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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761017/brown-and-brite-the-fat-soldiers-in-the-anti-obesity-fight
#1
REVIEW
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758973/low-intensity-exercise-delays-the-shivering-response-to-core-cooling
#2
Tomomi Fujimoto, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Kohei Dobashi, Yasuo Sengoku, Naoto Fujii, Takeshi Nishiyasu
Hypothermia can occur during aquatic exercise, despite production of significant amounts of heat by the active muscles. Because the characteristics of human thermoregulatory responses to cold during exercise have not been fully elucidated, we investigated the effect of low-intensity exercise on the shivering response to core cooling in cool water. Eight healthy young men (24±3 years) were cooled through cool water immersion while resting (rest trial) and during loadless pedaling on a water cycle ergometer (exercise trial)...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758876/developing-a-new-device-for-continuously-recording-in-vivo-the-excretion-rate-of-sweat-perspiration-in-humans
#3
Elisa Caberlotto, Carole Guillou, Loic Colomb, Charlie Barla, Samir Salah, Marco Vicic, Frederic Revol-Cavalier, Venceslass Rat, Sabine Filipe, Frederic Flament
BACKGROUND: Some methodologies used for evaluating sweat production and antiperspirants are of a stationary aspect, that is, most often performed under warm (38°C) but resting conditions in a rather short period of time. The aim is to develop an electronic sensor apt at continuously recording sweat excretion, in vivo, during physical exercises, exposure to differently heated environments, or any other stimuli that may provoke sweat excretion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sensor (20 cm2 ) is wrapped under a double-layered textile pad...
February 13, 2019: Skin Research and Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747377/is-heat-intolerance-state-or-trait
#4
Yuri Hosokawa, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
The existing literature suggests two standpoints in defining heat intolerance, which are heat tolerance as state or trait. The former bases its case in the plasticity of human physiology, where one may gain or lose the adaptations associated with heat acclimatization and the ability to tolerate heat is considered transient. This phenomenon is exemplified in the recovery process of exertional heat stroke (EHS) patients in that victims of EHS are able to eventually regain heat tolerance and return to activity without recurrent episodes of EHS...
February 11, 2019: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744654/rehydrating-efficacy-of-maple-water-after-exercise-induced-dehydration
#5
Alexs Matias, Monique Dudar, Josip Kauzlaric, Kimberly A Frederick, Shannon Fitzpatrick, Stephen J Ives
Dehydration impairs physiological function and physical performance, thus understanding effective rehydration strategies is paramount. Despite growing interest in natural rehydrating beverages, no study has examined maple water (MW). PURPOSE: To investigate the rehydrating efficacy of MW after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Using a single-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design, we compared the rehydrating efficacy of MW vs. maple-flavored bottled water (control) in 26 young healthy (22 ± 4 yrs...
February 11, 2019: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732967/-non-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-a-continuous-physiotherapy-program-versus-interval-in-overweight-patients-suffering-from-acute-coronary-syndrome
#6
Miryam Olivares Jara, Maria Isabel Vázquez Arce, Laura Peña Pachés, Catalina Roser Mas, Sofía Pérez-Alenda, Elena Marques-Sule
We present a non-randomised trial to evaluate a continuous physiotherapy program versus a periodic one in overweight patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome. AIM: To detect differences between a continuous (CONT) physiotherapy program (PF) and a periodic (INT) physiotherapy program in overweight patients with acute coronary syndrome on anthropometric parameters, analytical parameters, heart rate, adherence, drop-outs, safety and tolerance. DESIGN: A multicentre, non-randomised two-armed quasi-experimental study with pre-post design...
