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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876509/canadian-wildlife-vehicle-collisions-an-examination-of-knowledge-and-behavior-for-collision-prevention
#1
Ward G M Vanlaar, Hannah Barrett, Marisela Mainegra Hing, Steve W Brown, Robyn D Robertson
OBJECTIVES: This study examines drivers' responses to wildlife on Canadian roads. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that knowledge of what to do when encountering wildlife on the road does not always translate into the appropriate behavior to avoid a collision. METHODS: Data from the Traffic Injury Research Foundation's (TIRF) 2016 Road Safety Monitor (RSM) and data from TIRF's National Fatality Database from 2000 to 2014 were analyzed to test hypotheses based on the theory of planned behavior...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875987/the-role-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, José Antonio García-Santos, Mercedes G Bermúdez, Cristina Campoy
Obesity is a global pandemic complex to treat due to its multifactorial pathogenesis-an unhealthy lifestyle, neuronal and hormonal mechanisms, and genetic and epigenetic factors are involved. Scientific evidence supports the idea that obesity and metabolic consequences are strongly related to changes in both the function and composition of gut microbiota, which exert an essential role in modulating energy metabolism. Modifications of gut microbiota composition have been associated with variations in body weight and body mass index...
March 15, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873383/translating-human-cancer-sequences-into-personalized-porcine-cancer-models
#3
REVIEW
Chunlong Xu, Sen Wu, Lawrence B Schook, Kyle M Schachtschneider
The global incidence of cancer is rapidly rising, and despite an improved understanding of cancer molecular biology, immune landscapes, and advancements in cytotoxic, biologic, and immunologic anti-cancer therapeutics, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is caused by the accumulation of a series of gene mutations called driver mutations that confer selective growth advantages to tumor cells. As cancer therapies move toward personalized medicine, predictive modeling of the role driver mutations play in tumorigenesis and therapeutic susceptibility will become essential...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871083/antidiabetic-properties-of-naringenin-a-citrus-fruit-polyphenol
#4
REVIEW
Danja J Den Hartogh, Evangelia Tsiani
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia and is associated with personal health and global economic burdens. Current strategies/approaches of insulin resistance and T2DM prevention and treatment are lacking in efficacy resulting in the need for new preventative and targeted therapies. In recent years, epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated with health benefits including protection against insulin resistance and T2DM...
March 12, 2019: Biomolecules
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867023/analysis-of-the-cryptosporidium-spp-and-gp60-subtypes-linked-to-human-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-england-and-wales-2009-to-2017
#5
Rachel M Chalmers, Guy Robinson, Kristin Elwin, Richard Elson
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are important causes of gastroenteritis that can be transmitted from humans and animals. We elucidated the distribution of species and gp60 subtypes in human outbreaks classified by transmission vehicle. METHODS: We used a combined database of national outbreak surveillance and reference unit data to analyse outbreaks by setting, vehicle, season, and linkage with suspected sources. RESULTS: A total of 178 outbreaks involving 4031 laboratory confirmed cases were identified; 82 (46%) outbreaks involved recreational waters, 74 (42%) animal contact, 4 (2%) environmental contact, 4 (2%) person-to-person spread, 3 (2%) food, 2 (1%) drinking water supplies, and 9 (5%) were of unknown source...
March 12, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861520/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-proliferation-and-fate-after-white-matter-stroke-in-juvenile-and-adult-mice
#6
Andra L Dingman, Krista M Rodgers, Robert M Dietz, Sean P Hickey, Alexandra P Frazier, Amy C Clevenger, Joan C Yonchek, Richard J Traystman, Wendy B Macklin, Paco S Herson
The incidence of stroke in children is 2.4 per 100,000 person-years and results in long-term motor and cognitive disability. In ischemic stroke, white matter (WM) is frequently injured, but is relatively understudied compared to grey matter injury. Previous research suggests that the cellular response to WM ischemic injury is different at different ages. Little is known about whether WM repair mechanisms differ in children and adults. We utilized a model of focal ischemic WM injury to determine the oligodendrocyte (OL) response to focal WM ischemic injury in juvenile and adult mice...
