Read by QxMD icon Read


Aline Silva de Miranda, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Larissa Katharina Sabino Abreu, Fátima Brant, Luciene Bruno Vieira, Fabíola Mara Ribeiro, Fabiana Simão Machado, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
Several studies have proposed cerebral malaria (CM) as a CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated disease. However, there are no data regarding the recruitment and/or persistence of these cells in the CNS following the phase of infection resolution. Glutamate-mediate excitotoxicity has also been implicated in CM. Blockade of glutamate NMDA receptors by its noncompetitive antagonist MK801 modulates cytokine and neurotrophic factors expression preventing cognitive and depressive-like behavior in experimental CM. Herein, we aim to investigate the role of T lymphocytes in later outcomes in CM, and whether the protective role of MK801 is associated with T lymphocytes response...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Giovanni Guaraldi, Stefano Zona, Ana Rita Silva, Marianna Menozzi, Giovanni Dolci, Jovana Milic, Federica Carli, Cristina Mussini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between current CD4+ T-cell count and CD4/CD8+ ratio with severity of frailty among people aging with HIV. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study analysing data from all study visits in the ongoing prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort between 2006 and 2015. Frailty severity was assessed using a frailty index (FI). We visualized the relationships between frailty index score and current CD4 cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio on two different curves adjusted for age, sex, and duration of HIV infection...
2019: PloS One
Matteo Basilissi, Camilla Tincati, Esther Merlini, Giuseppe Ancona, Elisa Borghi, Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Barassi, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
HIV infection causes the progressive depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and profound modifications of T-cell homeostasis, which persist despite virologically-suppressive treatment and have been linked to a worse clinical outcome. Enduring alterations of the gastrointestinal tract may represent the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these phenomena. Twenty-six HIV-infected subjects were assessed over a 12-month period following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. 18 uninfected individuals were enrolled as controls...
2019: PloS One
Justin D Glenn, Charles Liu, Katharine A Whartenby
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a diverse group of cells that are recognized for their remarkable suppressive effects on pro-inflammatory T cells. The pleiotropic nature of these cells, however, has been demonstrated by their differential effects on immune responses in different settings. Our and others' work has demonstrated suppressive effects of these cells. We previously demonstrated that these cells were mobilized to the lungs during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a murine model of multiple sclerosis, and potently inhibited CD8+ T cell responses against influenza infection...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Helal F Hetta, Asmaa M Zahran, Shima G Mansor, Mohamed O Abdel-Malek, Mohamed A Mekky, Wael A Abbas
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in tumor immunity and induction of immune tolerance to a variety of antitumor effectors, including T-lymphocytes. Herein, we tried to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of MDSCs and different lymphocyte subsets in HCV- related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Four groups were enrolled; chronic HCV (CHC, n=40), HCV related liver cirrhosis (HCV-LC, n= 40), HCV related HCC (HCV-HCC, n=75) and healthy control group (n=20)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Alejandra Jaque, Alexandra Mereniuk, Scott Walsh, Neil H Shear, Shachar Sade, Brandon Zagorski, Raed Alhusayen
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) typically has a CD4+ CD8- T-cell phenotype. Rare cases of CD4- CD8+ , CD4- CD8- , or CD4+ CD8+ immunophenotypes have been described. Little is known about the impact of MF immunophenotypes on disease behavior. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to review all cases of MF from 2007 to 2017 from Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada. CD4+ CD8- (Group 1) was compared to the three less common subtypes (Group 2) with respect to stage at diagnosis, progression, and transformation...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Dermatology
Geoffrey C Owens, Alejandro J Garcia, Aaron Y Mochizuki, Julia W Chang, Samuel D Reyes, Noriko Salamon, Robert M Prins, Gary W Mathern, Aria Fallah
Brain-infiltrating lymphocytes (BILs) were isolated from resected brain tissue from 10 pediatric epilepsy patients who had undergone surgery for Hemimegalencephaly (HME) ( n = 1), Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) ( n = 2), Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) ( n = 4), and Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) ( n = 3). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also isolated from blood collected at the time of the surgery. Cells were immunostained with a panel of 20 antibody markers, and analyzed by mass cytometry. To identify and quantify the immune cell types in the samples, an unbiased clustering method was applied to the entire data set...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Javier María Peralta Ramos, Pablo Iribarren, Luc Bousset, Ronald Melki, Veerle Baekelandt, Anke Van der Perren
