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Adipose melanogenesis

Meihua Gong, Pan Zhang, Chunyang Li, Xu Ma, Daping Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Skin photoaging is primarily caused by the functional attrition of skin stem cells. The skin stem cell niche plays an important role in maintaining stem cell survival and behaviour. In our study, we hypothesized that UVB irradiation induces skin photoaging by changing skin stem cell niches and that transferred adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can remodel the niches by affecting the BMP signalling pathway and transdifferentiating into skin stem cells. METHODS: Sixty-four C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following groups: a control group, the UVB group and the UVB+ADSCs group...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Y Kim, J Y Cho, S W Oh, M Kang, S E Lee, E Jung, Y S Park, J Lee
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that circulates as a full-length protein and a fragment containing the globular domain of adiponectin (gAd). A recent study has reported the antimelanogenic effects of full-length adiponectin. OBJECTIVES: To examine the involvement of gAd in melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action. METHODS: The effects of gAd on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action were investigated in human epidermal melanocytes and reconstructed epidermis, including melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity, expression and phosphorylation of signalling molecules...
September 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Agnes S Klar, Thomas Biedermann, Katarzyna Michalak, Teresa Michalczyk, Claudia Meuli-Simmen, Arnaud Scherberich, Martin Meuli, Ernst Reichmann
There is accumulating evidence that interactions between epidermal melanocytes and stromal cells play an important role in the regulation of skin pigmentation. In this study we established a pigmented dermo-epidermal skin model, melDESS, of human origin to investigate the effects of distinct stromal cells on melanogenesis. melDESS is a complex, clinically relevant skin equivalent composed of an epidermis containing both melanocytes and keratinocytes. Its dermal compartment consists either of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, dermal fibroblasts (Fbs), or a mixture of both cell types...
December 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Ju-Hee Lee, Chul Hong Park, Kwang-Hoon Chun, Soon-Sun Hong
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a population of cells derived from adipose tissue. ASCs exhibit multilineage development potential and are able to secrete various factors, which influence adjacent cells. Previous studies have reported the effectiveness of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) in wound healing, anti-melanogenesis, wrinkle improvement and hair growth. In the present study, the anticancer function of ASC-CM was investigated in vitro and in vivo. An MTT assay revealed that ASC-CM significantly decreased the proliferation of B16 melanoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0...
August 2015: Oncology Letters
Betül Ünal, Sevil Alan, Cumhur İbrahim Başsorgun, Ayşe Akman Karakaş, Gülsüm Özlem Elpek, Mehmet Akif Çiftçioğlu
GDF-15 (Growth Differentiation Factor-15) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is not only involved in cancer development, progression, angiogenesis and metastasis, but also controls stress responses, bone formation, hematopoietic development, adipose tissue function and cardiovascular diseases. GDF-15, which is regulated by p53, has shown antitumorigenic and proapoptotic activities in vivo and in vitro. Also, GDF-15 is involved in skin biology and histamine-induced melanogenesis; it is overexpressed in melanoma cells and is associated with depth of tumor invasion and metastasis...
September 2015: Archives of Dermatological Research
Deok-Woo Kim, Byung-Joon Jeon, Na-Hyun Hwang, Min-Sook Kim, Seung-Ha Park, Eun-Sang Dhong, Eul-Sik Yoon, Byung-Il Lee
BACKGROUND: Several investigators have postulated that human adipose-derived stem cells can be used for skin rejuvenation, but there have been few reports about their direct effects on human epidermal melanocytes. The authors studied the effects on melanocytes, and the causative agent of those effects was further investigated in this study. METHODS: Human epidermal melanocytes were divided into three groups and cultured in adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium, human dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium, or control medium...
September 2014: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
M Switonski, M Mankowska, S Salamon
The melanocortin receptor gene family consists of five single-exon members, which are located on autosomes. Three genes (MC2R, MC4R and MC5R) are syntenic in the human, mouse, cattle and dog genomes, while in the pig, the syntenic group comprises MC1R, MC2R and MC5R. Two genes (MC1R and MC4R) have been extensively studied due to their function in melanogenesis (MC1R) and energy control (MC4R). Conservative organisation of these genes in five mammalian species (human, mouse, cattle, pig and dog), in terms of the encoded amino acid sequence, is higher in the case of MC4R compared to MC1R...
November 2013: Journal of Applied Genetics
Aybike Birerdinc, Mohammed Jarrar, Tim Stotish, Manpreet Randhawa, Ancha Baranova
Brown adipocytes constitute a metabolically active tissue responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis and the depletion of excess calories. Differentiation of brown fat adipocytes de novo or stimulation of pre-existing brown adipocytes within white adipose depots could provide a novel method for reducing the obesity and alleviating the consequences of type II diabetes worldwide. In this review, we addressed several molecular mechanisms involved in the control of brown fat activity, namely, the β₃-adrenergic stimulation of thermogenesis during exposure to cold or by catecholamines; the augmentation of thyroid function; the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), transcription factors of the C/EBP family, and the PPARγ co-activator PRDM16; the COX-2-driven expression of UCP1; the stimulation of the vanilloid subfamily receptor TRPV1 by capsaicin and monoacylglycerols; the effects of BMP7 or its analogs; the cannabinoid receptor antagonists and melanogenesis modulating agents...
