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In situ resource utilization

Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, F Javier Martín-Torres, María-Paz Zorzano
Several interpretations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) have related RSL to the potential presence of transient liquid water on Mars. Such probable signs of liquid water have implications for Mars exploration in terms of rover safety, planetary protection during rover operations, and the current habitability of the planet. Mawrth Vallis has always been a prime target to be considered for Mars rover missions due to its rich mineralogy. Most recently, Mawrth Vallis was one of the two final candidates selected by the European Space Agency as a landing site for the ExoMars 2020 mission...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Philipp Nieke, Jaroslaw Kita, Marc Häming, Ralf Moos
The Aerosol Deposition (AD, also known as gas kinetic spraying or vacuum deposition) method is a rather novel coating process to produce dense thick films directly from dry ceramic (or metal) powders on a variety of substrates without any heat treatment. Because of the similarity of the up to now used powders and lunar regolith, it is imaginable to use AD systems for future in situ resource utilization missions on the Moon planned by several space agencies. To test the feasibility of such an endeavor, the processability of lunar mare simulant EAC-1 by the AD method has been examined in this study...
February 5, 2019: Materials
Gao Chen, Weibang Sun
Plant diversity is currently being lost at an unprecedented rate, resulting in an associated decrease in ecosystem services. About a third of the world's vascular plant species face the threat of extinction due to a variety of devastating activities, including, over-harvesting and over exploitation, destructive agricultural and forestry practices, urbanization, environmental pollution, land-use changes, exotic invasive species, global climate change, and more. We therefore need to increase our efforts to develop integrative conservation approaches for plant species conservation...
August 2018: Plant Diversity
Shabnam Shaabani, Ruixue Xu, Maryam Ahmadianmoghaddam, Li Gao, Martin Stahorsky, Joe Olechno, Richard Ellson, Michael Kossenjans, Victoria Helan, Alexander Dömling
Automated, miniaturized and accelerated synthesis for efficient property optimization is a formidable challenge for chemistry in the 21st century as it helps to reduce resources and waste and can deliver products in shorter time frames. Here, we used for the first-time acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology and fast quality control to screen efficiency of synthetic reactions on a nanomole scale in an automated and miniaturized fashion. The interrupted Fischer indole combined with Ugi-type reactions yielded several attractive drug-like scaffolds...
January 21, 2019: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
Mu-Tan Luo, Chao Huang, Hai-Long Li, Hai-Jun Guo, Xue-Fang Chen, Lian Xiong, Xin-De Chen
Superabsorbent was synthesized from bacterial cellulose (BC) generated by in situ fermentation on bentonite inorganic gel (BIG). For BIG preparation, the effect of sodium agent's type and content, temperature and time of sodium-modification, and gelling agent's type and content on the viscosity of BIG were learned to optimize the synthesis process. For polymerization, the effect of different factors including ratio of monomer to substrate (modified BC from in situ fermentation), content of initiator and crosslinker, monomer neutralization degree, reaction temperature and time on the performance of composite (superabsorbent) synthesized were analyzed...
March 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Salinda Sandamal, Asanka Tennakoon, Qing-Lin Meng, Buddhi Marambe, Disna Ratnasekera, Arthur Melo, Song Ge
Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon and O. nivara in Sri Lanka were studied using 33 microsatellite markers. A total of 315 individuals of 11 natural populations collected from the wet, intermediate, and dry zones of the country were used in the study. We found a moderate to high level of genetic diversity at the population level, with the polymorphic loci ( P ) ranging from 60.6% to 100% (average 81.8%) and the expected heterozygosity ( H E ) varying from 0...