March 12, 2019: Developmental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858480/independent-and-combined-effects-of-dietary-iron-composition-and-selected-risk-factors-on-the-risk-of-nafld-in-a-chinese-population
#7
Xian-E Peng, Shang-Hua Xu, Wenjuan Liu, Zhijian Hu, Zheng Lin, Xu Lin
Iron is an essential mineral required for most forms of life. However, very little is known in relation to the different forms of dietary iron on the development of NAFLD. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of iron intake from different food types on risk of NAFLD and whether this effect may be modified by other factors. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 1,273 NAFLD cases and 1,273 gender and age-matched controls. We conducted in-person interviews while participants completed a questionnaire on food habits...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30854951/human-derived-organ-on-a-chip-for-personalized-drug-development
#8
Yasamin A Jodat, Min Gyeong Kang, Kiavash Kiaee, Gyeong Jin Kim, Angel Flores Huidobro Martinez, Aliza Rosenkranz, Hojae Bae, Su Ryon Shin
To reduce required capital and time investment in development of new pharmaceutical agents, there is an urgent need for preclinical drug testing models that are predictive of drug response in human tissues or organs. Despite tremendous advancements and rigorous multistage screening of drug candidates involving computational models, traditional cell culture platforms, animal models and most recently humanized animals, there is still a large deficit in our ability to predict drug response in patient groups and overall attrition rates from phase 1 through phase 4 of clinical studies remain well above 90%...
March 8, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30854372/translating-pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-to-the-clinic-progress-in-human-and-veterinary-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Deirdre P Campion, Fiona J Dowell
As targeted personalized therapy becomes more widely used in human medicine, clients will expect the veterinary clinician to be able to implement an evidence-based strategy regarding both the prescribing of medicines and also recognition of the potential for adverse drug reactions (ADR) for their pet, at breed and individual level. This review aims to provide an overview of current developments and challenges in pharmacogenetics in medicine for a veterinary audience and to map these to developments in veterinary pharmacogenetics...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852027/invited-review-examining-farmers-personalities-and-attitudes-as-possible-risk-factors-for-dairy-cattle-health-welfare-productivity-and-farm-management-a-systematic-scoping-review
#10
F Adler, R Christley, A Campe
We aimed to determine how research regarding farmers' personalities and attitudes as risk factors is reported (methodological approaches to assessing, extracting, and processing data and analyzing risk factors) and to explore evidence for the effect of farmers' attitudes and personalities on dairy cattle health, welfare, productivity, and management. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of studies on personality and attitude as risk factors for dairy cattle health, welfare, productivity, and farm management...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850496/reproducibility-and-comparability-of-preclinical-pet-imaging-data-a-multi-center-small-animal-pet-study
#11
Julia G Mannheim, Martin Mamach, Sybille Reder, Alexander Traxl, Natalie Mucha, Jonathan A Disselhorst, Markus Mittelhäuser, Claudia Kuntner, James T Thackeray, Sibylle Ziegler, Thomas Wanek, Jens P Bankstahl, Bernd J Pichler
The standardization of preclinical imaging is a key factor to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, validity and translatability of preclinical data. However, preclinical standardization has been slowly progressing in recent years and has mainly been performed within a single institution, whereas little has been done in regards to multi-center standardization between facilities. This study aims to investigate the comparability among preclinical imaging facilities in terms of PET data acquisition and analysis...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30848424/development-and-significance-of-mouse-models-in-lymphoma-research
#12
REVIEW
Jordan N Noble, Anjali Mishra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models have played an indispensable role in interpreting cancer gene functions, pathogenesis of disease, and in the development of innovative therapeutic approaches targeting aberrant biological pathways in human cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: These models have guided the therapeutic targeting of cancer-causing mutations and paved the way for assessing anti-cancer drug responses and the preclinical development of immunotherapies. The mammalian models of cancer utilize genetically edited or transplanted mice that develop fairly accurate disease histopathology...
March 8, 2019: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847259/personalized-virtual-heart-technology-for-guiding-the-ablation-of-infarct-related-ventricular-tachycardia
#13
Adityo Prakosa, Hermenegild J Arevalo, Dongdong Deng, Patrick M Boyle, Plamen P Nikolov, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Joshua Je Blauer, Elyar Ghafoori, Carolyn J Park, Robert C Blake, Frederick T Han, Rob S MacLeod, Henry R Halperin, David J Callans, Ravi Ranjan, Jonathan Chrispin, Saman Nazarian, Natalia A Trayanova
Ventricular tachycardia (VT), which can lead to sudden cardiac death, occurs frequently in patients with myocardial infarction. Catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of cardiac tissue has achieved only modest efficacy, owing to the inaccurate identification of ablation targets by current electrical mapping techniques, which can lead to extensive lesions and to a prolonged, poorly tolerated procedure. Here we show that personalized virtual-heart technology based on cardiac imaging and computational modelling can identify optimal infarct-related VT ablation targets in retrospective animal (5 swine) and human studies (21 patients) and in a prospective feasibility study (5 patients)...
