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Tissue Heart Valve

Christian Nitsche, Andreas A Kammerlander, Klaus Knechtelsdorfer, Jakob A Kraiger, Georg Goliasch, Carolina Dona, Laurin Schachner, Begüm Öztürk, Christina Binder, Franz Duca, Stefan Aschauer, Daniel Zimpfer, Diana Bonderman, Christian Hengstenberg, Julia Mascherbauer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present long-term study was to assess the incidence and mode of valve hemodynamic deterioration (VHD) of bioprosthetic aortic valves, as well as associated factors. BACKGROUND: Modern definitions of bioprosthetic valve deterioration recommend the use of echocardiography for the assessment of transprosthetic gradients and valvular regurgitation. METHODS: A total of 466 consecutive patients (mean age 73.5 ± 7.5 years, 56...
March 8, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Amanda Leitolis, Paula Hansen Suss, João Gabriel Roderjan, Addeli Bez Batti Angulski, Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio, Alejandro Correa
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles released from different cell types and represent key components of paracrine secretion. Accumulating evidence supports the beneficial effects of EVs for tissue regeneration. In this study, discarded human heart tissues were used to isolate human heart-derived extracellular vesicles (hH-EVs). We used nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to physically characterize hH-EVs and mass spectrometry (MS) to profile the protein content in these particles...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christopher Noble, Joshua Choe, Susheil Uthamaraj, Milton Deherrera, Amir Lerman, Melissa Young
Commercially available heart valves have many limitations, such as a lack of re-modeling, risk of calcification and thromboembolic problems. Many state-of-the-art tissue engineered heart valves rely on recellularization. Current in vitro testing is insufficient in characterizing a soon to be living valve. It is imperative to understand the performance of an in situ valve, but due to the complex in vivo environment this is difficult to accomplish. Finite element analysis has become a standard tool for modeling mechanical behavior of heart valves; yet, research to date has mostly focused on commercial valves...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Stephanie Grainger, David Traver
How the products of transient hematopoiesis in the yolk sac, dorsal aorta, and developing heart tube function at their sites of production is poorly understood. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Shigeta et al. (2019) elegantly demonstrate that macrophages derived from the heart tube contribute to local tissue remodeling during valve development.
March 11, 2019: Developmental Cell
Chandan Sanghera, Lok Man Wong, Mona Panahi, Amalia Sintou, Muneer Hasham, Susanne Sattler
Patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases are at significant risk of cardiovascular complications. This can be due to systemically increased levels of inflammation leading to accelerated atherosclerosis, or due to direct damage to the tissues and cells of the heart. Cardiac complications include an increased risk of myocardial infarction, myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, valve disease, endothelial dysfunction, excessive fibrosis, and bona fide autoimmune-mediated tissue damage by autoantibodies or auto-reactive cells...
March 8, 2019: Disease Models & Mechanisms
David H Lam, Malak Itani, Danny Dvir
Bioprosthetic valve dysfunction was treated in the past with redo open heart surgery. The need to identify occult leaflet infection was not an important requirement as all valve tissue was removed during surgery. With the dramatic growth in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) valve-in-valve (ViV) therapy, identification of occult infection is of major significance. TAVR should be rarely performed in infected prosthetic valves and the optimal approach should include open heart surgery and removal of infected tissue...
March 11, 2019: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Norman Paul Briffa
The first aortic valve prosthesis, implanted more than 50 years ago, was a mechanical prosthesis (ball-and-cage design). Over the ensuing decades, tissue prostheses and new mechanical designs were introduced to mitigate the need for anticoagulation with its associated side effects. Tissue and mechanical heart valve prostheses were compared in two head-to-head randomised control trials. Both of these confirmed that mechanical prostheses were durable but patients suffered anticoagulant-related bleeds. Patients who received a tissue prosthesis were more likely to suffer prosthetic dysfunction and require reoperation...
March 2019: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Benjamin Smood, Hidetaka Hara, David Cleveland, David K C Cooper
BACKGROUND: Bioprosthetic heart valves undergo structural degeneration and calcification. Similarities exist in the histopathologic features of explanted bioprosthetic valves and rejected pig tissues and organs after xenotransplantation into nonhuman primates. The development of more durable bioprosthetic valves, namely from genetically-modified pigs, could negate the need for the insertion of mechanical prostheses in children and young adults with the requirement for life-long anticoagulation, and might avoid the need for reoperation in elderly patients...