February 4, 2019: Atencion Primaria
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723746/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-ehsp72-and-extra-to-intracellular-hsp70-levels-in-mice-submitted-to-exercise-under-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter
#7
Iberê Machado Kostrycki, Guilherme Wildner, Yohanna Hannah Donato, Analú Bender Dos Santos, Lílian Corrêa Costa Beber, Matias Nunes Frizzo, Mirna Stela Ludwig, Kevin Noel Keane, Vinicius Cruzat, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden, Thiago Gomes Heck
Obesity, air pollution, and exercise induce alterations in the heat shock response (HSR), in both intracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (iHSP70) and the plasmatic extracellular form (eHSP72). Extra-to-intracellular HSP70 ratio (H-index = eHSP70/iHSP70 ratio) represents a candidate biomarker of subclinical health status. This study investigated the effects of moderate- and high-intensity exercise in the HSR and oxidative stress parameters, in obese mice exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ). Thirty-day-old male isogenic B6129 F2 /J mice were maintained for 16 weeks on standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD)...
2019: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719382/the-impact-of-weather-on-summer-and-winter-exercise-behaviors
#8
Abram L Wagner, Florian Keusch, Ting Yan, Philippa J Clarke
Background: Outdoor exercise is an enjoyable way for individuals to improve fitness, but it is dependent on weather conditions. This study examines the association between weather conditions and outdoor exercise after adjustment for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Methods: We used data representative of American adults from the University of Michigan/Thomson Reuters June 2013 surveys of consumers (core and supplement) to investigate self-reported exercise behavior in summer and winter...
January 2019: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30713666/inhalation-of-hydrogen-gas-elevates-urinary-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanine-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Masaaki Hirayama, Mikako Ito, Tomomi Minato, Asako Yoritaka, Tyler W LeBaron, Kinji Ohno
Hyposmia is one of the earliest and the most common symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The benefits of hydrogen water on motor deficits have been reported in animal PD models and PD patients, but the effects of hydrogen gas on PD patients have not been studied. We evaluated the effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on olfactory function, non-motor symptoms, activities of daily living, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) levels by a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with an 8-week washout period in 20 patients with PD...
October 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712161/strength-training-and-aerobic-exercise-alter-mitochondrial-parameters-in-brown-adipose-tissue-and-equally-reduce-body-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#10
Anand Thirupathi, Bruno Luiz da Silva Pieri, João Annibal Milano Peixoto Queiroz, Matheus Scarpatto Rodrigues, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Daniela Roxo de Souza, Thais Fernandes Luciano, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Claudio Teodoro De Souza
With aging, there is a reduction in mitochondrial activity, and several changes occur in the body composition, including increased adiposity. The dysfunction of mitochondrial activity causes changes and adaptations in tissue catabolic characteristics. Among them, we can mention brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT's main function is lipid oxidation for heat production, hence playing a role in adaptive thermogenesis induced by environmental factors such as exercise. It is known that exercise causes a series of metabolic changes, including loss body fat; however, there is still no consensus in the academic community about whether both strength and aerobic exercise equally reduces adiposity...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710649/experimental-and-numerical-investigation-on-inspiration-and-expiration-flows-in-a-three-generation-human-lung-airway-model-at-two-flow-rates
#11
Zhenshan Zhu, Chuhua Zhang, Li Zhang
The respiration flow pattern plays a key role in fluid flow, heat and mass transfer in human lung airway. To reveal the complex flow pattern within human lung multiple-generation airway, both the steady inspiration and expiration flows are comprehensively studied using laser Doppler velocimetry technique and computational fluid dynamics method for an idealized human tracheobronchial three-generation airway model at two flow rates, corresponding to an adult male breathing under light activity and moderate exercise conditions, respectively...
