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Space habitat

Christian Sonne, Hans Peter Hansen, Aage K O Alstrup, Kent Olsen, Trine Hammer Jensen, Lars Haugaard, Peter Sunde
Illegal wolf kills happens around in Europe despite the European wolf is protected under the EU Habitats Directive. The reason for this is conflicts with farmers and local hunters and in some instances also direct fear. In April 2018, a wolf was killed in Denmark after 1st recolonization since the 18th century. This caused a heated debate and calls for better communication and management of the Danish and entire European wolf population. Here we discuss the challenges of illegal wolf kills and call for European governments to take action...
February 12, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kristin E Sloyer, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena, Anni Yang, Joseph L Corn, Stacey L Vigil, Bethany L McGregor, Samantha M Wisely, Jason K Blackburn
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a viral arthropod-borne disease affecting wild and domestic ruminants, caused by infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). EHDV is transmitted to vertebrate animal hosts by biting midges in the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones is the only confirmed vector of EHDV in the United States but is considered rare in Florida and not sufficiently abundant to support EHDV transmission. This study used ecological niche modeling to map the potential geographical distributions and associated ecological variable space of four Culicoides species suspected of transmitting EHDV in Florida, including Culicoides insignis Lutz, Culicoides stellifer (Coquillett), Culicoides debilipalpis Hoffman and Culicoides venustus Lutz...
2019: PloS One
Johannes Signer, John Fieberg, Tal Avgar
Advances in tracking technology have led to an exponential increase in animal location data, greatly enhancing our ability to address interesting questions in movement ecology, but also presenting new challenges related to data management and analysis. Step-selection functions (SSFs) are commonly used to link environmental covariates to animal location data collected at fine temporal resolution. SSFs are estimated by comparing observed steps connecting successive animal locations to random steps, using a likelihood equivalent of a Cox proportional hazards model...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
James R Bell, Marc S Botham, Peter A Henrys, David I Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Chris R Shortall, Tom M Brereton, Jon Pickup, Stephen J Thackeray
Global warming has advanced the timing of biological events, potentially leading to disruption across trophic levels. The potential importance of phenological change as a driver of population trends has been suggested. To fully understand possible impacts, there is a need to quantify the scale of these changes spatially and according to habitat type. We studied the relationship between phenological trends, space and habitat type between 1965 to 2012 using an extensive UK dataset comprising 269 aphid, bird, butterfly and moth species...
February 14, 2019: Global Change Biology
Elsa C Anderson, Emily S Minor
Vacant lots are typically viewed as urban blight but are also green spaces that provide wildlife habitat and ecosystem services in urban landscapes. Vacant lot vegetation results from interacting biophysical and social forces, and studying vacant lot ecology is an opportunity to examine urban socio-environmental intersections. Here, we assess vegetation patterns in vacant lots across Chicago, IL (USA), and ask two questions: 1) How does diversity and structure vary, and 2) how do social and biophysical drivers contribute to this variation? We conducted vegetation surveys in 35 vacant lots in the summer of 2015...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Richard Karban, Eric LoPresti, Geerat J Vermeij, Robert Latta
Grasses are major agricultural products worldwide and they are critical to ecosystem function in many terrestrial habitats. Despite their global importance, we know relatively little about their defenses against herbivory. Grasses tend to be tolerant of leaf loss because their valuable meristems are located underground, out of reach for above ground herbivores. Many grasses have unidirectional leaf hairs, prickles, and spines that make moving up the leaf blade easy, but make moving down, toward the meristem, difficult...