March 2, 2019: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Vito Guarnieri, Silvia Morlino, Giuseppe Di Stolfo, Sandra Mastroianno, Tommaso Mazza, Marco Castori
Cardiac valvular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare EDS subtype, caused by specific recessive variants in the gene encoding pro-α2-chain of type I collagen (COL1A2). Cardiac valvular EDS is mainly characterized by generalized/peripheral joint hypermobility, moderate-severe cardiac valvular disease, skin hyperextensibility and other minor soft tissues features. Only five molecularly confirmed patients have been reported to date. Here, we describe two additional affected sisters, who share the homozygous c...
March 1, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Daniel L Hamilos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biofilm represents an organized structure of microorganisms within an extracellular matrix attached to a surface. While the importance of biofilm in prosthetic heart valve and catheter-related infections has been known since the 1980s, the role of mucosal biofilm in human disease pathogenesis has only recently been elucidated. It is now clear that mucosal biofilm is present in both healthy and pathologic states. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of mucosal biofilm in pediatric respiratory infections...
February 28, 2019: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Yasar Sattar, Tania Ruiz Maya, Fnu Zafrullah, Nirav B Patel, Sharaad Latchana
Cardiac amyloidosis is an acquired heart disease secondary to the deposition of β-pleated amyloid proteins in heart tissue. Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is usually secondary to multiple myeloma and can rapidly deteriorate cardiac function, with high mortality. Up to 50% of AL patients have cardiac involvement presenting as heart failure, conduction abnormalities, and cardiomyopathies. One of the rare presentations is the likely simulation of disease with hypertrophic cardiomyopathies like left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction due to the systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and irregular septal hypertrophy secondary to amyloid deposits...
December 18, 2018: Curēus
Till Joscha Demal, Melina Heise, Benedikt Reiz, Deepika Dogra, Ingrid Brænne, Hermann Reichenspurner, Jörg Männer, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Heribert Schunkert, Jeanette Erdmann, Salim Abdelilah-Seyfried
The genetics of many congenital heart diseases (CHDs) can only unsatisfactorily be explained by known chromosomal or Mendelian syndromes. Here, we present sequencing data of a family with a potentially multigenic origin of CHD. Twelve of nineteen family members carry a familial mutation [NM_004329.2:c.1328 G > A (p.R443H)] which encodes a predicted deleterious variant of BMPR1A. This mutation co-segregates with a linkage region on chromosome 1 that associates with the emergence of severe CHDs including Ebstein's anomaly, atrioventricular septal defect, and others...
February 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nubia Caroline Costa Almeida, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Sandra Souza Lima, Igor Brasil Costa, Marco Antonio Ayin Fossa, Antonio Carlos R Vallinoto, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the arterial walls, associated with genetic and infectious factors. The present study investigated the involvement of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections and immunological markers (C-reactive protein, CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in the process of atherosclerosis. The evaluation included 159 patients for surgical revascularization (CAD) and 71 patients for surgical heart valve disease (HVD) at three hospitals in Belém, Brazil...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Ayako Shigeta, Vincent Huang, Jonathan Zuo, Rana Besada, Yasuhiro Nakashima, Yan Lu, Yichen Ding, Matteo Pellegrini, Rajan P Kulkarni, Tzung Hsiai, Arjun Deb, Bin Zhou, Haruko Nakano, Atsushi Nakano
During mammalian embryogenesis, de novo hematopoiesis occurs transiently in multiple anatomical sites including the yolk sac, dorsal aorta, and heart tube. A long-unanswered question is whether these local transient hematopoietic mechanisms are essential for embryonic growth. Here, we show that endocardial hematopoiesis is critical for cardiac valve remodeling as a source of tissue macrophages. Colony formation assay from explanted heart tubes and genetic lineage tracing with the endocardial specific Nfatc1-Cre mouse revealed that hemogenic endocardium is a de novo source of tissue macrophages in the endocardial cushion, the primordium of the cardiac valves...