January 2013: Progress in Lipid Research
Elke Albrecht, Katrin Komolka, Judith Kuzinski, Steffen Maak
Beside its role in melanogenesis, the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) has been related to obesity. The potentially crucial role in adipocyte development makes it a tempting candidate for economic relevant, fat related traits in farm animals. The objective of our study was to characterize the mRNA expression of different ASIP transcripts and of putative targets in different bovine tissues, as well as to study consequences on protein abundance and localization. ASIP mRNA abundance was determined by RT-qPCR in adipose and further tissues of cattle representing different breeds and crosses...
2012: PloS One
S Page, V Chandhoke, A Baranova
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and can lead to multiple chronic diseases. Adipose tissue is increasingly thought to play an active role in obesity-related pathologies such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity has been strongly associated with systemic inflammation and, to a lesser degree, with oxidative stress, although the causal relationships among these factors are unclear. A recent study demonstrating an expression of the components of the melanogenic pathway and the presence of melanin in visceral adipose has raised questions regarding the possible role of melanogenesis in adipose tissue...
May 2011: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Won-Serk Kim, Byung-Soon Park, Jong-Hyuk Sung
As individuals age, the skin undergoes changes, such as irregular pigmentation, thinning and loss of elasticity, that are due to both genetic and environmental factors. These changes may worsen, progressing to precancerous and cancerous diseases. Various medical treatments and topical cosmeceuticals have been used to treat some symptoms of photoaging, however, the results have been less than satisfactory. Mesenchymal stem cells within the stromal-vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), display multi-lineage developmental plasticity and secrete various growth factors that control and manage the damaged neighboring cells...
June 2009: Archives of Dermatological Research
Manpreet Randhawa, Tom Huff, Julio C Valencia, Zobair Younossi, Vikas Chandhoke, Vincent J Hearing, Ancha Baranova
Melanin is a common pigment in animals. In humans, melanin is produced in melanocytes, in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, in the inner ear, and in the central nervous system. Previously, we noted that human adipose tissue expresses several melanogenesis-related genes. In the current study, we confirmed the expression of melanogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins in human adipose tissue using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. TYR mRNA signals were also detected by in situ hybridization in visceral adipocytes...
March 2009: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
F Bonetti, G Martignoni, C Colato, E Manfrin, M Gambacorta, M Faleri, C Bacchi, V C Sin, N L Wong, M Coady, J K Chan
The perivascular epithelioid cell has been proposed to be the unifying proliferating cell type in a number of lesions such as angiomyolipoma, lymphangiomyomatosis, clear cell "sugar" tumor and renal capsuloma. With the exception of rare examples of angiomyolipoma, they are non-metastasizing. We report four examples of a new member of this family of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms that occur in abdominopelvic location and show metastatic properties. The patients, all women, were aged 19 to 41 years (mean, 32), and presented with a tumor mass involving the serosa of the ileum, uterus or pelvic cavity...
June 2001: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
D E Granholm, R N Reese, N H Granholm
Agouti protein (AP) expression in the wild-type agouti mouse (AwJ/AwJ) coincides with a switch in hair follicle melanogenesis from black (eumelanin) to yellow (pheomelanin). Ectopic overexpression of AP in the lethal yellow (Ay/a) mouse cause a pure yellow coat and the lethal yellow syndrome. Thiol concentrations may control the conversion of dopaquinone to pheomelanin in hair follicle melanocytes. Glutathione (GSH) also plays important roles in cellular health and protection. Using HPLC, cysteine and GSH were measured in 1) hair follicles, liver and serum of Ay/a, AwJ/AwJ, and a/a (black) mice, and 2) adipose and spleen tissues of Ay/a and a/a mice on day 9 of regenerating hair growth (late pheomelanin phase)...
December 1995: Pigment Cell Research
J B Tatro, S Reichlin
alpha MSH is known to act on several nonmelanocyte cell types, which has led to recent interest in its regulatory roles in fever, inflammation, immunity, and behavior. To determine its possible sites of action, we examined the distribution of alpha MSH receptors in a variety of tissues in mice and rats. The superpotent and enzymatically resistant alpha MSH analog, Nle4,D-Phe7-alpha MSH (NDP-MSH), was radioiodinated using lactoperoxidase (Enzymobeads) and purified by reverse phase chromatography for use as a tracer...
November 1987: Endocrinology
P B Fisher, S Grant
As described in this review, both partially purified and recombinant interferons are potent modulators of differentiation in diverse cell culture systems (Table 2). Depending on the target cell, interferon exerts either an inhibitory or an inductive effect on cell differentiation. In certain myeloid leukemic cells, such as HL-60, interferon by itself is growth suppressive but does not induce cell maturation, whereas in combination with inducers of differentiation, such as DMSO, TPA or retinoic acid, interferon potentiates their ability to stimulate differentiation in both sensitive and resistant cell populations (Grant et al...
1985: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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