February 13, 2019: Oecologia
Jonathan Dale, Andrew B Cundy, Kate L Spencer, Simon J Carr, Ian W Croudace, Heidi M Burgess, David J Nash
Managed realignment (MR) schemes are being implemented to compensate for the loss of intertidal saltmarsh habitats by breaching flood defences and inundating the formerly defended coastal hinterland. However, studies have shown that MR sites have lower biodiversity than anticipated, which has been linked with anoxia and poor drainage resulting from compaction and the collapse of sediment pore space caused by the site's former terrestrial land use. Despite this proposed link between biodiversity and soil structure, the evolution of the sediment sub-surface following site inundation has rarely been examined, particularly over the early stages of the terrestrial to marine or estuarine transition...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jean-Pierre de Vera, Mashal Alawi, Theresa Backhaus, Mickael Baqué, Daniela Billi, Ute Böttger, Thomas Berger, Maria Bohmeier, Charles Cockell, René Demets, Rosa de la Torre Noetzel, Howell Edwards, Andreas Elsaesser, Claudia Fagliarone, Annelie Fiedler, Bernard Foing, Frédéric Foucher, Jörg Fritz, Franziska Hanke, Thomas Herzog, Gerda Horneck, Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers, Björn Huwe, Jasmin Joshi, Natalia Kozyrovska, Martha Kruchten, Peter Lasch, Natuschka Lee, Stefan Leuko, Thomas Leya, Andreas Lorek, Jesús Martínez-Frías, Joachim Meessen, Sophie Moritz, Ralf Moeller, Karen Olsson-Francis, Silvano Onofri, Sieglinde Ott, Claudia Pacelli, Olga Podolich, Elke Rabbow, Günther Reitz, Petra Rettberg, Oleg Reva, Lynn Rothschild, Leo Garcia Sancho, Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Laura Selbmann, Paloma Serrano, Ulrich Szewzyk, Cyprien Verseux, Jennifer Wadsworth, Dirk Wagner, Frances Westall, David Wolter, Laura Zucconi
BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) is an ESA/Roscosmos space exposure experiment housed within the exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 outside the Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the multiuser facility supports-among others-the BIOMEX investigations into the stability and level of degradation of space-exposed biosignatures such as pigments, secondary metabolites, and cell surfaces in contact with a terrestrial and Mars analog mineral environment. In parallel, analysis on the viability of the investigated organisms has provided relevant data for evaluation of the habitability of Mars, for the limits of life, and for the likelihood of an interplanetary transfer of life (theory of lithopanspermia)...
February 2019: Astrobiology
Timothy J Bartley, Kevin S McCann, Carling Bieg, Kevin Cazelles, Monica Granados, Matthew M Guzzo, Andrew S MacDougall, Tyler D Tunney, Bailey C McMeans
Climate change is asymmetrically altering environmental conditions in space, from local to global scales, creating novel heterogeneity. Here, we argue that this novel heterogeneity will drive mobile generalist consumer species to rapidly respond through their behaviour in ways that broadly and predictably reorganize - or rewire - food webs. We use existing theory and data from diverse ecosystems to show that the rapid behavioural responses of generalists to climate change rewire food webs in two distinct and critical ways...
February 11, 2019: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Anna Cronin-de-Chavez, Shahid Islam, Rosemary R C McEachan
Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0-3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups...
February 5, 2019: Health & Place
Liang Wei, Chonggang Xu, Steven Jansen, Hang Zhou, Bradley O Christoffersen, William T Pockman, Richard S Middleton, John D Marshall, Nate G McDowell
Woody plants vary in their adaptations to drought and shade. For a better prediction of vegetation responses to drought and shade within dynamic global vegetation models, it is critical to group species into functional types with similar adaptations. One of the key challenges is that the adaptations are generally determined by a large number of plant traits that may not be available for a large number of species. In this study, we present two heuristic woody plant groups that were separated using cluster analysis in a three-dimensional trait-environment space based on three key metrics for each species: mean xylem embolism resistance, shade tolerance and habitat aridity...
January 31, 2019: Tree Physiology
Han Han, Wei Wei, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Xueping Ji, Li Yan, Zejun Zhang, Xiaoxue Shi, Lifeng Zhu, Yunbing Luo, Weicai Chen, Fuwen Wei
The ancestral panda Ailurarctos lufengensis, excavated from the late Miocene, is thought to be carnivorous or omnivorous [1]. Today, giant pandas exclusively consume bamboo and have distinctive tooth, skull, and muscle characteristics adapted to a tough and fibrous bamboo diet during their long evolution [1, 2]. A special feature, the pseudo-thumb, has evolved to permit the precise and efficient grasping of bamboo [3, 4]. Unlike those of extant pandas, little is known about the diet and habitat preferences of extinct pandas...
January 19, 2019: Current Biology: CB
Therese C Frauendorf, Richard A MacKenzie, Ralph W Tingley, Abby G Frazier, Michael H Riney, Rana W El-Sabaawi
Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns worldwide, which will affect streamflow in riverine ecosystems. It is vital to understand the impacts of projected flow variations, especially in tropical regions where the effects of climate change are expected to be one of the earliest to emerge. Space-for-time substitutions have been successful at predicting effects of climate change in terrestrial systems by using a spatial gradient to mimic the projected temporal change. However, concerns have been raised that the spatial variability of these models might not reflect the temporal variability...
