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Rifampicin resistant Tuberculosis

Collins Timire, Charles Sandy, Ajay Mv Kumar, Mkhokheli Ngwenya, Barbara Murwira, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Anthony D Harries
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients who accessed second-line drug susceptibility testing (SL-DST) results following introduction of the Hain technology in southern provinces, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: Cohort study using secondary data. RESULTS: Xpert MTB/RIF results were used to identify 133 RR-TB patients for this study. Their mean age (SD) was 37.9 (11.1) years, 83(62%) were males and 106 (80%) were HIV-infected...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Huseyin A Terzi, Ozlem Aydemir, Engin Karakece, Mehmet Koroglu, Mustafa Altindis
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) diagnosis and the detection of rifampicin resistance in pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical samples. METHODS: A total of 849 samples (611 pulmonary and 238 extrapulmonary), which were sent to the laboratory of our hospital on suspicion of MTB, were included in the study. The samples cultured on Lowenstein Jensen medium and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tubes...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
M H Phyu, K W Y Kyaw, Z Myint, A Thida, S Satyanarayana, S T Aung
Setting: Myanmar's National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) uses the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose rifampicin (RMP) resistance in sputum smear-positive (Sm+) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Xpert test may occasionally yield negative results (Xpert-) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, indicating a false-positive sputum smear result, false-negative Xpert result or infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Patients with NTM may respond poorly to first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Objective: To assess the burden of Sm+, Xpert- results at the national level and treatment outcomes of Sm+, Xpert- patients in Yangon Region...
December 21, 2018: Public Health Action
E E Win, A M V Kumar, N T T Kyaw, N N Aye, K M Hteik, S Saw, M M Oo, K W Y Kyaw, S T Aung, T L Tun
Setting: Ten selected microscopy centres in Sagaing Region, Myanmar, functioning under an external quality assurance system with no reported major errors. Objective: To assess the pattern of serial sputum results (NN, both smear-negative; NP, first smear-negative and second smear-positive; PN, first smear-positive and second smear-negative; and PP, both smear-positive) among follow-up sputum microscopy examinations of tuberculosis (TB) patients (end of intensive phase, mid-continuation phase and end of treatment) conducted from 1 November 2017 to 15 April 2018...
December 21, 2018: Public Health Action
André N H Bulabula, Jenna A Nelson, Eric M Musafiri, Rhoderick Machekano, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Andreas H Diacon, Maunank Shah, Jacob Creswell, Grant Theron, Robin M Warren, Karen R Jacobson, Jean-Paul Chirambiza, Dieudonné Kalumuna, Bertin C Bisimwa, Patrick D M C Katoto, Michel K Kaswa, Freddy M Birembano, Liliane Kitete, Martin P Grobusch, Zacharie M Kashongwe, Jean B Nachega
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) jeopardizes global TB control. The prevalence and predictors of Rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB, a proxy for MDR-TB, and the treatment outcomes with standard and shortened regimens have not been assessed in post-conflict regions, such as the South Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to fill this knowledge gap and to inform the DRC National TB Program. Methods: of adults and children evaluated for pulmonary TB by sputum smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) from February 2012 to June 2017...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Aryadne L de Almeida, Katiany R Caleffi-Ferracioli, Regiane B de L Scodro, Vanessa P Baldin, Débora C Montaholi, Luiza F Spricigo, Sandra S Nakamura-Vasconcelos, Laíse A Hegeto, Eloísa G Sampiron, Giovana F Costacurta, Diego A Dos S Yamazaki, Gisele de F Gauze, Vera Ld Siqueira, Rosilene F Cardoso
AIM:  To evaluate (i) the in vitro activity of eugenol (EUG) and three derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other bacteria, (ii) the EUG and antituberculosis drugs combinatory effect and (iii) the EUG and its derivatives cytotoxicity. MATERIALS & METHODS:  Minimum inhibitory concentration of the compounds were determined by resazurin microtiter or broth microdilution assay and the drug interaction between EUG and antituberculosis drugs by resazurin drug combination microtiter...
February 13, 2019: Future Microbiology
Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, Vanina Guernier, Graham Burgess, Daniel Pelowa, Robert Dowi, Bisato Gula, Munish Puri, William Pomat, Emma McBryde, David Plummer, Catherine Rush, Jeffrey Warner
Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), including drug-resistant TB (DR-TB). DR-TB has been identified in patients in Western Province, although there has been limited study outside the provincial capital of Daru. This study focuses on the Balimo region of Western Province, aiming to identify the proportion of DR-TB, and characterise Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug resistance-associated gene mutations. Sputum samples were investigated for MTB infection using published molecular methods...
