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animal model pigment

I Made Oka Adnyana, Raka Sudewi, Purwa Samatra, Suprapta Suprapta
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke occurs due to the abrupt occlusion in the brain which leads to neuronal death. Neuronal death in ischemic stroke is due to increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neuronal death occurs via necrosis and apoptosis mechanisms. Apoptosis can either occur via extrinsic or intrinsic pathway. Meanwhile, the intrinsic pathway can be caspase-dependent or independent. Anthocyanin is a natural pigment with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties...
January 15, 2019: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Luciana Migliore, Nicoletta Perini, Fulvio Mercuri, Silvia Orlanducci, Alessandro Rubechini, Maria Cristina Thaller
The preservation of cultural heritage is one of the major challenges of today's society. Parchments, a semi-solid matrix of collagen produced from animal skin, are a significant part of the cultural heritage, being used as writing material since ancient times. Due to their animal origin, parchments easily undergo biodeterioration: the most common biological damage is characterized by isolated or coalescent purple spots, that often lead to the detachment of the superficial layer and the consequent loss of written content...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Carlijn R Hooijmans, Martin Hlavica, Florian A F Schuler, Nicolas Good, Andrin Good, Lisa Baumgartner, Gianluca Galeno, Marc P Schneider, Tarzis Jung, Rob de Vries, Benjamin V Ineichen
An unmet but urgent medical need is the development of myelin repair promoting therapies for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Many such therapies have been pre-clinically tested using different models of toxic demyelination such as cuprizone, ethidium bromide, or lysolecithin and some of the therapies already entered clinical trials. However, keeping track on all these possible new therapies and their efficacy has become difficult with the increasing number of studies. In this study, we aimed at summarizing the current evidence on such therapies through a systematic review and at providing an estimate of the effects of tested interventions by a meta-analysis...
January 29, 2019: Scientific Reports
Thierry Léveillard, Laurence Klipfel
The transplantation of retinal cells has been studied in animals to establish proof of its potential benefit for the treatment of blinding diseases. Photoreceptor precursors have been grafted in animal models of Mendelian-inherited retinal degenerations, and retinal pigmented epithelial cells have been used to restore visual function in animal models of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and recently in patients. Cell therapy over corrective gene therapy in inherited retinal degeneration can overcome the genetic heterogeneity by providing one treatment for all genetic forms of the diseases...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Reiko Tanabu, Kota Sato, Natsuki Monai, Kodai Yamauchi, Takayuki Gonome, Yuting Xie, Shizuka Takahashi, Sei-Ichi Ishiguro, Mitsuru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: Mutations of the gene encoding RPE65 cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly utilized to noninvasively evaluate various types of retinal diseases, including RP. The present study was conducted to characterize the OCT findings of the RPE65-/- mice-an animal model of LCA and RP-in relation to the morphological features based on histological and electron microscopic findings as well as electroretinography (ERG) features...
2019: PloS One
D F Nóbrega, V F Sehaber, R Madureira, A P F R L Bracarense
Haemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a malignant tumour of vascular endothelial cells. It is common in dogs, but rare in other species, and may arise in any tissue. A dermal location of canine HSA has been associated with short survival and recurrence after surgical excision. Solar radiation has been proposed as a predisposing factor in shorthaired dogs with light skin pigmentation. There are no studies relating the expression of immunohistochemical markers to survival of dogs with cutaneous haemangiosarcoma (cHSA). Such data could contribute to establishing prognostic factors and new therapies based on the expression of target molecules...
January 2019: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Yuan Lu, William Boswell, Mikki Boswell, Barbara Klotz, Susanne Kneitz, Janine Regneri, Markita Savage, Cristina Mendoza, John Postlethwait, Wesley C Warren, Manfred Schartl, Ronald B Walter
Cell culture and protein target-based compound screening strategies, though broadly utilized in selecting candidate compounds, often fail to eliminate candidate compounds with non-target effects and/or safety concerns until late in the drug developmental process. Phenotype screening using intact research animals is attractive because it can help identify small molecule candidate compounds that have a high probability of proceeding to clinical use. Most FDA approved, first-in-class small molecules were identified from phenotypic screening...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Tina Storm, Thomas Burgoyne, Joshua L Dunaief, Erik I Christensen, Clare Futter, Rikke Nielsen
Purpose: Mutations in the megalin-encoding gene, LRP2, cause high myopia as seen in patients suffering from Donnai-Barrow/facio-oculo-acoustico-renal syndrome. Megalin is present in both the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body and in the RPE. In this study, we set out to establish an animal model to study the mechanisms underlying the ocular phenotype and to establish if high myopia/megaophthalmos is induced by postnatal megalin-deficiency in the RPE. Methods: Postnatal RPE-specific deletion of megalin was generated by crossing mice bearing a homozygous loxP-flanked Lrp2 allele with transgenic mice expressing the Cre recombinase driven by the BEST1 promotor...
