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Eric Cassmann, Bianca Zaffarano, Qi Chen, Ganwu Li, Joseph Haynes
A 15-year-old female cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) undergoing long term management for hepatopathy died and underwent necropsy. Microscopic findings were consistent with chronic liver disease characterized by distorted hepatic architecture, fibrosis and biliary proliferation. The additional finding of large intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelium prompted diagnostic next generation sequencing. The assembled sequences isolated from pooled kidney and liver were related to siadenoviruses...
January 31, 2019: Virus Research
Adam R Fishbein, Shelby L Lawson, Robert J Dooling, Gregory F Ball
The melodic, rolling songs of canaries have entertained humans for centuries and have been studied for decades by researchers interested in vocal learning, but relatively little is known about how the birds listen to their songs. Here, it is investigated how discriminable the general acoustic features of conspecific songs are to canaries, and their discrimination abilities are compared with a small parrot species, the budgerigar. Past experiments have shown that female canaries are more sexually responsive to a particular song element-the "special" syllables-and consistent with those observations, it was found that special syllables are perceptually distinctive for canaries...
January 2019: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Stephanie J Wong, Kristina S Abrams, Kassidy N Amburgey, Yingxuan Wang, Kenneth S Henry
Auditory-nerve fibers are lost steadily with age and as a possible consequence of noise-induced glutamate excitotoxicity. Auditory-nerve loss in the absence of other cochlear pathologies is thought to be undetectable with a pure-tone audiogram while degrading real-world speech perception (hidden hearing loss). Perceptual deficits remain unclear, however, due in part to the limited behavioral capacity of existing rodent models to discriminate complex sounds. The budgerigar is an avian vocal learner with human-like behavioral sensitivity to many simple and complex sounds and the capacity to mimic speech...
January 23, 2019: Hearing Research
Yoshimasa Seki, Kenta Tomyta
The origin of rhythmic synchronization or entrainment to a musical beat in animals has been widely discussed. Parrots are suitable animals to examine the relationship between the capability of vocal learning and spontaneous rhythmic synchronization. In this study, budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus learned to tap (peck) 2 keys alternately at a self-paced rate. Then, the metronomic sounds were played in the background during test sessions while the birds were performing the key pecking task, although they were not required to synchronize tap timing with the metronome...
February 2019: Current Zoology
Lauren V Powers, Mark A Mitchell, Michael M Garner
Proventricular infection with the anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster and disease associated with infection (macrorhabdiosis) have been widely reported in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). Proventricular adenocarcinoma has also been previously reported in this species. In a retrospective archival search of clinical cases submitted to a zoo animal and exotic pet pathology service between 1998 and 2013, a total of 28 128 avian submissions were identified, which included 1006 budgerigars kept in zoos or aviaries or as pets...
January 16, 2019: Veterinary Pathology
Jiani Chen, Yuqi Zou, Yue-Hua Sun, Carel Ten Cate
Darwin proposed that mate choice might contribute to the evolution of cognitive abilities. An open question is whether observing the cognitive skills of an individual makes it more attractive as a mate. In this study, we demonstrated that initially less-preferred budgerigar males became preferred after females observed that these males, but not the initially preferred ones, were able to solve extractive foraging problems. This preference shift did not occur in control experiments in which females observed males with free access to food or in which females observed female demonstrators solving these extractive foraging problems...
January 11, 2019: Science
Huaizhen Cai, Laurel A Screven, Micheal L Dent
The perception of the build-up of auditory streaming has been widely investigated in humans, while it is unknown whether animals experience a similar perception when hearing high (H) and low (L) tonal pattern sequences. The paradigm previously used in European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) was adopted in two experiments to address the build-up of auditory streaming in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ). In experiment 1, different numbers of repetitions of low-high-low triplets were used in five conditions to study the build-up process...
September 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Rebecca E O'Connor, Marta Farré, Sunitha Joseph, Joana Damas, Lucas Kiazim, Rebecca Jennings, Sophie Bennett, Eden A Slack, Emily Allanson, Denis M Larkin, Darren K Griffin
BACKGROUND: The number of de novo genome sequence assemblies is increasing exponentially; however, relatively few contain one scaffold/contig per chromosome. Such assemblies are essential for studies of genotype-to-phenotype association, gross genomic evolution, and speciation. Inter-species differences can arise from chromosomal changes fixed during evolution, and we previously hypothesized that a higher fraction of elements under negative selection contributed to avian-specific phenotypes and avian genome organization stability...
