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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30811480/antiretroviral-adherence-and-virologic-suppression-in-partnered-and-unpartnered-hiv-positive-individuals-in-southern-brazil
#1
Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Ivana Varella, Pamina M Gorbach, Eduardo Sprinz, Breno Santos, Tauí de Melo Rocha, Mariana Simon, Marcelo Almeida, Rita Lira, Maria Cristina Chaves, Zoe Baker, Tara Kerin, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: An undetectable serum HIV-1 load is key to effectiveness of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, which depends on adherence to treatment. We evaluated factors possibly associated with ARV adherence and virologic response in HIV-infected heterosexual individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples and 100 unpartnered individuals receiving ARV treatment at a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. All subjects provided written informed consent, answered demographic/behavioral questionnaires through audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI), and collected blood and vaginal samples for biological markers and assessment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657537/association-of-infants-exposed-to-prenatal-zika-virus-infection-with-their-clinical-neurologic-and-developmental-status-evaluated-via-the-general-movement-assessment-tool
#2
Christa Einspieler, Fabiana Utsch, Patricia Brasil, Carolina Y Panvequio Aizawa, Colleen Peyton, Renata Hydee Hasue, Fernanda Françoso Genovesi, Luana Damasceno, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Kristina Adachi, Peter B Marschik, Karin Nielsen-Saines
Importance: There is an urgent need to assess neurodevelopment in Zika virus (ZIKV)-exposed infants. Objectives: To perform general movement assessment (GMA) at 9 to 20 weeks' postterm age and to evaluate whether the findings are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months in infants prenatally exposed to acute maternal illness with rash in Brazil during the ZIKV outbreak and in age-matched controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, infants prenatally exposed to acute maternal illness with rash were recruited at medical institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from February 1, 2016, to April 30, 2017, while infants without any exposure to maternal illness originated from the Graz University Audiovisual Research Database for the Interdisciplinary Analysis of Neurodevelopment...
January 4, 2019: JAMA Network Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30650057/acute-hiv-infection-in-youth-protocol-for-the-adolescent-trials-network-147-atn147-comprehensive-adolescent-research-and-engagement-studies-cares-study
#3
Karin Nielsen-Saines, Kate Mitchell, Tara Kerin, Jasmine Fournier, Leslie Kozina, Brenda Andrews, Ruth Cortado, Robert Bolan, Risa Flynn, Mary Jane Rotheram, Sue Ellen Abdalian, Yvonne Bryson
BACKGROUND: Early treatment studies have shown that prompt treatment of HIV with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can limit the size of latent viral reservoirs, thereby providing clinical and public health benefits. Studies have demonstrated that adolescents have a greater capacity for immune reconstitution than adults. Nevertheless, adolescents who acquired HIV through sexual transmission have not been included in early treatment studies because of challenges in identification and adherence to cART...
January 16, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30646333/association-of-prenatal-ultrasonographic-findings-with-adverse-neonatal-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-with-zika-virus-infection-in-brazil
#4
Jose Paulo Pereira, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jeffrey Sperling, Melanie M Maykin, Luana Damasceno, Renan Fonseca Cardozo, Helena Abreu Valle, Beatriz Ribeiro Torres Dutra, Helder Dotta Gama, Kristina Adachi, Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Zilton Vasconcelos, Patricia Brasil, Maria E Moreira, Stephanie L Gaw
Importance: Congenital Zika virus infection causes a spectrum of adverse birth outcomes, including severe birth defects of the central nervous system. The association of prenatal ultrasonographic findings with adverse neonatal outcomes, beyond structural anomalies such as microcephaly, has not been described to date. Objective: To determine whether prenatal ultrasonographic examination results are associated with abnormal neonatal outcomes in Zika virus-affected pregnancies...
December 7, 2018: JAMA Network Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624579/the-role-of-amniocentesis-in-the-diagnosis-of-congenital-zika-syndrome
#5
Jose Paulo Pereira, Melanie M Maykin, Zilton Vasconcelos, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria E Moreira, Stephanie L Gaw
There is limited data on amniocentesis as a diagnostic tool for congenital Zika syndrome. Here we report on a prospective cohort of 16 women with suspected Zika virus infection in a highly endemic area, and discusss the role of amniocentesis in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal Zika infection.
January 8, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575464/neurodevelopment-in-infants-exposed-to-zika-virus-in-utero
#6
LETTER
M Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Patricia Brasil, Tara Kerin, Luana Damasceno, Marcos Pone, Liege M A Carvalho, Sheila M Pone, Zilton Vasconcelos, Ieda P Ribeiro, Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Kristina Adachi, Stephanie L Gaw, Umme-Aiman Halai, Tania S Salles, Denise C da Cunha, Myrna C Bonaldo, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Leticia Guida, Jociele Malacarne, Roozemerie P Costa, S Clair Gomes, A Beatriz Reis, Fernanda V M Soares, Renata H Hasue, Carolina Y P Aizawa, Fernanda F Genovesi, Mitsue Aibe, Christa Einspieler, Peter B Marschik, J Paulo Pereira, Elyzabeth A Portari, Carla Janzen, James D Cherry
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 24, Page 2377-2379, December 2018.
