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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753502/immunomodulatory-effects-of-whole-yeast-cells-and-capsicum-in-weanling-pigs-challenged-with-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
S Wojnicki, A Morris, B N Smith, C W Maddox, R N Dilger
An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, fecal bacterial counts, frequency of diarrhea, and clinical blood parameters in weanling pigs inoculated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) who were fed a whole yeast cell (WYC) product and capsicum, a plant essential oil. Weanling pigs (34 barrows and 30 gilts, 21 d of age, 5.90 ± 1.03 kg BW) were allotted to experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design based on litter, sex, and initial BW. Four pigs were individually housed within each containment chamber and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments, which included a control diet without or with 0...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30748092/r707-a-fully-human-antibody-directed-against-cc-chemokine-receptor-7-attenuates-xenogeneic-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#2
Kenneth A Fowler, Viktoria Vasilieva, Ekaterina Ivanova, Olga Rimkevich, Andrey Sokolov, Svetlana Abbasova, Eldar Kim, James M Coghill
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a barrier to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Previously, we demonstrated that CC-Chemokine Receptor 7 (CCR7) is critical for aGVHD pathogenesis but dispensable for beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) responses. As a result, we evaluated a fully human anti-CCR7 blocking antibody as a new approach to prevent aGVHD in preclinical models. Here we report that antibody R707 is able to block human CCR7 signaling and function in vitro in response to its two natural ligands...
February 12, 2019: American Journal of Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723927/cd4cd8-double-positive-t-cell-responses-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#3
Collin Richard Diedrich, Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon, Tara Rutledge, Tonilynn Marie Baranowski, Pauline Maiello, Amy J Myers, Philana Ling Lin
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills millions of people every year. CD4 and CD8 T cells are critical in the immune response against TB. T cells expressing both CD4 and CD8 (CD4CD8 T cells) are functionally active and have not been examined in the context of TB. METHODS: We examine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BAL) and lung granulomas from 28 cynomolgus macaques during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. RESULTS: CD4CD8 T cells increase in frequency during early Mtb infection in PBMC and BAL from pre-infection...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719290/influence-of-nasal-polyp-tissue-on-the-differentiation-and-activation-of-t-lymphocytes-in-a-co-culture-system
#4
Pascal Ickrath, Agmal Scherzad, Norbert Kleinsasser, Chr Ginzkey, Rudolf Hagen, Stephan Hackenberg
T cell subpopulations in nasal polyps differ from peripheral lymphocytes in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). However, little is known about the modulatory influence of the inflamed nasal polyp epithelial cells on the phenotype of the T cells. The aim of the present study was to assess this interaction. Tissue and blood samples were collected from 16 patients undergoing paranasal sinus surgery. Polypoid tissue was cultured under air-liquid interface conditions. Subsequently, cluster of differentiation (CD)3/CD28 activated peripheral lymphocytes from the same patients were added...
February 2019: Biomedical Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711357/enhancing-the-pro-inflammatory-anti-cancer-t-cell-response-via-biomanufactured-secretome-based-immunotherapeutics
#5
Xining Yang, Ning Kang, Wendy M Toyofuku, Mark D Scott
T lymphocytes play a critical role in the pro-inflammatory anti-cancer response; hence, significant pharmacologic efforts have been made to enhance the endogenous T cell response. Unfortunately, significant toxicity arises consequent to pan T cell activation. In contrast, the less robust T cell alloresponse has also demonstrated an anti-cancer effect, but poses an inherent risk of GvHD. To overcome the GvHD risk, an acellular pro-inflammatory agent (IA1) has been biomanufactured from the secretome of the allorecognition response...
December 28, 2018: Immunobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693587/can-levamisole-upregulate-the-equine-cell-mediated-macrophage-m1-dendritic-cell-dc1-t-helper-1-cd4-th1-t-cytotoxic-cd8-immune-response-in-vitro
#6
Sharon Witonsky, Virginia Buechner-Maxwell, Amy Santonastasto, Robert Pleasant, Stephen Werre, Bettina Wagner, Siobhan Ellison, David Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common and devastating neurologic disease of horses in the United States. Because some EPM-affected horses have decreased immune responses, immunomodulators such as levamisole have been proposed as supplemental treatments. However, little is known about levamisole's effects or its mechanism of action in horses. OBJECTIVE: Levamisole in combination with another mitogen will stimulate a macrophage 1 (M1), dendritic cell 1 (DC1), T-helper 1 (CD4 Th1), and T-cytotoxic (CD8) immune response in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro as compared to mitogen alone...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30688989/the-effect-of-anti-ctla4-treatment-on-peripheral-and-intra-tumoral-t-cells-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
David Agdashian, Mei ElGindi, Changqing Xie, Milan Sandhu, Drew Pratt, David E Kleiner, William D Figg, Julie A Rytlewski, Catherine Sanders, Erik C Yusko, Bradford Wood, David Venzon, Gagandeep Brar, Austin G Duffy, Tim F Greten, Firouzeh Korangy
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, biomarkers, which will help identify patients responding to therapy, are missing. We recently tested the combination of anti-CTLA4 treatment (tremelimumab) with loco-regional therapy in patients with HCC and reported a partial response rate of 26%. METHODS: Here, we report updated survival analyses and results from our immune monitoring studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumors from these patients...