February 14, 2019: Developmental Cell
A Martel-Arquette, S S Tjostheim, J Miller, J Carlson, C Mans
A 4-year-old intact male mini lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented with a 2-week history of severe progressive lethargy. A right parasternal continuous heart murmur and an irregular rhythm were detected on physical examination. Echocardiography identified vegetative aortic and tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis. There was an aortocavitary fistula between the right sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricle, creating a left-to-right intracardiac shunt. Based on the echocardiographic findings, it was suspected that the infection originated in the aortic valve, eroded through the periannular tissue, and secondarily infected the TV...
February 2019: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Wei Yu, Xueyan Ma, Jinjin Xu, Andreas Wilhelm Heumüller, Zhaoliang Fei, Xue Feng, Xiaodong Wang, Kuo Liu, Jinhui Li, Guizhong Cui, Guangdun Peng, Hongbin Ji, Jinsong Li, Naihe Jing, Hai Song, Zhiqiang Lin, Yun Zhao, Zuoyun Wang, Bin Zhou, Lei Zhang
Heart valve disease is a major clinical problem worldwide. Cardiac valve development and homeostasis need to be precisely controlled. Hippo signaling is essential for organ development and tissue homeostasis, while its role in valve formation and morphology maintenance remains unknown. VGLL4 is a transcription cofactor in vertebrates and we found it was mainly expressed in valve interstitial cells at the post-EMT stage and was maintained till the adult stage. Tissue specific knockout of VGLL4 in different cell lineages revealed that only loss of VGLL4 in endothelial cell lineage led to valve malformation with expanded expression of YAP targets...
February 21, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Will Goth, Sam Potter, Alicia C B Allen, Janet Zoldan, Michael S Sacks, James W Tunnell
Collagen fibers are the primary structural elements that define many soft-tissue structure and mechanical function relationships, so that quantification of collagen organization is essential to many disciplines. Current tissue-level collagen fiber imaging techniques remain limited in their ability to quantify fiber organization at macroscopic spatial scales and multiple time points, especially in a non-contacting manner, requiring no modifications to the tissue, and in near real-time. Our group has previously developed polarized spatial frequency domain imaging (pSFDI), a reflectance imaging technique that rapidly and non-destructively quantifies planar collagen fiber orientation in superficial layers of soft tissues over large fields-of-view...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Rajat Vashistha, Prasoon Kumar, Arun Kumar Dangi, Naveen Sharma, Deepak Chhabra, Pratyoosh Shukla
Digitalization of health care practices is substantially manifesting itself as an effective tool to diagnose and rectify complex cardiovascular abnormalities. For cardiovascular abnormalities, precise non-invasive imaging interventions are being used to develop patient specific diagnosis and surgical planning. Concurrently, pre surgical 3D simulation and computational modeling are aiding in the effective surgery and understanding of valve biomechanics, respectively. Consequently, 3D printing of patient specific valves that can mimic the original one will become an effective outbreak for valvular problems...
2019: Journal of Biological Engineering
A Roosens, Y Handoyo, P Dubruel, H Declercq
A significant challenge in the field of tissue engineering is the biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues with direct applications in organ-on-a-chip systems and future organ engineering. Multi-cellular valvular microtissues can be used as building blocks for the formation of larger-scale valvular macrotissues. Yet, for the controlled biofabrication of 3D macrotissues with predefined complex shapes, directed assembly of microtissues through bioprinting is needed. This study aimed to investigate if modified gelatin is an instructive material for valvular microtissues...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
João Gabriel Roderjan, Lúcia de Noronha, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio, Alejandro Correa, Amanda Leitolis, Ronaldo Rocha Loures Bueno, Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa
Tissue-engineered heart valves aim to reproduce the biological properties of natural valves with anatomically correct structure and physiological performance. The closest alternative to creating an ideal heart valve substitute is to use decellularized porcine heart valves, due to their anatomy and availability. However, the immunological barrier and the structural maintenance limit the long-term physiological performance of decellularized porcine heart valves. This study investigated the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of aortic and pulmonary porcine valves decellularized by a low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based method in order to determine the ECM scaffold (ECMS) conditions related to remodeling potential...
February 16, 2019: Xenotransplantation
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