October 2018: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846378/the-animal-as-patient-ethology-and-end-of-life-care
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Pierce
Treating the animal patient as a "person" involves refining the capacity to see the patient as clearly as possible. Veterinary end-of-life care can usefully engage with the science of animal emotion and cognition to help bring the patient into 3-D. This article highlights 3 specific areas in which engagement with the ethology literature and more careful attention to the subjective experiences of animals could improve end-of-life care: (1) interpretation and management of pain, (2) assessments of quality of life, and (3) attention to the autonomy of animal patients...
March 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845954/risk-factors-for-new-bovine-brucellosis-infections-in-colombian-herds
#15
Liliana Cárdenas, Mario Peña, Oscar Melo, Jordi Casal
BACKGROUND: Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes substantial economic losses and has a strong impact on public health. The main objective of this paper is to determine the risk factors for new infections of Brucella abortus on Colombian cattle farms previously certified as being free of brucellosis. A case-control study was conducted by comparing 98 cases (farms certified as brucellosis-free for three or more years but became infected) with 93 controls (farms that remained brucellosis-free during at least the previous three years)...
March 7, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30836995/transportation-barriers-to-access-health-care-for-surgical-conditions-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-nationwide-household-survey
#16
Carlos Varela, Sven Young, Nyengo Mkandawire, Reinou S Groen, Leonard Banza, Asgaut Viste
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that nearly five billion people worldwide do not have access to safe surgery. This access gap disproportionately affects low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the barriers to healthcare in LMICs is access to transport to a healthcare facility. Both availability and affordability of transport can be issues delaying access to health care. This study aimed to describe the main transportation factors affecting access and delay in reaching a facility for health care in Malawi...
March 5, 2019: BMC Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30836843/too-old-for-freedom-not-too-late-to-try
#17
Nancy A Pachana
The physical, psychological and social aspects of care for older adults in nursing homes has been the subject of research internationally for more than 50 years. Numerous guidelines, models and principles of care have been published, yet in many facilities the lack of care which is "person-focused" remains concerning. Potentially, a return to a basic set of simple principles guiding care, ones which are intrinsically focused on the person, would be of use. Despite the plethora of models within the human care literature, looking outside of this frame might be useful not only for those in aged care at the end of life, but for older individuals more broadly...
March 5, 2019: Clinical Gerontologist
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30822745/trimethylamine-n-oxide-mediterranean-diet-and-nutrition-in-healthy-normal-weight-adults-also-a-matter-of-sex
#18
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Daniela Laudisio, Carolina Di Somma, Maria Maisto, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
OBJECTIVES: Sex exerts an important influence on food preferences. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is based on the common dietary characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of the Mediterranean countries. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a marker of gut dysbiosis linked to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk, is mainly dependent on dietary pattern and gut microbiota metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between levels of TMAO and the adherence to the MD in the function of sex...
November 24, 2018: Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30817873/milk-outbreaks-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-slovakia-2012-2016
#19
Erik Dorko, Ján Hockicko, Kvetoslava Rimárová, Andrea Bušová, Peter Popaďák, Jana Popaďáková, Ivan Schréter
OBJECTIVE: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is most commonly transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected tick. Alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some diseases in endemic areas. The aim of the study was to emphasize the risk of contracting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) by consuming raw milk and dairy products and to describe TBE epidemics in Slovakia for the period 2012-2016. METHODS: The data on epidemics were obtained from the Annual Reports for the period 2012-2016 available on the website of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic...
December 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30813309/an-overview-of-the-most-significant-zoonotic-viral-pathogens-transmitted-from-animal-to-human-in-saudi-arabia
#20
REVIEW
Omar A Al-Tayib
Currently, there has been an increasing socioeconomic impact of zoonotic pathogens transmitted from animals to humans worldwide. Recently, in the Arabian Peninsula, including in Saudi Arabia, epidemiological data indicated an actual increase in the number of emerging and/or reemerging cases of several viral zoonotic diseases. Data presented in this review are very relevant because Saudi Arabia is considered the largest country in the Peninsula. We believe that zoonotic pathogens in Saudi Arabia remain an important public health problem; however, more than 10 million Muslim pilgrims from around 184 Islamic countries arrive yearly at Makkah for the Hajj season and/or for the Umrah...
February 22, 2019: Pathogens
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