January 28, 2019: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682108/blockade-of-the-pd-1-axis-alone-is-not-sufficient-to-activate-hiv-1-virion-production-from-cd4-t-cells-of-individuals-on-suppressive-art
#8
John K Bui, Joshua C Cyktor, Elizabeth Fyne, Shalyn Campellone, Stephen W Mason, John W Mellors
Blockade of the programmed cell death protein/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is now commonly used for cancer immunotherapy and has therapeutic potential in chronic viral infections including HIV-1. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade could augment HIV-1-specific immune responses and reverse HIV-1 latency, but the latter effect has not been clearly shown. We tested the ability of the human anti-PD-L1 mAb BMS-936559 and the human anti-PD-1 mAb nivolumab to increase HIV-1 virion production ex vivo from different peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations obtained from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649540/characterisation-of-healthy-donor-derived-t-cell-responses-specific-to-telaprevir-diastereomers
#9
Khetam Ali Alhilali, Zaid Al-Attar, Andrew Gibson, Arun Tailor, Xiaoli Meng, Mario Monshouwer, Jan Snoeys, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
Telaprevir, a protease inhibitor, was used alongside PEGylated interferon-α and ribavirin to treat hepatitis C viral infections. The triple regimen proved successful; however, the appearance of severe skin reactions alongside competition from newer drugs restricted its use. Skin reactions presented with a delayed onset indicative of a T-cell mediated reaction. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether telaprevir and/or its diastereomer, which is generated in humans, activates T-cells. Telaprevir in its S-configured therapeutic form and the R-diastereomer were cultured directly with PBMC from healthy donors prior to the generation of T-cell clones by serial dilution...
January 12, 2019: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639443/persistent-skewing-of-the-t-cell-profile-in-adolescents-adopted-internationally-from-institutional-care
#10
Brie M Reid, Christopher L Coe, Colleen M Doyle, Dagna Sheerar, Alla Slukvina, Bonny Donzella, Megan R Gunnar
The developing immune system is an adaptive system, primed by antigens, responsive to infectious pathogens, and can be affected by other aspects of the early rearing environment, including deviations from the normal provision of parental care. We investigated whether early rearing in an institutional setting, even when followed by years living in supportive and well-resourced families, would be associated with a persistent shift in T cell profiles. Immunophenotyping was used to enumerate CD4+CD57+ and CD8+CD57+ subsets, with gating strategies employed to differentiate naïve, central-memory, effector-memory, and terminally differentiated EM cells expressing CD45RA (TEMRA)...
January 9, 2019: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633591/effects-of-tacrolimus-fk506-and-mycophenolate-mofetil-mmf-on-regulatory-t-cells-and-co-inhibitory-receptors-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-human-liver-allograft-patients
#11
Qiang Zeng, Xiao-Ye Yuan, Wei Li, Bao-Wang Liu, Xin Zhao, Gui-Jun Ren, Yang Wang, Jian Dou, Gui-Ying Wang
CONTEXT: Recent studies have shown that a combination treatment of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus (FK506) may be an option for organ transplantation patients. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we detected the effects of FK506 and MMF on the expressions of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and co-inhibitory receptors on Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with stable phase after liver transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 35 patients with stable stage after 6 months of liver transplantation were divided into two groups including 20 patients were treated with FK506 monotherapy (FK506 group), and 15 patients with FK506 and MMF combination (FK506 + MMF group)...
January 11, 2019: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30608274/increased-il-17-and-or-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-t-cell-subsets-in-gut-mucosa-of-long-term-treated-hiv-1-infected-women
#12
Gabriella D'ettorre, Cristian Borrazzo, Claudia Pinacchio, Letizia Santinelli, Eugenio N Cavallari, Maura Statzu, Gianfranco Fanello, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Claudio M Mastroianni, Carolina Scagnolari
OBJECTIVE: The influence of gender on gut mucosal T cell response in HIV-1 infection remains largely unknown. We explored whether the frequencies of IFN-[Latin Small Letter Gamma] and/or IL-17 producing naïve, central (TCM) and effector (TEM) memory CD4+ (Th1, Th17) and CD8+ T (Tc1, Tc17) cells measured in gut and peripheral districts differed between female and male HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Thirty long-term treated HIV-infected individuals were enrolled...
January 2, 2019: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30608272/hiv-1-detection-in-the-olfactory-mucosa-of-hiv-1-infected-participants
#13
Luca Bertero, Sarah Beth Joseph, Mattia Trunfio, Tiziano Allice, Sebastiano Catera, Daniele Imperiale, Paola Cassoni, Laura Pesci Kincer, Veronica Pirriatore, Valeria Ghisetti, Enrica Amasio, Gianluigi Zanusso, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno
OBJECTIVE: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection chronically affects the central nervous system (CNS). Olfactory mucosa (OM) is a unique site in the respiratory tract that is directly connected to the CNS, thus we wanted to evaluate OM as a surrogate of CNS sampling. DESIGN: We conducted a preliminary study examining HIV populations and susceptible cells in the OM. METHODS: OM was sampled by minimally invasive brushing. CSF analyses were performed as per routine clinical procedures...