January 2, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Markus Böhm, Thomas Luger
Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process divided into different phases, i. e. an inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phase. During these phases a variety of resident skin cell types but also cells of the immune system orchestrate the healing process. In the last year it has been shown that the majority of cutaneous cell types express the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) that binds α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) with high affinity and elicits pleiotropic biological effects, e. g. modulation of inflammation and immune responses, cytoprotection, antioxidative defence, and collagen turnover...
January 20, 2019: Experimental Dermatology
Henrik Barth, Sven Crafoord, Karin Arnér, Fredrik Ghosh
PURPOSE: To investigate the inflammatory response of current and future potential vitreous substitutes in an experimental in vivo vitrectomy model. METHODS: Twenty-five gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed in the right eye of 60 pigmented rabbits, with subsequent injection of 0.5-1.0 ml of Healaflow® (cross-linked hyaluronic acid, n = 12), Bio-Alcamid® (polyalkylimide, n = 8), silicone oil (n = 12), or balanced saline solution (BSS, n = 28)...
January 17, 2019: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Naphtali Savion, Samia Dahamshi, Milana Morein, Shlomo Kotev-Emeth
The capacity of S -Allylmercapto- N -acetylcysteine (ASSNAC) to protect human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (line ARPE-19) and porcine lenses from oxidative stress was studied. Confluent ARPE-19 cultures were incubated with ASSNAC or N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC) followed by exposure to oxidants and glutathione level and cell survival were determined. Porcine lenses were incubated with ASSNAC and then exposed to H₂O₂ followed by lens opacity measurement and determination of glutathione (reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG)) in isolated lens adhering epithelial cells (lens capsule) and fiber cells consisting the lens cortex and nucleus (lens core)...
January 16, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Adi Tzameret, Hadas Ketter-Katz, Victoria Edelshtain, Ifat Sher, Enav Corem-Salkmon, Itay Levy, David Last, David Guez, Yael Mardor, Shlomo Margel, Ygal Rotenstrich
BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration diseases affect millions of patients worldwide and lead to incurable vision loss. These diseases are caused by pathologies in the retina and underlying choroid, located in the back of the eye. One of the major challenges in the development of treatments for these blinding diseases is the safe and efficient delivery of therapeutics into the back of the eye. Previous studies demonstrated that narrow size distribution core-shell near infra-red fluorescent iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) coated with human serum albumin (HSA, IO/HSA NPs) increase the half-life of conjugated therapeutic factors, suggesting they may be used for sustained release of therapeutics...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Ana Artero-Castro, Stepan Popelka, Pavla Jendelova, Jan Motlik, Taras Ardan, Francisco Javier Rodriguez Jimenez, Slaven Erceg
Combinatory strategies using pharmacology and stem cell therapy have emerged due to their potential in the treatment of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell related diseases, and a variety of different stem cell sources have been evaluated both in animal models and in humans. RPE cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) are already in clinical trials, holding great promise for the treatment of age-related macular disease (AMD) and hereditary RPE-related retinal dystrophies...
January 8, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Feng Li, Jarrett D Cain, Joyce Tombran-Tink, Christopher Niyibizi
Mutations in Serpinf1 gene which encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) lead to osteogenesis imperfecta type VI whose hallmark is defective matrix mineralization. We reported previously that PEDF reduced expression and synthesis of Sost/Sclerostin as well as other osteocytes genes encoding proteins that regulate matrix mineralization [1]. To determine whether PEDF had an effect on osteocyte gene expression in bone, we used bone explant cultures. First, osteocytes were isolated from surgical waste of bone fragments obtained from patients undergoing elective foot surgeries under approved IRB protocol by Penn State College of Medicine IRB committee...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Cheng-Ping Shih, Hsin-Chien Chen, Yi-Chun Lin, Hang-Kang Chen, Hao Wang, Chao-Yin Kuo, Yuan-Yung Lin, Chih-Hung Wang
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we expanded our previous investigation by testing the efficiency of trans-round window membrane dexamethasone (DEX) delivery mediated by ultrasound (US)-aided microbubbles (MBs) and its preventive effects regarding noise exposure in animal models. STUDY DESIGN: Live animal model. METHODS: Forty-two pigmented male guinea pigs were divided into the following three groups: an US-MBs (USM) group, in which the tympanic bulla was filled with DEX and MBs and exposed to US; a round window soaking (RWS) group, without the US irradiation; and a control group...