December 13, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496848/urine-xpert-mtb-rif-for-the-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis
#7
Anna Lena Lopez, Josephine G Aldaba, Merrylle Morales-Dizon, Jesus N Sarol, Jedas Veronica Daag, Ma Cecilia Ama, Patrick Sylim, Aida Salonga, Karin Nielsen-Saines
INTRODUCTION: Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended for the simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance directly from sputum specimens. Since young children cannot always expectorate, we assessed urine as a possible specimen source to diagnose TB in children using Xpert MTB/RIF. METHODS: During a field study to enhance childhood TB identification, spot urine samples were prospectively collected from consecutive ambulatory children aged 0 to 14 years presenting with presumptive pulmonary TB in community health centers...
February 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30385728/biomarkers-and-immunoprofiles-associated-with-fetal-abnormalities-of-zikv-positive-pregnancies
#8
Suan-Sin Foo, Weiqiang Chen, Yen Chan, Wai-Suet Lee, Shin-Ae Lee, Genhong Cheng, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Patrícia Brasil, Jae U Jung
BACKGROUND: An intricate fetal-maternal immune crosstalk during pregnancy is essential for a healthy birth. Hence, the infection-induced alterations of maternal immunity often lead to adverse outcomes for mother and/or child. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women has been associated with more than 3,000 cases of microcephaly and nervous system malformations. METHODS: To explore the potential correlation of ZIKV-induced alteration of maternal immunity with fetal abnormalities, we performed extensive sera immunoprofiling of 74 pregnant women: 30 symptomatic ZIKV+ pregnant patients and 30 healthy pregnant controls in ZIKV-endemic Rio de Janeiro, along with 14 healthy pregnant controls in non-endemic Los Angeles...
November 2, 2018: JCI Insight
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30359768/visual-function-in-infants-with-antenatal-zika-virus-exposure
#9
Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Julia D Rossetto, Stephanie L Gaw, Luiza M Neves, Olivia A Zin, Lorena Haefeli, Joel Carlos Barros Silveira Filho, Kristina Adachi, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone, Sheila Moura Pone, Natalia Molleri, Jose Paulo Pereira, Rubens Belfort, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Zilton Vasconcelos, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
PURPOSE: To report the findings of a cross-sectional study of visual function in infants with confirmed or suspected antenatal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection seen at a single referral center in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: Infants were examined following the ZIKV outbreak period at Instituto Fernandes Figueira/FIOCRUZ. Visual function was considered abnormal if an infant could not fix and follow a standardized high-contrast target (10 cm) by 3-6 months of age. Visual function and associations with structural eye abnormalities, central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities, microcephaly, and nystagmus were assessed...
December 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30216294/congenital-cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-perinatal-transmission
#10
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
October 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30213843/eye-findings-in-infants-with-suspected-or-confirmed-antenatal-zika-virus-exposure
#11
Irena Tsui, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Julia D Rossetto, Zilton Vasconcelos, Stephanie L Gaw, Luiza M Neves, Olivia A Zin, Lorena Haefeli, Joel Carlos Barros Silveira Filho, Saint Clair Gomes, Kristina Adachi, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone, Sheila Moura Pone, Jose Paulo Pereira, Rubens Belfort, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Andrea A Zin
: media-1vid110.1542/5804915134001PEDS-VA_2018-1104 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To characterize ophthalmic manifestations of confirmed or suspected antenatal Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure. METHODS: Infants with antenatal ZIKV exposure were referred for evaluation during the 2015-2016 Rio de Janeiro outbreak. Mothers with symptomatic ZIKV infection during pregnancy and/or infants with microcephaly or other findings that were suggestive of suspected antenatal exposure were tested with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
October 2018: Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30131480/filling-the-gaps-for-enhancing-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-programs-combining-treatment-and-prevention-of-child-malnutrition-results-from-the-rainbow-project-2015%C3%A2-17-in-zambia
#12
Stefania Moramarco, Giulia Amerio, Jean Kasengele Chipoma, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Leonardo Palombi, Ersilia Buonomo
BACKGROUND: Child malnutrition, in all its forms, is a public health priority in Zambia. After implementations based on a previous evaluation in 2012⁻14 were made, the efficacy of the Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) for the integrated management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM), moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), and underweight was reassessed in 2015⁻17. METHODS: The outcomes were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012⁻14...