October 24, 2018: Genome Biology
Zhaohui Cui, Dan Song, Meng Qi, Sumei Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are protozoans that cause diarrheal illness in humans and animals, including birds, worldwide. The present study was aimed to revisit the infectivity and pathogenicity of C. avium, recently considered to be a valid avian-infecting species of Cryptosporidium, and foster further understanding of its biological characteristics. RESULTS: Results showed that no Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the feces of experimentally inoculated BALB/c mice, Mongolian gerbils, quail or budgerigars within 30 days post-infection (dpi)...
September 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
A Rouzet, B Valot, G Reboux, L Millon, S Roussel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
August 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Karin Fragner, Herbert Weissenböck, Carter T Atkinson, Tatjana A Iezhova
BACKGROUND: Microscopic research has shown that Plasmodium relictum is the most common agent of avian malaria. Recent molecular studies confirmed this conclusion and identified several mtDNA lineages, suggesting the existence of significant intra-species genetic variation or cryptic speciation. Most identified lineages have a broad range of hosts and geographical distribution. Here, a rare new lineage of P. relictum was reported and information about biological characters of different lineages of this pathogen was reviewed, suggesting issues for future research...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
Alison Campbell, James W Tanaka
The face-inversion effect is the finding that picture-plane inversion disproportionately impairs face recognition compared to object recognition and is now attributed to greater orientation-sensitivity of holistic processing for faces but not common objects. Yet, expert dog judges have showed similar recognition deficits for inverted dogs and inverted faces, suggesting that holistic processing is not specific to faces but to the expert recognition of perceptually similar objects. Although processing changes in expert object recognition have since been extensively documented, no other studies have observed the distinct recognition deficits for inverted objects-of-expertise that people as face experts show for faces...
June 2018: Perception
A Schmitz, R Korbel, S Thiel, B Wörle, C Gohl, M Rinder
Mycobacterium genavense is regarded as the primary cause of mycobacteriosis in psittaciform and passeriform birds, which are commonly kept as pets. In humans, Mycobacterium genavense is especially pathogenic for young, old, pregnant and immunocompromised people (YOPIs). In birds, only few studies, mainly case reports, exist and there is still little e information about occurrence and relevance of this zoonotic pathogen. In this first pilot study concerning the prevalence of Mycobacterium genavense within flocks of naturally infected pet birds, real-time PCR examinations of 170 individual passeriform and psittaciform birds, including commonly kept budgerigars, lovebirds and zebra finches as well as gold finches and weaver finches, were conducted to determine the infection rate in six different aviaries...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Lan Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Jue Yu, Vinita Gowda, Gabriel Johnson, Jianke Yang, Xianzhao Kan, Xiaojun Yang
The budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus ) is one of the most widely studied parrot species, serving as an excellent animal model for behavior and neuroscience research. Until recently, it was unknown how sexual differences in the behavior, physiology, and development of organisms are regulated by differential gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play a critical role in gonadal differentiation as well as early development of animals...
2018: PeerJ
Angela Medina-García, Jodie M Jawor, Timothy F Wright
To study the fitness effects of individual variation in cognitive traits, it is paramount to understand whether traits such as personality and physiological stress influence cognitive performance. We first tested whether budgerigars showed both consistent personalities and cognitive performance across time and tasks. We tested object and food neophobia, and exploratory behavior. We measured cognitive performance in habituation, ability to solve foraging problems, spatial memory, and seed discrimination tasks...
November 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Marina O Cesar, Eliana R Matushima, Ticiana Zwarg, Alice S de Oliveira, Thaís C Sanches, Adriana M Joppert, Lara B Keid, Trícia Maria F S Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, Horwald Alexander Bedoya Llano, Guilherme Konradt, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Fábio Gregori, Luís Fernando P Gondim, Rodrigo M Soares
In a previous study in Brazil, six isolates of Sarcocystis spp. recovered from budgerigars fed sporocysts excreted by opossums of the genus Didelphis were characterized by means of sequencing fragments of gene coding cytochrome B (CYTB), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and surface antigen genes (SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4). The isolates shared identical ITS1 and CYTB sequences, but differed at SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4: three allele variants of SAG2, 3 allele variants of SAG3 and 2 allele variants of SAG4 were encountered in three multilocus genotypes (MLGs) (MLG1, MLG2, and MLG3)...
May 2018: Experimental Parasitology
J Balko, D Lindemann, S Chinnadurai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Ronja Püstow, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, avian gastric yeast, is a common cause of gastrointestinal disease in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus). To better understand the clinical disease in budgerigars presented in a practice population, we reviewed the occurrence, clinical signs, and treatment success of M ornithogaster disease in budgerigars during a 2.5-year period at the Clinic for Birds and Reptiles, University of Leipzig (Leipzig, Germany). The yeast was diagnosed by microscopic examination of fresh fecal samples...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Mary Flaherty, Micheal L Dent, James R Sawusch
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177676.].
2017: PloS One
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