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Parkinson's disease and cognition

Marwa Zafarullah, Flora Tassone
Individuals carrying an FMR1 expansion between 55 and 200 CGG repeats, are at risk of developing the Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar gait ataxia, intentional tremor, neuropathy, parkinsonism, cognitive decline, and psychological disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In addition, brain atrophy, white matter disease, and hyperintensities of the middle cerebellar peduncles can also be present. The neuropathological distinct feature of FXTAS is represented by the presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in neurons and astrocytes throughout the brain and in other tissues...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonathan Vöglein, Katrina Paumier, Mathias Jucker, Oliver Preische, Eric McDade, Jason Hassenstab, Tammie L Benzinger, James M Noble, Sarah B Berman, Neill R Graff-Radford, Bernardino Ghetti, Martin R Farlow, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Stephen Salloway, Chengjie Xiong, Celeste M Karch, Nigel Cairns, Hiroshi Mori, Peter R Schofield, Colin L Masters, Alison Goate, Virginia Buckles, Nick Fox, Martin Rossor, Patricio Chrem, Ricardo Allegri, John M Ringman, Günter Höglinger, Harald Steiner, Marianne Dieterich, Christian Haass, Christoph Laske, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Adrian Danek, Johannes Levin
Owing to an early and marked deposition of amyloid-β in the basal ganglia, autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease could distinctly involve motor symptoms. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of motor signs in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Baseline Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part three scores (UPDRS-III) from 433 participants of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network observational study were analysed. Motor symptoms were scrutinized with respect to associations with mutation carrier status, mutation site within PSEN1, basal ganglia amyloid-β as measured by Pittsburgh compound B PET, estimated years to symptom onset and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes...
March 20, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
In Ki Cho, Bo Yang, Craig Forest, Lu Qian, Anthony W S Chan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating monogenic, dominant, hereditary, neurodegenerative disease. HD is caused by the expansion of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin (HTT) gene, IT15, resulting in an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) residue in the N-terminus of the HTT protein. HD is characterized by the accumulation of mutant HTT (mHTT) in neural and somatic cells. Progressive brain atrophy occurs initially in the striatum and extends to different brain regions with progressive decline in cognitive, behavioral and motor functions...
2019: PloS One
Marcus Heldmann, Sebastian Teichmann, Mohamed Al-Khaled, Norbert Brüggemann, Thomas F Münte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate automatic auditory-change detection in patients with Parkinson disease (pwPD). BACKGROUND: Previous results regarding changes in preattentive processing in pwPD have been inconclusive. METHODS: We employed a paradigm assessing the preattentive processing of sequences of auditory tones containing deviants at either the local or global level, or at both levels. Twenty pwPD and 20 age-matched healthy controls were exposed to the tone series while they performed a visual task and had their event-related potentials recorded by electroencephalogram...
March 2019: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Katrina L Raein, Samia Ortiz-Hernández, Jared F Benge
OBJECTIVE: To report how people with Parkinson disease (pwPD) and their care partners (CPs) describe the cognitive impacts of the disease, explore the convergent validity of subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) with measures of cognition and daily functioning, and report the cognitive treatment priorities of pwPD and their CPs. BACKGROUND: Cognitive symptoms in pwPD are common and disabling. Although objective cognitive impairments have been closely studied, SCCs are less well understood...
March 2019: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Rupert McShane, Maggie J Westby, Emmert Roberts, Neda Minakaran, Lon Schneider, Lucy E Farrimond, Nicola Maayan, Jennifer Ware, Jean Debarros
BACKGROUND: Memantine is a moderate affinity uncompetitive antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptors. It is licensed for use in moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD); in the USA, it is also widely used off-label for mild AD. OBJECTIVES: To determine efficacy and safety of memantine for people with dementia. To assess whether memantine adds benefit for people already taking cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs). SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's register of trials (http://www...
March 20, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
HeidiR Tucker, Emily Mahoney, Ashok Chhetri, Kristen Unger, Gianna Mamone, Gabrielle Kim, Aliyah Audil, Benjamin Moolick, Eric S Molho, Julie G Pilitsis, Damian S Shin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with affected individuals exhibiting motor symptoms of bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, tremor, postural instability and gait dysfunction. The current gold standard treatment is pharmacotherapy with levodopa, but long-term use is associated with motor response fluctuations and can cause abnormal movements called dyskinesias. An alternative treatment option is deep brain stimulation (DBS) with the two FDA-approved brain targets for PD situated in the basal ganglia; specifically, in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi)...
March 16, 2019: Experimental Neurology
James M Shine, Peter T Bell, Elie Matar, Russell A Poldrack, Simon J G Lewis, Glenda M Halliday, Claire O'Callaghan
Parkinson's disease is primarily characterized by diminished dopaminergic function; however, the impact of these impairments on large-scale brain dynamics remains unclear. It has been difficult to disentangle the direct effects of Parkinson's disease from compensatory changes that reconfigure the functional signature of the whole brain network. To examine the causal role of dopamine depletion in network-level topology, we investigated time-varying network structure in 37 individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, both ON and OFF dopamine replacement therapy, along with 50 age-matched, healthy control subjects using resting state functional MRI...
March 18, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Tahir Muhammad, Muhammad Ikram, Rahat Ullah, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Myeong Ok Kim
Glial activation and neuroinflammation play significant roles in apoptosis as well as in the development of cognitive and memory deficits. Neuroinflammation is also a critical feature in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Previously, hesperetin has been shown to be an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In the present study, in vivo and in vitro analyses were performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of hesperetin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal apoptosis and memory impairments...