August 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30020964/pregnancy-outcomes-among-hiv-infected-women-who-conceived-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Elizabeth M Stringer, Michelle A Kendall, Shahin Lockman, Thomas B Campbell, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Fred Sawe, Susan Cu-Uvin, Xingye Wu, Judith S Currier
As antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands in resource-limited settings, understanding the impact of ART on pregnancy outcomes is critical. We analyzed women who became pregnant on ART while enrolled in a clinical trial (HPTN 052, ACTG A5208, and ACTG A5175); the majority of women were from Africa, with a median age of 29 years. Eligible women were on ART at conception and had a documented date of a last menstrual period and a pregnancy outcome. The primary outcome was non-live birth (stillbirth; spontaneous abortion; elective termination; or ectopic pregnancy) versus live birth...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29750766/infectious-morbidity-mortality-and-nutrition-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-formula-fed-infants-results-from-the-hptn-040-pactg-1043-trial
#14
Nava Yeganeh, D Heather Watts, Jiahong Xu, Tara Kerin, Esau C Joao, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Gerhard Theron, Glenda Gray, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Valdilea Veloso, Margaret Camarca, Lynne Mofenson, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population with potentially poor health outcomes. We evaluated morbidity and mortality in HEU formula-fed infants enrolled in the NICHD HPTN 040/PACTG 1043 trial. METHODS: Infectious morbidity, mortality and undernutrition were evaluated within a cohort of 1000 HEU infants enrolled between April 2004 and April 2010 in Brazil (n = 766) and South Africa (n = 234) as part of the NICHD/HPTN 040 trial of 3 different antiretroviral regimens to decrease intrapartum HIV vertical transmission...
December 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29579059/cardiac-findings-in-infants-with-in-utero-exposure-to-zika-virus-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Dulce H G Orofino, Sonia R L Passos, Raquel V C de Oliveira, Carla Verona B Farias, Maria de Fatima M P Leite, Sheila M Pone, Marcos V da S Pone, Helena A R Teixeira Mendes, Maria Elizabeth L Moreira, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Antenatal exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV) is related to severe neurological manifestations. A previous study in Brazil reported an increased incidence of non-severe congenital heart defects in infants with diagnosis of congenital Zika syndrome but without laboratory confirmation of ZIKV infection in the mother or infant. The objective of this study is to report echocardiographic (ECHO) findings in infants with laboratory confirmed antenatal exposure to ZIKV. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional study of cardiologic assessments of infants born between November 2015 and January 2017 with confirmed vertical exposure to ZIKV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29528912/congenital-cmv-and-hiv-perinatal-transmission
#16
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29304083/combined-evaluation-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-infant-hiv-transmission
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Nava Yeganeh, Margaret Camarca, Mariza G Morgado, D Heather Watts, Lynne M Mofenson, Valdilea G Veloso, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Mariana Ceriotto, Daisy Maria Machado, Yvonne J Bryson, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jack Moye, Jeffrey D Klausner, Claire C Bristow, Ruth Dickover, Mark Mirochnick, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29176498/zika-clinical-updates-implications-for-pediatrics
#18
Kristina Adachi, Karin Nielsen-Saines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has gained recognition over the past few years as an important new cause of congenital infection. As a result, it is critical that pediatricians understand its epidemiology, clinical presentation, clinical sequelae, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent ZIKV epidemiology, clinical presentation of acute infection in children and complications, perinatal infection, and congenital infection will be summarized in this ZIKV review...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29145452/behavioral-climatic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2015-16
#19
Trevon L Fuller, Guilherme Calvet, Camila Genaro Estevam, Jussara Rafael Angelo, Gbenga J Abiodun, Umme-Aiman Halai, Bianca De Santis, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Eliane Machado Araujo, Simone Alves Sampaio, Marco Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Allison Fabri, Rita Maria Ribeiro, Ryan Harrigan, Thomas B Smith, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Patrícia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Karin Nielsen-Saines
The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29033372/chloroquine-a-fda-approved-drug-prevents-zika-virus-infection-and-its-associated-congenital-microcephaly-in-mice
#20
Chunfeng Li, Xingliang Zhu, Xue Ji, Natalie Quanquin, Yong-Qiang Deng, Min Tian, Roghiyh Aliyari, Xiangyang Zuo, Ling Yuan, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Xiao-Feng Li, Jae U Jung, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Frank Xiao-Feng Qin, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhiheng Xu, Genhong Cheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a global public health emergency due to its rapidly expanding range and its ability to cause severe congenital defects such as microcephaly. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies or vaccines against ZIKV infection. Through our screening of viral entry inhibitors, we found that chloroquine (CQ), a commonly used antimalarial and a FDA-approved drug that has also been repurposed against other pathogens, could significantly inhibit ZIKV infection in vitro, by blocking virus internalization...
October 2017: EBioMedicine
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