December 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maria Y Gonzalez, Stephan Weise, Yusheng Zhao, Norman Philipp, Daniel Arend, Andreas Börner, Markus Oppermann, Andreas Graner, Jochen C Reif, Albert W Schulthess
The scarce knowledge on phenotypic characterization restricts the usage of genetic diversity of plant genetic resources in research and breeding. We describe original and ready-to-use processed data for approximately 60% of ~22,000 barley accessions hosted at the Federal ex situ Genebank for Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Species. The dataset gathers records for three traits with agronomic relevance: flowering time, plant height and thousand grain weight. This information was collected for seven decades for winter and spring barley during the seed regeneration routine...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Data
Wen-Hao Li, Qiu-Li Ning, Xiao-Tong Xi, Bao-Hua Hou, Jin-Zhi Guo, Yang Yang, Bin Chen, Xing-Long Wu
Conventional ion batteries utilizing metallic ions as the single charge carriers are limited by the insufficient abundance of metal resources. Although supercapacitors apply both cations and anions to store energy through absorption and/or Faradic reactions occurring at the interfaces of the electrode/electrolyte, the inherent low energy density hinders its application. The graphite-cathode-based dual-ion battery possesses a higher energy density due to its high working potential of nearly 5 V. However, such a battery configuration suffers from severe electrolyte decomposition and exfoliation of the graphite cathode, rendering an inferior cycle life...
November 29, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sijie Li, Peng Ge, Feng Jiang, Christopher W Foster, Craig E Banks, Wei Xu, Yu Zhang, Wanwan Hong, Chenyang Zhang, Wei Sun, Jiugang Hu, Hongshuai Hou, Yuehua Hu, Xiaobo Ji
The transition-metal sulfide, CuS, is deemed a promising material for energy storage, mainly derived from its good chemisorption and conductivity, whilst serious capacity fading limits its advancement within reversible lithium storage. Learning from the gold extraction method utilizing a lime-sulfur-synthetic-solution, CuS@S hybrid utilizing CaSx as both the sulfur resource and reductant-oxidant is prepared, which is an efficient approach to apply the metallurgy for the preparation of electrode materials. Regulating the amount of CuCl2, the CuS@S is induced to reach a molecular-level hybrid...
November 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chao Liu, Hong Liang Huo, Lu Ming Tian, Xing Guang Dong, Dan Qi, Ying Zhang, Jia Yu Xu, Yu Fen Cao
To resovle the problems of in-situ conservation and resource utilization of Pyrus caller-yana, maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) and geographic information system (GIS) were used to predict the global ecological suitable region of P. calleryana in different climate scenarios based on 236 distribution data and 19 ecological factors. The results showed that the ecological suitable regions of P. calleryana were mainly concentrated in North America, Asia and other regions, with a total area of 1.6×107 km2 . In China, the regions with high ecological suitability were Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces...
November 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sidharth Totadri, Minu Singh, Amita Trehan, Neelam Varma, Prateek Bhatia
Philadelphia (Ph)-like or BCR-ABL like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is defined on the basis of a gene expression profile that is similar to Ph-positive ALL. It comprises a wide spectrum of genetic lesions affecting primarily the cytokine receptor and/or kinase signalling genes. It accounts for approximately 10-15% of pediatric ALL, and is more common in patients who are high-risk according to the National Cancer Institute criteria. Presence of Ph-like mutations is an independent predictor of poor outcome...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
N I Dzyubenko
N.I. Vavilov was among the first scientists who recognized the high potential value of plant genetic resources (PGR) for humankind. In addition to his fundamental work on the centers of crop origin, he emphasized the importance of collection and ex situ conservation of cultivated plants and their wild relatives, to make them available for breeding programs and for future generations. Vavilov's ideas formed a solid scientific basis for the long-term efforts on securing PGR in ex situ genebanks, both internationally and in Russia...
October 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
David Karl, Franz Kamutzki, Andrea Zocca, Oliver Goerke, Jens Guenster, Aleksander Gurlo
Here we demonstrate that by applying exclusively Martian resources a processing route involving suspensions of mineral particles called slurries or slips can be established for manufacturing ceramics on Mars. We developed water-based slurries without the use of additives that had a 51 wt. % solid load resembling commercial porcelain slurries in respect to the particle size distribution and rheological properties. These slurries were used to slip cast discs, rings and vases that were sintered at temperatures between 1000 and 1130 °C using different sintering schedules, the latter were set-up according the results of hot-stage microscopic characterization...