January 2, 2019: AIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30596378/c-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-ccl-production-in-equine-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-identified-by-newly-generated-monoclonal-antibodies
#14
Christiane L Schnabel, Michelle Wemette, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Cynthia Baldwin, Bettina Wagner
Chemokines are soluble molecules directing immune cell trafficking and homing, mediating inflammation, and initiating immune responses to infection. In horses, the analysis of chemokines has been limited by the lack of specific antibodies. We generated mAbs specific for the equine C-C motif chemokine ligands (CCL) CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) using hybridoma technology. Antibody specificity was confirmed by intracellular staining of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells transfected with expression vectors encoding for CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, or CCL11...
October 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593350/frequency-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-detected-in-subpopulations-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-persistently-infected-animals-and-health-outcome
#15
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, Paul Walz, Eduardo Casas, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) cause acute and persistent infections. Acute infection results in generalized immunosuppression characterized by a decrease in circulating lymphocytes as a result of depletion of CD4+ and CD8 + T cell populations. Persistent infection with BVDV is the result of immune tolerance and is generally not associated with lymphocytopenia. The health outcome of persistently infected (PI) calves varies widely; some die of mucosal disease, some succumb to ill thrift and others appear normal and survive to adulthood...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575566/comparative-effects-between-electronic-cigarette-and-tobacco-cigarette-smoke-on-oxidative-markers-in-cultured-immune-cells-isolated-from-rats
#16
Antonella Di Biase, Lucilla Attorri, Rita Di Benedetto, Massimo Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Tobacco cigarette smoke (TCS) was previously demonstrated to affect the innate and adaptive immune responses as a consequence of oxidant generation which play a pivotal role in neutrophilic airway inflammation. Aim of this paper was to investigate whether electronic cigarette smoke (ECS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) similarly to cigarette smoke. METHOD: By means of a house made apparatus, ECS and TCS were collected in fetal bovine serum (FBS) which was used to grow immune cells isolated from rats...
October 2018: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30543998/antigen-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-pbmc-from-pony-mares-immunized-with-either-native-or-recombinant-zona-pellucida-vaccines
#17
C J Joonè, M L Schulman, G T Fosgate, T A Plagis, J E Crafford, S K Gupta, H J Bertschinger
Few studies have investigated the cell mediated immune response during zona pellucida-based immunocontraception, despite hypothesized cytotoxic T-cell involvement in ovarian dysfunction associated with these vaccines. This study aimed to investigate antigen-specific anamnestic responses of helper (CD4+ ) and cytotoxic (CD8+ ) T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from pony mares before and after their treatment with native porcine zona pellucida (pZP), recombinant pZP3 and pZP4 antigens (reZP) or adjuvanted saline...
December 5, 2018: Theriogenology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30524435/regulating-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-for-controlling-siv-infection-by-25-hydroxycholesterol
#18
Tongjin Wu, Feng Ma, Xiuchang Ma, Weizhe Jia, Enxiang Pan, Genhong Cheng, Ling Chen, Caijun Sun
Persistent inflammation and extensive immune activation have been associated with HIV-1/SIV pathogenesis. Previously, we reported that cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and its metabolite 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) had a broad antiviral activity in inhibiting Zika, Ebola, and HIV-1 infection. However, the underlying immunological mechanism of CH25H and 25-HC in inhibiting viral infection remains poorly understood. We report here that 25-HC effectively regulates immune responses for controlling viral infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30501718/-effects-of-different-stimulators-on-proliferation-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocyte-subsets
#19
Xue-Qin Yang, Yu-Ting Chen, Li-Mei Li, Chao-Xian Gao, Zheng-Yu Liu, Chang-Ye Hui, Wen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different stimultors (PHA, PMA and IL-2) and culture systems (PBMC and whole blood) on the proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, so as to provide the experimental basis for selecting the appropriate system according to the experimental purposes. METHODS: A total of 10 ml serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=6). The 300 μl whole blood was directly used to detect lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry...
December 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470742/studies-into-the-mechanism-of-measles-associated-immune-suppression-during-a-measles-outbreak-in-the-netherlands
#20
Brigitta M Laksono, Rory D de Vries, R Joyce Verburgh, Eline G Visser, Alwin de Jong, Pieter L A Fraaij, Wilhemina L M Ruijs, David F Nieuwenhuijse, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Marion P G Koopmans, Menno C van Zelm, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rik L de Swart
Measles causes a transient immune suppression, leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In experimentally infected non-human primates (NHPs) measles virus (MV) infects and depletes pre-existing memory lymphocytes, causing immune amnesia. A measles outbreak in the Dutch Orthodox Protestant community provided a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression in unvaccinated children. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of prodromal measles patients, we detected MV-infected memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and naive and memory B cells at similar levels as those observed in NHPs...
November 23, 2018: Nature Communications
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