December 27, 2018: Laryngoscope
Irina Danilova, Svetlana Medvedeva, Svetlana Shmakova, Margarita Chereshneva, Alexey Sarapultsev, Petr Sarapultsev
AIM: To investigate the temporal sequence of pathological changes in the cellular structures of retina and choroidea in the early stages of diabetes in laboratory animals. METHODS: Experimental type 1 diabetes was modeled by three intraperitoneal injections of an alloxan solution into 30 male nonlinear rats at 16 wk of age. The 30th and 60th days from the final alloxan injection were chosen as the endpoints. Light and electron microscopy and morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed on histological slices of eyeballs from experimental animals...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
Adrian A Lahola-Chomiak, Tim Footz, Kim Nguyen-Phuoc, Gavin J Neil, Baojian Fan, Keri F Allen, David S Greenfield, Richard K Parrish, Kevin Linkroum, Louis R Pasquale, Ralf M Leonhardt, Robert Ritch, Shari Javadiyan, Jamie E Craig, W Ted Allison, Ordan J Lehmann, Michael A Walter, Janey L Wiggs
Pigmentary Glaucoma (PG) is a common glaucoma subtype that results from release of pigment from the iris, called Pigment Dispersion Syndrome (PDS), and its deposition throughout the anterior chamber of the eye. Although PG has a substantial heritable component, no causative genes have yet been identified. We used Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) of two independent pedigrees to identify two PMEL variants associated with heritable PDS/PG. PMEL (premelanosome protein) encodes a key component of the melanosome, the organelle essential for melanin synthesis, storage, and transport...
December 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Asuncion Martinez-Anton, Delphine Gras, Arnaud Bourdin, Patrice Dubreuil, Pascal Chanez
KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase that after binding to its ligand stem cell factor activates signaling cascades linked to biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell survival. Based on studies performed on SCF and/or KIT mutant animals that presented anemia, sterility, and/or pigmentation disorders, KIT signaling was mainly considered to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanogenesis. More recently, novel animal models and ameliorated cellular and molecular techniques have led to the discovery of a widen repertoire of tissue compartments and functions that are being modulated by KIT...
December 14, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Daphne Soares, Matthew L Niemiller
Cave adaptation leads to unique anatomical specializations in many taxonomic groups. As the role of vision is reduced or disappears in a subterranean environment, other specializations arise to allow the organism to successfully detect and interact with their environment. A suite of unique, convergent phenotypes associated with subterranean adaptation has emerged (termed troglomorphy), with reduction or loss of pigmentation and eyes being the most conspicuous. Two vertebrate groups that have successfully colonized and adapted to subterranean environments are cavefishes and cave salamanders...
December 11, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Anil Chekuri, Bhubanananda Sahu, Venkata R M Chavali, Marina Voronchikhina, Angel-Soto Hermida, John J Suk, Akhila N Alapati, Dirk-Uwe Bartsch, Raul Ayala-Ramirez, Juan C Zenteno, Astra Dinculescu, Monica M Jablonski, Shyamanga Borooah, Radha Ayyagari
Patients harboring homozygous c.498_499insC mutations in MFRP demonstrate hyperopia, microphthalmia, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy, variable degrees of foveal edema and optic disc drusen. The disease phenotype is variable however, with some patients maintaining good central vision and cone function till late in the disease. We developed a knock-in mouse model with the c.498_499insC mutation in Mfrp (Mfrp KI/KI) to understand the effects of these mutations in the retina. Our model shares many of the features of human clinical disease including reduced axial length, hyperopia, retinal degeneration, RPE atrophy and decreased electrophysiological responses...
November 30, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
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