2018: PloS One
Stefania Marzario, Giuseppina Logozzo, Jacques L David, Pierluigi Spagnoletti Zeuli, Tania Gioia
In South Italy durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.) has a long-time tradition of growing and breeding. Accessions collected and now preserved ex situ are a valuable genetic resource, but their effective use in agriculture and breeding programs remains very low. In this study, a small number (44) of simple sequence repeats (SSR) molecular markers were used to detect pattern of diversity for 136 accessions collected in South Italy over time, to identify the genepool of origin, and establish similarities with 28 Italian varieties with known pedigree grown in Italy over the same time-period...
September 20, 2018: Genes
Hongwen Huang, Jingping Liao, Zheng Zhang, Qingqing Zhan
The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens...
December 2017: Plant Diversity
Qi Guo, Xiuyu Li, Shuhong Yang, Zhiheng Yang, Yuhan Sun, Jiangtao Zhang, Sen Cao, Li Dong, Saleem Uddin, Yun Li
Understanding the genetic diversity and differentiation of the genetic resources of a species is important for the effective use and protection of forest tree resources. Ex situ development is a common method for the protection of genetic diversity and an essential resource for users who require ready access to a species' germplasm. In this study, we collected seeds of black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia L.) from 19 provenances, covering most of its natural distribution; we randomly selected 367 tender leaves with well-grown and different maternal strains from this group for further analysis...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ritu Gupta, Gurvinder Kaur, Lalit Kumar, Lata Rani, Nitin Mathur, Atul Sharma, Meetu Dahiya, Varun Shekhar, Sadaf Khan, Anjali Mookerjee, Om Dutt Sharma
The recently introduced Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for multiple myeloma (MM) integrates albumin, β2 microglobulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with high-risk cytogenetic aberrations (CA), i.e., t(4;14) and t(14;16) and del17p using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We evaluated utility of nucleic acid-based tests of multiplex ligation-based probe amplification (MLPA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to define the CA and the R-ISS categories as per this approach were evaluated for their ability to predict outcome in terms of response, progression-free (PFS), and overall survival (OS)...
December 2018: Annals of Hematology
Shrikala Baliga, Christina Murphy, Leesha Sharon, Suchitra Shenoy, Dhanashree Biranthabail, Helena Weltman, Steve Miller, Ranjan Ramasamy, Jyotsna Shah
OBJECTIVE: In resource-limited tuberculosis-endemic countries, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum is mainly detected by acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining and the identification of sputum-derived cultures. PCR techniques are practical only in well-resourced laboratories. This study investigated the application of a rapid, simple, and inexpensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to identify and differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in sputum...
October 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Christopher B Dreyer, Angel Abbud-Madrid, Jared Atkinson, Alexander Lampe, Tasha Markley, Hunter Williams, Kara McDonough, Travis Canney, Joseph Haines
Many surfaces found on the Moon, asteroids, Mars, moons, and other planetary bodies are covered in a fine granular material known as regolith. Increased knowledge of the physical properties of extraterrestrial regolith surfaces will help advance the scientific knowledge of these bodies as well as the development of exploration (e.g., instrument and robotic) and in situ resource utilization (ISRU) systems. The Center for Space Resources at the Colorado School of Mines as part of the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute has developed a novel system, called the ISRU Experimental Probe (IEP) that can support studies of dry and icy regolith from -196 to 150 °C and pressure from laboratory ambient pressure to 10-7 Torr...
June 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Maria Y González, Norman Philipp, Albert W Schulthess, Stephan Weise, Yusheng Zhao, Andreas Börner, Markus Oppermann, Andreas Graner, Jochen C Reif
Key message Historical data generated during seed regeneration are valuable to populate a bio-digital resource center for barley (Hordeum sp.). Precise estimates of trait performance of genetic resources are considered as an intellectually challenging, complex, costly and time-consuming step needed to exploit the phenotypic and genetic diversity maintained in genebanks for breeding and research. Using barley (Hordeum sp.) as a model, we examine strategies to tap into historical data available from regeneration trials...
September 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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