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Sven Knoth, Philipp Wittenberg, Fah Fatt Gan
In recent years, quality control charts have been increasingly applied in the healthcare environment, for example, to monitor surgical performance. Risk-adjusted cumulative (CUSUM) charts that utilize risk scores like the Parsonnet score to estimate the probability of death of a patient from an operation turn out to be susceptible to misfitted risk models causing deterioration of the charts' properties, in particular, the false alarm behavior. Our approach considers the application of power transformations in the logistic regression model to improve the fit to the binary outcome data...
February 5, 2019: Statistics in Medicine
Minkyo Song, Charles S Rabkin, Javier Torres, Troy J Kemp, Jovanny Zabaleta, Ligia A Pinto, Allan Hildesheim, Luz Sánchez-Figueroa, Jeannette Guarner, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Julie Parsonnet, M Constanza Camargo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric mucosal inflammation as an important antecedent of gastric cancer. We aimed to evaluate associations of blood markers of inflammation with gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in H. pylori-infected individuals. METHODS: We compared pre-treatment serum levels of immune- and inflammation-related markers between 99 individuals with intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia, and 75 control individuals with non-atrophic gastritis within an H...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Leslie W Glustrom, Kenneth R Lyon, Margherita Paschini, Cynthia M Reyes, Nicholas V Parsonnet, Tasha B Toro, Victoria Lundblad, Deborah S Wuttke
ssDNA, which is involved in numerous aspects of chromosome biology, is managed by a suite of proteins with tailored activities. The majority of these proteins bind ssDNA indiscriminately, exhibiting little apparent sequence preference. However, there are several notable exceptions, including the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc13 protein, which is vital for yeast telomere maintenance. Cdc13 is one of the tightest known binders of ssDNA and is specific for G-rich telomeric sequences. To investigate how these two different biochemical features, affinity and specificity, contribute to function, we created an unbiased panel of alanine mutations across the Cdc13 DNA-binding interface, including several aromatic amino acids that play critical roles in binding activity...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Thomas J Roberts, Yana E Hoy-Schulz, Kaniz Jannat, Julie Parsonnet
Suboptimal breastfeeding is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality across the world. Inconsistent data has hampered quantification of this practice, however, limiting breastfeeding promotion efforts. As part of a clinical trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, data was collected on breastfeeding patterns among 125 infants. Infants were ages 4 to 12 weeks (mean = 8.05, SD = 2.13) at the time of enrollment, and breastfeeding data were collected at 24 study visits during a twelve-week period. Breastfeeding status was assessed using the WHO-recommended "current status" (24-h recall) method...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Omar A V Mejia, Manuel J Antunes, Maxim Goncharov, Luís R P Dallan, Elinthon Veronese, Gisele A Lapenna, Luiz A F Lisboa, Luís A O Dallan, Carlos M A Brandão, Jorge Zubelli, Flávio Tarasoutchi, Pablo M A Pomerantzeff, Fabio B Jatene
BACKGROUND: Mortality prediction after cardiac procedures is an essential tool in clinical decision making. Although rheumatic cardiac disease remains a major cause of heart surgery in the world no previous study validated risk scores in a sample exclusively with this condition. OBJECTIVES: Develop a novel predictive model focused on mortality prediction among patients undergoing cardiac surgery secondary to rheumatic valve conditions. METHODS: We conducted prospective consecutive all-comers patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) referred for surgical treatment of valve disease between May 2010 and July of 2015...
2018: PloS One
Catherine Ley, Vandana Sundaram, Maria de la Luz Sanchez, Manisha Desai, Julie Parsonnet
BACKGROUND: Triclosan and triclocarban (TCs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobials that, until recently, were found in a wide variety of household and personal wash products. Popular with consumers, TCs have not been shown to protect against infectious diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether use of TC-containing wash products reduces incidence of infection in children less than one year of age. METHODS: Starting in 2011, we nested a randomized intervention of wash products with and without TCs within a multiethnic birth cohort...