February 10, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Dae Soon Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
OBJECTIVES: In the Republic of Korea (ROK), the notified incidence of tuberculosis in foreign-born individuals (NITFBI) has increased recently, as has the rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and rifampicin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis in foreigners staying in the ROK. As Jeju Province in ROK has a no-visa entry policy, control programs for NITFBI should be consolidated. The aim was to evaluate the status of NITFBI, with a focus on the distribution of MDR/RR tuberculosis by nationality. METHODS: Data on tuberculosis incidence in individuals born in Jeju Province and in foreign-born individuals were extracted from the Korean Statistical Information Service of Statistics Korea, and the Infectious Disease Surveillance Web Statistics of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively...
January 2019: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Michael Hohl, Sille Remm, Haig A Eskandarian, Michael Dal Molin, Fabian M Arnold, Lea M Hürlimann, Andri Krügel, Georg E Fantner, Peter Sander, Markus A Seeger
The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter Rv1410 and the lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411) are encoded by a conserved two-gene operon and contribute to virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rv1410 was originally postulated to function as a drug efflux pump, but recent studies suggested that Rv1410 and LprG work in concert to insert triacylglycerides (TAGs) and lipoarabinomannans (LAMs) into the outer membrane. Here, we conducted microscopic analyses of Mycobacterium smegmatis lacking the operon and observed a cell separation defect, while surface rigidity measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was found to be increased...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Microbiology
Tra-My Ngo, Yik-Ying Teo
BACKGROUND: It is possible to predict whether a tuberculosis (TB) patient will fail to respond to specific antibiotics by sequencing the genome of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and observing whether the pathogen carries specific mutations at drug-resistance sites. This advancement has led to the collation of TB databases such as PATRIC and ReSeqTB that possess both whole genome sequences and drug resistance phenotypes of infecting Mtb isolates. Bioinformatics tools have also been developed to predict drug resistance from whole genome sequencing (WGS) data...
February 8, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
Vanesa Andreu, Ane Larrea, Pablo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Salvador Alfaro, Begoña Gracia, Ainhoa Lucía, Laura Usón, Andromeda-Celeste Gomez, Gracia Mendoza, Alicia Lacoma, Jose Dominguez, Cristina Prat, Victor Sebastian, José Antonio Ainsa, Manuel Arruebo
AIM: Production of Matryoshka-type gastroresistant microparticles containing antibiotic-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The emulsification and evaporation methods were followed for the synthesis of PLGA-NPs and methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate-based coatings to protect rifampicin from degradation under simulated gastric conditions. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The inner antibiotic-loaded NPs here reported can be released under simulated intestinal conditions whereas their coating protects them from degradation under simulated gastric conditions...
February 8, 2019: Nanomedicine
N Sweetline Anne, B S M Ronald, T M A Senthil Kumar, A Thangavelu
This study was aimed out to explore the presence of drug resistance among M. tuberculosis and M. bovis isolates (n = 51) of bovine origin by conventional broth microdilution method and molecular methods. By broth microdilution method, 16 isolates were found to be resistant to isoniazid, 08 isolates were resistant to pyrazinamide, 09 isolates were resistant to rifampicin and 07 isolates were found to be resistant for ethambutol. Two isolates showed resistance to rifampicin and pyrazinamide, one isolate showed resistance to pyrazinamide and ethambutol and 03 isolates showed resistance to isoniazid and ethambutol...
January 2019: Tuberculosis
A Agarwal, C D S Katoch, M Kumar, T N Dhole, Y K Sharma
Background: Microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay has been suggested as a low cost method for rapid, accurate detection of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total of 2424 samples collected from 1063 eligible patients of suspected pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB were subjected to MODS assay. Performance of MODS was compared with culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) by conventional solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media or liquid Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture...
January 2019: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Andile H Ngwane, Ray-Dean Petersen, Bienyameen Baker, Ian Wiid, Ho Ning Wong, Richard K Haynes
The observations that the innate immune system employs copper to eliminate bacterial infection and that resistance to copper enhances virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) prompted us to examine the effects the anti-cancer agent elesclomol on Mtb. As a bis-thionohydrazide, elesclomol chelates with copper to form a copper complex in situ that via redox cycling of the metal ion greatly enhances oxidative stress in tumour cells. Here, we demonstrate that elesclomol is relatively potent against Mtb H37Rv with minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 μM (4 mg/L) and against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Mtb, displays additive interactions with known tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid and ethambutol, and a synergistic interaction with rifampicin...