January 30, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707136/passive-heat-maintenance-after-an-initial-warm-up-improves-high-intensity-activity-during-an-interchange-rugby-league-movement-simulation-protocol
#12
Matthew Fairbank, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
Fairbank, M, Highton, J, Twist, C. Passive heat maintenance after an initial warm-up improves high-intensity activity during an interchange rugby league movement simulation protocol. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study examined using passive heat maintenance (PHM) to maintain core temperature after a warm-up and its effect on simulated first half running performance in rugby players. Thirteen male rugby players completed this randomized crossover study. Tympanic temperature was taken before a warm-up and then after a further 15 minutes of passive recovery either with (PHM) or without (CON) a PHM garment...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706039/neo6860-modality-selective-trpv1-antagonist-a-randomized-controlled-proof-of-concept-trial-in-patients-with-osteoarthritis-knee-pain
#13
Pierre Arsenault, Dan Chiche, William Brown, Jeffrey Miller, Roi Treister, Richard Leff, Philippe Walker, Nathaniel Katz
Introduction: NEO6860 is a TRPV1 antagonist when activated by capsaicin but not by heat or pH, developed to relieve pain without the adverse events reported with non-modality-selective TRPV1 antagonists. Objective: The primary Objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of NEO6860 after 1 day oral dosing in patients with Kellgren-Lawrence stage I, II or III osteoarthritis of the knee. Method: This randomized, double-blinded, 3-period crossover, phase II study compared 1 day (2 doses) of NEO6860 (500 mg twice a day), placebo, and naproxen in 54 patients with osteoarthritis knee pain...
November 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683561/corrigendum-to-exposure-to-high-solar-radiation-reduces-self-regulated-exercise-intensity-in-the-heat-outdoors-physiology-behavior-199-2019-191-199
#14
Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Heita Goto, Ronald J Maughan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676869/effect-of-heat-stress-on-vascular-outcomes-in-humans
#15
Jem L Cheng, Maureen J MacDonald
In addition to its role as an environmental stressor, recently, scientists have demonstrated the potential for heat to be a therapy for improving or mitigating declines in arterial health. Many studies at both ends of the scientific controls spectrum (tightly controlled, experimental vs. practical) have demonstrated the beneficial effects of heating on microvascular function (e.g., reactive hyperemia, cutaneous vascular conductance), endothelial function (e.g., flow-mediated dilation), and arterial stiffness (e...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676864/modulation-of-cardiac-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-with-regular-post-exercise-cold-water-immersion-of-rats
#16
Ramzi Ahmad Al-Horani, Bahaa Al-Trad, Saja Haifawi
Myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis and vascular angiogenesis biomarkers responses to post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is lacking. Therefore, to determine those cardiac adaptations, male adult Spargue-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: post-exercise CWI (CWI; n = 13), exercise only (Ex; n = 12), and untreated control (CON; n = 10). CWI and Ex were trained for 10 weeks, 5 sessions/week, 30-60 min/session. CWI rats were immersed after each session in cold water (15 min at ~12 °C). CON remained sedentary...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676138/special-environments-altitude-and-heat
#17
Philo U Saunders, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Robert F Chapman, Julien D Périard
High level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude which it still is today, however more often now elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try and improve sea-level performance...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30673300/editorial-focus-the-perils-of-rehydrating-with-soft-drinks-following-heat-and-exercise
#18
Laura Gabriela Sandez-Lozada, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Fernando Enrique García-Arroyo, Thomas Jensen, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671905/heat-hydration-and-the-human-brain-heart-and-skeletal-muscles
#19
REVIEW
Steven J Trangmar, José González-Alonso
People undertaking prolonged vigorous exercise experience substantial bodily fluid losses due to thermoregulatory sweating. If these fluid losses are not replaced, endurance capacity may be impaired in association with a myriad of alterations in physiological function, including hyperthermia, hyperventilation, cardiovascular strain with reductions in brain, skeletal muscle and skin blood perfusion, greater reliance on muscle glycogen and cellular metabolism, alterations in neural activity and, in some conditions, compromised muscle metabolism and aerobic capacity...
January 22, 2019: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670228/effects-of-dual-task-aquatic-exercises-on-functional-mobility-balance-and-gait-of-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial-with-a-3-month-follow-up
#20
Adriano Zanardi da Silva, Vera Lúcia Israel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of dual-task aquatic exercises on functional mobility, balance and gait of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). DESIGN: A randomized, single-blind trial was used. Twenty-eight (28) individuals met the inclusion criteria and were randomized in the Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). EG was subjected to a dual-task aquatic exercise program, twice a week for 10 weeks. Each session lasted 40 min, in a heated pool (33 °C)...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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