Innate immune activation and chronic neuroinflammation are characteristic features of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. The discovery of misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSYN) protein aggregates, which amplify in a "prion-like" fashion, has led us to consider that pathogenic αSYN might be hijacking the activation and mobilization mechanism of the peripheral immune system to reach and disseminate within the CNS. Furthermore, our lab and other groups have recently shown that αSYN can adopt distinct fibril conformations or "strains" with varying levels of pathogenic impact...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jing-Hua Pan, Hong Zhou, Laura Cooper, Jin-Lian Huang, Sheng-Bin Zhu, Xiao-Xu Zhao, Hui Ding, Yun-Long Pan, Lijun Rong
Background: Layilin (LAYN) is a critical gene that regulates T cell function. However, the correlations of LAYN to prognosis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in different cancers remain unclear. Methods: LAYN expression was analyzed via the Oncomine database and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) site. We evaluated the influence of LAYN on clinical prognosis using Kaplan-Meier plotter, the PrognoScan database and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The correlations between LAYN and cancer immune infiltrates was investigated via TIMER...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniela A B Cervilha, Juliana T Ito, Juliana D Lourenço, Clarice R Olivo, Beatriz M Saraiva-Romanholo, Rildo A Volpini, Manoel C Oliveira-Junior, Thais Mauad, Milton A Martins, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Rodolfo P Vieira, Fernanda D T Q S Lopes
We proposed an experimental model to verify the Th17/Treg cytokine imbalance in COPD exacerbation. Forty C57BL/6 mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke (CS) (12 ± 1 cigarettes, twice a day, 30 min/exposure and 5 days/week) and received saline (50 µl) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 mg/kg in 50 µl of saline) intratracheal instillations. We analyzed the mean linear intercept, epithelial thickness and inflammatory profiles of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs. We evaluated macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Treg cells, and IL-10+ and IL-17+ cells, as well as STAT-3, STAT-5, phospho-STAT3 and phospho-STAT5 levels using immunohistochemistry and IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, CXCL1 and CXCL2 levels using ELISA...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mingkui Zhou, Michael Humbert, Muhammad M Mukhtar, Hanna B Scinto, Hemant K Vyas, Samir K Lakhashe, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Gregor Maurer, Swati Thorat, Joshua Owuor, Zhao Lai, Yidong Chen, Anthony Griffiths, Agnès-Laurence Chenine, Sanjeev Gumber, François Villinger, David Montefiori, Ruth M Ruprecht
Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in rhesus macaques (RMs) resembles human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans and serves as a tool to evaluate candidate AIDS vaccines. HIV-1 clade A (HIV-A) predominates in parts of Africa. We constructed an R5 clade A SHIV (SHIV-A; strain SHIV-KNH1144) carrying env from a Kenyan HIV-A. SHIV-A underwent rapid serial passage through six RMs. To allow unbridled replication without adaptive immunity, we simultaneously ablated CD8+ and B cells with cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies in the next RM, resulting in extremely high viremia and CD4+ T-cell loss...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
Peter A Kessler
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 occurs in a minority of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs, even without any interventions. The mechanisms that protect the majority of HIV-exposed infants from infection are unclear. T regulatory cells (Treg) have important immunomodulatory functions, but their role in the fetus as well as in mother-to-child transmission of HIV is under-studied. METHODS: We studied available cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-exposed infants from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) Study cohort in Malawi: 64 infants were HIV-uninfected and 28 infants were HIV-infected at birth...
February 12, 2019: Current HIV Research
Ina Mexhitaj, Mukanthu H Nyirenda, Rui Li, Julia O'Mahony, Ayman Rezk, Ayal Rozenberg, Craig S Moore, Trina Johnson, Dessa Sadovnick, D Louis Collins, Douglas L Arnold, Bruno Gran, E Ann Yeh, Ruth Ann Marrie, Brenda Banwell, Amit Bar-Or
Elucidation of distinct T-cell subsets involved in multiple sclerosis immune-pathophysiology continues to be of considerable interest since an ultimate goal is to more selectively target the aberrant immune response operating in individual patients. While abnormalities of both effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells have been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis, prior studies have mostly assessed average abnormalities in either limb of the immune response, rather than both at the same time, which limits the ability to evaluate the balance between effectors and regulators operating in the same patient...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Fahad Al-Majid, Zahid Shakoor, Mazin Barry
Background and Objectives: Variations in immune reconstitution following antiretroviral treatment (ART) among HIV patients have previously been observed. This study aims at assessing immune reconstitution after successful ART among HIV-infected Saudi patients. Methods: This retrospective study of 240 HIV-infected patients was performed between May 2010 and June 2015 in the HIV center at King Saud Hospital, Riyadh. Data were extracted for CD4, CD8 cell, and CD3/HLA-DR counts along with the viral load from patient records before and after four years of successful ART...