January 14, 2019: IUBMB Life
Timothy M Walker, A Sarah Walker, Daniel J Wilson, Timothy E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, Farah Shamout, Tingting Zhu, David A Clifton
Motivation: Resistance co-occurrence within first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is a common phenomenon. Existing methods based on genetic data analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) have been able to predict resistance of MTB to individual drugs, but have not considered the resistance co-occurrence and cannot capture latent structure of genomic data that corresponds to lineages. Methods: We used a large cohort of TB patients from 16 countries across six continents where whole-genome sequences for each isolate and associated phenotype to anti-TB drugs were obtained using drug susceptibility testing recommended by the World Health Organization...
January 28, 2019: Bioinformatics
Krishna P Reddy, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Katherine L Fielding, Sydney Costantini, Amy Zheng, Elizabeth L Corbett, Liyang Yu, Joep J van Oosterhout, Stephen C Resch, Douglas P Wilson, C Robert Horsburgh, Robin Wood, Melanie Alufandika-Moyo, Jurgens A Peters, Kenneth A Freedberg, Stephen D Lawn, Rochelle P Walensky
BACKGROUND: Testing urine improves the number of tuberculosis diagnoses made among patients in hospital with HIV. In conjunction with the two-country randomised Rapid Urine-based Screening for Tuberculosis to Reduce AIDS-related Mortality in Hospitalised Patients in Africa (STAMP) trial, we used a microsimulation model to estimate the effects on clinical outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of adding urine-based tuberculosis screening to sputum screening for hospitalised patients with HIV...
February 2019: Lancet Global Health
Elisabeth Hodille, Audey Maisson, Laurine Charlet, Clyde Bauduin, Charlotte Genestet, Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Gérard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health concern, including in high-resource countries with a low prevalence of TB. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was developed to improve TB and rifampicin (RIF) resistance detection, but sensitivity remains poor on smear-negative sputum. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay was designed to enhance the sensitivity of TB detection in clinical samples. Herein, we evaluated retrospectively the performance of this test on smear-negative respiratory samples. Respiratory specimens with smear-negative and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex-positive culture were retrospectively selected from those taken from patients during routine care, and analysed in the Mycobacteria Laboratory of the Lyon University hospital, France...
January 24, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Ajay Kumar, Kiran Chawla
Background and Objectives: Despite high prevalence of MDR-TB in India very limited information about MDR-TB and mutation patterns in rpoB, inhA and katG genes among MDR-isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in south coastal Karnataka region is available; thus present study is an attempt to explore the extent of MDR-TB and mutation patterns prevalent among clinical isolates in this region using GenoType MTBDR plus assay. Materials and Methods: A total of 256 sputum samples from Pulmonary TB patients suspected of MDR-TB were tested by GenoType MTBDR plus as per manufacturer's guidelines for detection of mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Yuanbo Lan, Yuqin Li, Ling Chen, Jianyong Zhang, Hong Zhang
Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious diseases in the world, with an estimated 1.6 million deaths from TB in 2017. The objectives of this study were to determine drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates and to analyze the trends in drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from 2008 to 2015 at a major hospital in Guizhou, a high-TB burden and resource-limited province of China. Patients and methods: A total of 462 clinical isolates were collected from patients with pulmonary TB during the period from January 2013 to December 2015 and used for determining drug resistance profiles against four first-line and six second-line anti-TB drugs, and the results were compared with those of two previous studies...
2019: Infection and Drug Resistance
Vibol Iem, Anna Dean, Matteo Zignol, Phouvang Vongvichit, Donekham Inthavong, Souvimone Siphanthong, Theppouthone Sorsavanh, Sang Jae Kim, Soyoun Shin, Jacques Sebert, Phonenaly Chittamany
OBJECTIVE: To present results of the first national anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance survey conducted in Lao PDR between May 2016 and August 2017 to determine the prevalence of resistance to first-line anti-TB drugs among new and previously treated pulmonary TB cases in the country. METHODS: Patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from 42 TB laboratories distributed in 40 clusters throughout the country. Survey sites were selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling among all diagnostic centers in the country...
January 21, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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