February 3, 2019: Global Change Biology
Julie Gaubert, Claude E Payri, Christophe Vieira, Hiren Solanki, Olivier P Thomas
In the marine environment, macroalgae face changing environmental conditions and some species are known for their high capacity to adapt to the new factors of their ecological niche. Some macroalgal metabolites play diverse ecological functions and belong to the adaptive traits of such species. Because algal metabolites are involved in many processes that shape marine biodiversity, understanding their sources of variation and regulation is therefore of utmost relevance. This work aims at exploring the possible sources of metabolic variations with time and space of four common algal species from the genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) in the New Caledonian lagoon using a UHPLC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprinting approach...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Frederick C Draper, Gregory P Asner, Eurídice N Honorio Coronado, Timothy R Baker, Roosevelt García-Villacorta, Nigel C A Pitman, Paul V A Fine, Oliver L Phillips, Ricardo Zárate Gómez, Carlos A Amasifuén Guerra, Manuel Flores Arévalo, Rodolfo Vásquez Martínez, Roel J W Brienen, Abel Monteagudo-Mendoza, Luis A Torres Montenegro, Elvis Valderrama Sandoval, Katherine H Roucoux, Fredy R Ramírez Arévalo, Ítalo Mesones Acuy, Jhon Del Aguila Pasquel, Ximena Tagle Casapia, Gerardo Flores Llampazo, Massiel Corrales Medina, José Reyna Huaymacari, Christopher Baraloto
The forests of Western Amazonia are among the most diverse tree communities on Earth, yet this exceptional diversity is distributed highly unevenly within- and among communities. In particular, a small number of dominant species account for the majority of individuals while the large majority of species are locally and regionally extremely scarce. By definition, dominant species contribute little to local species richness (alpha diversity), yet the importance of dominant species in structuring patterns of spatial floristic turnover (beta diversity) has not been investigated...
January 29, 2019: Ecology
Katharina Bohley, Till Schröder, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Martha Ludwig, Gudrun Kadereit
Sesuvium sesuvioides (Sesuvioideae, Aizoaceae) is a perennial, salt-tolerant herb distributed in flats, depressions or disturbed habitats of southern Africa and the Cape Verdes. Based on carbon isotope values it is considered a C4 species, despite a relatively high ratio of mesophyll to bundle sheath cells (2.7:1) in the portulacelloid leaf anatomy. Using leaf anatomy, immunocytochemistry, gas exchange measurements and enzyme activity assays, we sought to identify the biochemical subtype of C4 photosynthesis used by S...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Afshin Beheshti, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Sungshin Choi, Daniel Berrios, Samrawit G Gebre, Jonathan M Galazka, Sylvain V Costes
Performing biological experiments in space requires special accommodations and procedures to ensure that these investigations are performed effectively and efficiently. Moreover, given the infrequency of these experiments it is imperative that their impacts be maximized. The rapid advancement of omics technologies offers an opportunity to dramatically increase the volume of data produced from precious spaceflight specimens. To capitalize on this, NASA has developed the GeneLab platform to provide unrestricted access to spaceflight omics data and encourage its widespread analysis...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John B Malone, Robert Bergquist, Moara Martins, Jeffrey C Luvall
The distribution of diseases caused by vector-borne viruses and parasites are restricted by the environmental requirements of their vectors, but also by the ambient temperature inside the host as it influences the speed of maturation of the infectious agent transferred. The launch of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite in 2015, and the new ECOSTRESS instrument onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2018, established the leadership of the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) in ecology and climate research by allowing the structural and functional classification of ecosystems that govern vector sustainability...
January 18, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Clara Ruiz-González, Ramiro Logares, Marta Sebastián, Mireia Mestre, Raquel Rodríguez-Martínez, Martí Galí, Maria Montserrat Sala, Silvia G Acinas, Carlos M Duarte, Josep M Gasol
Microbial taxa range from being ubiquitous and abundant across space to extremely rare and endemic, depending on their ecophysiology and on different processes acting locally or regionally. However, little is known about how cosmopolitan or rare taxa combine to constitute communities and whether environmental variations promote changes in their relative abundances. Here we identified the Spatial Abundance Distribution (SpAD) of individual prokaryotic taxa (16S rDNA-defined Operational Taxonomic Units, OTUs) across 108 globally-distributed surface ocean stations...
January 21, 2019: Molecular Ecology
Ara Monadjem, Adam Kane, Peter Taylor, Leigh R Richards, Grant Hall, Stephan Woodborne
Bats play important ecological roles in tropical systems, yet how these communities are structured is still poorly understood. Our study explores the structure of African bat communities using morphological characters to define the morphospace occupied by these bats and stable isotope analysis to define their dietary niche breadth. We compared two communities, one in rainforest (Liberia) and one in savannah (South Africa), and asked whether the greater richness in the rainforest was due to more species 'packing' into the same morphospace and trophic space than bats from the savannah, or some other arrangement...
December 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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