2018: PloS One
F Alarid-Escudero, E A Enns, R F MacLehose, J Parsonnet, J Torres, K M Kuntz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Diana F Rojas-Rengifo, Maria Camila Alvarez-Silva, Cindy P Ulloa-Guerrero, Vanessa Lucía Nuñez-Velez, Maria Del Pilar Delgado, Sonia Milena Aguilera, Harold Castro, Carlos Alberto Jaramillo, Andrés Fernando González Barrios
The Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is known for causing gastroduodenal diseases, such as atrophic gastritis and peptic ulcerations. Furthermore Helicobacter pylori CagA positive strains has been reported as one of the main risk factors for gastric cancer (Parsonnet et al., 1997). Structural variations in the CagA structure can alter its affinity with the host proteins, inducing differences in the pathogenicity of H. pylori. CagA N-terminal region is characterized for be conserved among all H...
October 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
F Alarid-Escudero, E A Enns, R F MacLehose, J Parsonnet, J Torres, K M Kuntz
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is present in the stomach of half of the world's population. The force of infection describes the rate at which susceptibles acquire infection. In this article, we estimated the age-specific force of infection of H. pylori in Mexico. Data came from a national H. pylori seroepidemiology survey collected in Mexico in 1987-88. We modelled the number of individuals with H. pylori at a given age as a binomial random variable. We assumed that the cumulative risk of infection by a given age follows a modified exponential catalytic model, allowing some fraction of the population to remain uninfected...
June 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Zulfiqar Haider, Anjum Jalal, Asif Rashid Alamgir, Irfan Rasheed
Objective: To review the incidence of stroke in patients undergoing CABG and the impact of a preventive strategy adopted at tertiary care unit of cardiac surgery. Methods: The data of all patients who underwent isolated CABG (N= 722) from July 2016 to August 2017 at Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology was retrieved for this retrospective study. All operations were done on cardiopulmonary bypass and cold blood cardioplegia. Numeric data was summarized as Mean ± Standard Deviation while categoric variables were summarized into frequency and percentage...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Christoph Ellenberger, Tornike Sologashvili, Lukas Kreienbühl, Mustafa Cikirikcioglu, John Diaper, Marc Licker
BACKGROUND: Low cardiac output syndrome is a main cause of death after cardiac surgery. We sought to assess the impact of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) to enhance myocardial protection in moderate- to high-risk patients undergoing on-pump heart surgery. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was performed in adult patients (Bernstein-Parsonnet score >7) scheduled for elective aortic valve replacement and/or coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients were randomized to GIK (20 IU of insulin, 10 mEq of potassium chloride in 50 mL of glucose 40%) or saline infusion given over 60 minutes on anesthetic induction...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jessica V Ribado, Catherine Ley, Thomas D Haggerty, Ekaterina Tkachenko, Ami S Bhatt, Julie Parsonnet
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of specific microbicides in some household and personal wash products due to concerns that these chemicals might induce antibiotic resistance or disrupt human microbial communities. Triclosan and triclocarban (referred to as TCs) are the most common antimicrobials in household and personal care products, but the extent to which TC exposure perturbs microbial communities in humans, particularly during infant development, was unknown. We conducted a randomized intervention of TC-containing household and personal care products during the first year following birth to characterize whether TC exposure from wash products perturbs microbial communities in mothers and their infants...
December 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Catherine Ley, Lauren Pischel, Julie Parsonnet
Triclosan and triclocarban (TCs) are broad-spectrum microbicides found in household and personal wash products. We sought to determine whether TC exposure from wash products or urinary triclosan level modified thyroid function during pregnancy or anthropometric measurements at birth. A randomized intervention of wash products with or without TCs, including toothpaste, enrolled pregnant women from 20 weeks' gestation. Urinary triclosan, TSH, T4 and T3 were assessed at enrollment, 36weeks' gestation and/or post-delivery; anthropometric measures at birth were ascertained from medical records...