2019: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Zebin Wang, Kaiming Sun, Yonghong Xiao, Bin Feng, Keith Mikule, XiaoYan Ma, Ningping Feng, Christopher P Vellano, Lorenzo Federico, Joseph R Marszalek, Gordon B Mills, Jeffrey Hanke, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Jing Wang
PARP inhibitors have been proven clinically efficacious in platinum-responsive ovarian cancer regardless of BRCA1/2 status and in breast cancers with germline BRCA1/2 mutation. However, resistance to PARP inhibitors may preexist or evolve during treatment in many cancer types and may be overcome by combining PARP inhibitors with other therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, which confer durable responses and are rapidly becoming the standard of care for multiple tumor types. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of combining niraparib, a highly selective PARP1/2 inhibitor, with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors in preclinical tumor models...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Anna Lysén, Ranveig Braathen, Arnar Gudjonsson, Demo Yemane Tesfaye, Bjarne Bogen, Even Fossum
Fusing antigens to chemokines to target antigen presenting cells (APC) is a promising method for enhancing immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. However, it is unclear how different chemokines compare in terms of immune potentiating effects. Here we compare Ccl3- and Xcl1-fusion vaccines containing hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) or intradermal (i.d.) DNA vaccination. Xcl1 fusion vaccines target cDC1s, and enhance proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro. In contrast, Ccl3 target both cDC1 and cDC2, but only enhance CD4+ T cell proliferation in combination with cDC2...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zhansheng Hu, Wen Gu, Yang Wei, Gang Liu, Shengli Wu, Tie Liu
Although natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are thought to be generated from CD4+ CD8+ (DP) thymocytes, the developmental origin of CD4- CD8- (DN) NKT cells has remained unclear. In this study, we found the level of NK1.1 expression was highest in DN cells, followed by CD4 and CD8 (SP) and DP cells. The level of NK1.1 expression was highest in CD44+ CD25- (DN1 ) cells, after that CD44+ CD25+ (DN2 ), finally, CD44- CD25- (DN3 ) and CD44- CD25+ (DN4 ) cells. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic CD3 was not only expressed in SP and DP thymocytes but also in most DN thymocytes at various stages...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Denis Migliorini, Valérie Dutoit, Mathilde Allard, Nicole Grandjean Hallez, Eliana Marinari, Valérie Widmer, Géraldine Philippin, Francesca Corlazzoli, Robin Gustave, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Nathalie Blazek, Joëlle Wasem, Andreas Hottinger, Avinash Koka, Shahan Momjian, Alexander Lobrinus, Doron Merkler, Maria-Isabel Vargas, Paul R Walker, Anna Patrikidou, Pierre-Yves Dietrich
Background: Peptide vaccines offer the opportunity to elicit glioma-specific T cells with tumor killing ability. Using antigens eluted from the surface of glioblastoma samples, we designed a phase I/II study to test safety and immunogenicity of the IMA950 multipeptide vaccine adjuvanted with poly-ICLC in HLA-A2 + glioma patients. Methods: Adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (n=16) and grade III astrocytoma (n=3) were treated with radiochemotherapy followed by IMA950/poly-ICLC vaccination...
February 12, 2019: Neuro-oncology
S Wojnicki, A Morris, B N Smith, C W Maddox, R N Dilger
An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, fecal bacterial counts, frequency of diarrhea, and clinical blood parameters in weanling pigs inoculated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) who were fed a whole yeast cell (WYC) product and capsicum, a plant essential oil. Weanling pigs (34 barrows and 30 gilts, 21 d of age, 5.90 ± 1.03 kg BW) were allotted to experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design based on litter, sex, and initial BW. Four pigs were individually housed within each containment chamber and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments, which included a control diet without or with 0...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Christoph M Griessinger, Andreas M Schmid, Dominik Sonanini, Barbara F Schörg, Mohamed Ali Jarboui, Daniel Bukala, Natalie Mucha, Birgit Fehrenbacher, Julia Steinhilber, Manuela Martella, Ursula Kohlhofer, Martin Schaller, Lars Zender, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Martin Röcken, Manfred Kneilling, Bernd J Pichler
Cancer treatment with adoptively transferred tumor-associated antigen-specific CD4+ T-helper cells is a promising immunotherapeutic approach. In the pancreatic cancer model RIP-Tag2, the intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Tag-specific TH1 cells exhibited a profound antitumoral efficiency. We investigated, whether an intravenous (i.v.) application of Tag-TH1 cells induces an equivalent therapeutic effect. Adoptively transferred fluorescent Tag-TH1 cells revealed a pronounced homing to the tumors after either i...
February 7, 2019: Carcinogenesis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"