analysis...
February 14, 2019: Musculoskeletal Care
Calum D Moulton, Polychronis Pavlidis, Christine Norton, Sam Norton, Carmine Pariante, Bu Hayee, Nick Powell
Depressive symptoms are reported by more than 20% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whilst sleep difficulties and fatigue are even more common. Comorbid depressive symptoms predict a poor IBD course, including increased risk of relapse and surgery, which is inconsistently improved by psychological treatments. Rather than being distinct systems, there is compelling evidence for bidirectional communication between gut and brain, driven by neural, metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory mediators...
February 14, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Qi Zhang, Jianan Hu, Lijiao Wei, Ri Cao, Ruishu Ma, Huimin Song, Yi Jin
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be a stage of pre-dementia. Although the traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) has benefits associated with cognitive functions, the effects of the TCE on cognitive functions of older patients with MCI remain controversial. This study performs a meta-analysis to quantify the efficiency of TCE for older individuals on cognitive and psychological outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive database search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science, and four Chinese medical databases...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wei Wei, Hua-Yu Tang, Yu-Zhi Li, Tian-Shu Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous clinical trials have reported that extracorporeal shock wave (EPSW) can be used to treat low back pain (LBP), and have achieved satisfied effect. However, its effectiveness is still inconclusive. Thus, this systematic review will aim to assess the effectiveness and safety of EPSW for patients with LBP. METHODS: In this systematic review, the electronic databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PUBMED, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wanfang Data will be searched from inception to January 1, 2019...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bonhyuk Goo, Seong-Mok Jeong, Jong-Uk Kim, Yeon-Cheol Park, Byung-Kwan Seo, Yong-Hyeon Baek, Tae-Han Yook, Sang-Soo Nam
BACKGROUND: The sequelae of Bell's palsy cause critical problem in facial appearance, as well as social and psychological problems in the patient's life. The aim of the present study is to establish clinical evidence of thread-embedding acupuncture (TEA) in the treatment of sequelae of Bell's palsy. METHOD/DESIGN: This is a patient-assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial with two parallel arms. Fifty-six patients aged 19-65 years, who have experienced sequelae of Bell's palsy for >3 months, will be recruited and screened using the eligibility criteria...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aaron Alokozai, Sara L Eppler, Laura Y Lu, Nicole Sheikholeslami, Robin N Kamal
BACKGROUND: Forecasting is a construct in which experiences and beliefs inform a projection of future outcomes. Current efforts to predict postoperative patient-reported outcome measures such as risk-stratifying models, focus on studying patient, surgeon, or facility variables without considering the mindset of the patient. There is no evidence assessing the association of a patient's forecasted postoperative disability with realized postoperative disability. Patient-forecasted disability could potentially be used as a tool to predict postoperative disability...
March 2019: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Joost T P Kortlever, Janna S E Ottenhoff, Thi T H Tran, David Ring, Gregg A Vagner, Matt D Driscoll
BACKGROUND: It seems common for patients to conceive of care in physical terms, such as medications, injections, and procedures rather than advice and support. Clinicians often encounter patients who seem to prefer more testing or invasive treatments than expertise supports. We wanted to determine whether patients unconsciously associate suggestions for invasive treatments with better care. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do patients have (A) an implicit preference and (B) an expressed preference for a physical intervention (such as a pill, an injection, or surgery) over supportive care (such as reassurance and education)? (2) What factors are independently associated with both an implicit and an expressed preference for a physical intervention over supportive care? (3) Is there a relationship between a patient's implicit preference toward or away from a physical intervention and his/her expressed preference on that subject? METHODS: In this study, we approached 129 new patients in a large urban area visiting one of 13 participating surgeons divided among six upper and lower extremity specialist offices...
March 2019: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Emese Csipke, Til Wykes, Stephen Nash, Paul Williams, Leo Koeser, Paul McCrone, Diana Rose, Tom Craig
BACKGROUND: Although patients value evidence-based therapeutic activities, little is known about nurses' perceptions.AimsTo investigate whether implementing an activities training programme would positively alter staff perceptions of the ward or be detrimental through the increased workload (trial registration: ISRCTN 06545047). METHOD: We conducted a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial involving 16 wards with psychology-led nurse training as the intervention...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
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