March 17, 2019: Nutrients
Biswanath Dinda, Manikarna Dinda, Goutam Kulsi, Ankita Chakraborty, Subhajit Dinda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest...
March 8, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Eun Jin Yoon, Jee Young Lee, Hyunwoo Nam, Han Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Jae Min Jeong, Yu Kyeong Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To identify a metabolic network reflecting neurodegeneration in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). METHODS: We recruited a prospective cohort comprising patients with de novo Parkinson's disease (PD) with probable REM sleep behavior disorder (PDRBD, n =21), polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients ( n =28), and age-matched healthy controls (HC) ( n =24). PDRBD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRBD-RP) were determined from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET images of the PDRBD group and validated by reproduction in a separate PD cohort with polysomnography-confirmed REM sleep behavior disorder ( n =11)...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Poonam Zham, Dinesh Kumar, Rekha Viswanthan, Kit Wong, Kanae J Nagao, Sridhar Poosapadi Arjunan, Sanjay Raghav, Peter Kempster
Levodopa treatment does improve Parkinson's disease (PD) dysgraphia, but previous research is not in agreement about which aspects are most responsive. This study investigated the effect of levodopa on the kinematics of writing. Twenty-four patients with PD of less than 10 years duration and 25 age-matched controls were recruited. A practically defined off state method was used to assess the levodopa motor response, measured on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III. The kinematic features for six handwriting tasks involving different levels of complexity were recorded from PD patients in off and on states and from the control group...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Elan D Louis, Jillian L Joyce, Stephanie Cosentino
INTRODUCTION: Although the hallmark feature of essential tremor (ET) is tremor, there is growing appreciation that cognitive impairment also occurs, including increased prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and increased prevalence and incidence of dementia. With emerging knowledge of ET-cognitive impairment, come fundamental questions regarding its course, bases, predictors and clinical outcomes. Studies in the general population and in Parkinson's disease (PD), a related movement disorder, offer a starting point from which to begin filling these clinically important knowledge gaps...
March 1, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Caterina Pauletti, Daniela Mannarelli, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Antonio Currà, Lucio Marinelli, Francesco Fattapposta
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether central fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the presence of a more severe selective cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty-four PD patients without fatigue-PDnF, 11 with fatigue-PDF and 32 healthy volunteers underwent a P300 novelty task that elicits both the P3a and the P3b components. RESULTS: P3b latency was significantly longer in both PDF and PDnF than in controls. P3b amplitudes were comparable between groups...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Elisa Pelosin, Cecilia Cerulli, Carla Ogliastro, Giovanna Lagravinese, Laura Mori, Gaia Bonassi, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Roberta Marchese, Laura Avanzino
BACKGROUND: Falls are frequent in Parkinson's disease and ageing. Impairments in the cholinergic-mediated attentional supervision of gait may contribute to increased fall risk, especially when obstacles challenge gait. Interventions combining motor-cognitive approaches have been shown to improve motor performance, cognitive skills and falls number. Here, we hypothesized that an intervention simulating an attention-demanding walking condition could impact not only complex gait performance and fall risk but also short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), as a marker of cholinergic activity...
March 15, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Yu Guo, Wei Xu, Feng-Tao Liu, Jie-Qiong Li, Xi-Peng Cao, Lan Tan, Jian Wang, Jin-Tai Yu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common and devastating manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to identify modifiable risk factors for PD with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library from June 1937 to September 2018 and included prospective cohort studies with random-effects model used to combine estimates. Primary analyses for all types of cognitive impairments and subgroup analyses for separate outcomes were conducted...
March 14, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Chloé Laurencin, Teodor Danaila, Stéphane Thobois
Parkinson's disease treatment: from honey moon to motor fluctuations. The treatment of Parkinson's disease remains symptomatic but allows, for many years, a good control of motor and non-motor signs. This treatment is complex and has to deal with very heterogeneous motor and non-motor presentation. Initial treatment is started once disability occurs and is mainly based either on levodopa or dopamine agonists. When motor fluctuations start, the principle of treatment is to optimize levodopa intake and combine various drugs depending on the clinical presentation...
May 2018: La Revue du Praticien
Sarah Irfan, Mubassar Fida, Attiya Shaikh
BACKGROUND: Most of the orthodontic cases require a long period of retention which is usually carried out with the help of fixed retainers (FR). One of the downsides of FR is that these are prone to breakages. The aim of the present study was to identify the frequency and factors associated with failure of fixed spiral wire retainers.. METHODS: A retrospective crosssectional study was conducted using orthodontic files and dental casts of 126 patients from dental clinics of a tertiary care hospital...
January 2019: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Amara Gul, Javed Yousaf
BACKGROUND: In recent years, alexithymia has gained attention of medical researchers as a prognostic factor for serious health problems. The present study aimed to assess alexithymia as a determinant of cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease.. AIM: The aim of our study is to assess the pain relief after CPN, reduction in analgesics consumption and evaluation of patient satisfaction post procedure. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (n=60) at Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Civil Hospital Bahawalpur and Nishter Hospital Multan during May 2016 until June 2017 participated in the study...
January 2019: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Mei-Ling Yao, Hong Zhang, Yan Xu, Sheng-Ming Zhang, Yong-Zhe Gao, Min Shu, Jun-Jian Zhang
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and they are likely to outweigh the motor symptoms and become a major factor affecting the quality of life of PD patients. However, the studies focusing on the non-motor symptoms in Chinese PD patients from different ethnicity are scarce. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients from Han and Hui populations from central China. Seventy-two Han Chinese PD patients (Han PD group) and 71 age-and sex-matched Hui Chinese PD patients (Hui PD group) were enrolled from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between Sept...
February 2019: Current Medical Science
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