December 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Fred M Kusumoto, Mark H Schoenfeld, Bruce L Wilkoff, Charles I Berul, Ulrika M Birgersdotter-Green, Roger Carrillo, Yong-Mei Cha, Jude Clancy, Jean-Claude Deharo, Kenneth A Ellenbogen, Derek Exner, Ayman A Hussein, Charles Kennergren, Andrew Krahn, Richard Lee, Charles J Love, Ruth A Madden, Hector Alfredo Mazzetti, JoEllyn Carol Moore, Jeffrey Parsonnet, Kristen K Patton, Marc A Rozner, Kimberly A Selzman, Morio Shoda, Komandoor Srivathsan, Neil F Strathmore, Charles D Swerdlow, Christine Tompkins, Oussama Wazni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Christoph Ellenberger, Tornike Sologashvili, Mustafa Cikirikcioglu, Gabriel Verdon, John Diaper, Tiziano Cassina, Marc Licker
INTRODUCTION: Ventricular dysfunction requiring inotropic support frequently occurs after cardiac surgery, and the associated low cardiac output syndrome largely contributes to postoperative death. We aimed to study the incidence and potential risk factors of postcardiotomy ventricular dysfunction (PCVD) in moderate-to-high risk patients scheduled for open-heart surgery. METHODS: Over a 5-year period, we prospectively enrolled 295 consecutive patients undergoing valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis or coronary artery bypass surgery who presented with Bernstein-Parsonnet scores >7...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
K Draper, C Ley, J Parsonnet
Probiotic use by patients and physicians has dramatically increased over the last decade, although definitive evidence is often lacking for their use. We examined probiotic-prescribing practices among health care providers (HCP) at a tertiary medical centre and compared these practices to clinical guidelines. HCP at the Stanford Medical Center received a survey on probiotic prescribing practices including choice of probiotic and primary indications. A broad overview of the literature was performed. Among 2,331 HCP surveyed, 632 responded...
August 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
K Draper, C Ley, J Parsonnet
Probiotic use has skyrocketed in recent years. Little is known, however, about patient knowledge and practices regarding probiotic use, especially in the context of antibiotic use. An invitation to complete a short, anonymous, electronic survey was sent by email to 965 patients at a tertiary medical centre in California who had agreed to be contacted for participation in research studies. Questions were asked about both probiotic and antibiotic use in the prior three months. Of 333 survey respondents, 55% had recently used probiotics, including food products and/or supplements (90 and 60% of probiotic users, respectively)...
May 30, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Lauren Pischel, Angela C Poole, Catherine Ley, Gina Suh, Julia K Goodrich, Thomas D Haggerty, Ruth E Ley, Julie Parsonnet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: MSphere
Angela C Poole, Lauren Pischel, Catherine Ley, Gina Suh, Julia K Goodrich, Thomas D Haggerty, Ruth E Ley, Julie Parsonnet
Commonly prescribed antibiotics are known to alter human microbiota. We hypothesized that triclosan and triclocarban, components of many household and personal care products (HPCPs), may alter the oral and gut microbiota, with potential consequences for metabolic function and weight. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, participants were given triclosan- and triclocarban (TCS)-containing or non-triclosan/triclocarban (nTCS)-containing HPCPs for 4 months and then switched to the other products for an additional 4 months...
May 2016: MSphere
Catherine Ley, Maria de la Luz Sanchez, Ankur Mathur, Shufang Yang, Vandana Sundaram, Julie Parsonnet
PURPOSE: Stanford's Outcomes Research in Kids (STORK) is an ongoing prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women and their babies established to determine the effect of infectious diseases on weight, linear growth and immune system development during childhood. Additionally, a nested randomised intervention of household and personal cleaning products tests the effects of the microbicides triclosan and triclocarban on these outcomes and incidence of infection. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy pregnant women were identified and enrolled primarily at public clinics; their babies, enrolled shortly after birth, are followed to age 36 months...
April 13, 2016: BMJ Open
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