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Robert N. Eisenman

Michael E Steinhaus, Joshua Buksbaum, Avraham Eisenman, Monal Kohli, Austin T Fragomen, S Robert Rozbruch
Blood loss remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic surgery, with transfusions associated with an increased risk of infection, length of stay, delayed rehabilitation, and significantly increased hospitalization costs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing distal femoral osteotomy (DFO). A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing DFO by a single surgeon from 2010 to 2017, with a change in protocol occurring in 2014, after which all patients received TXA...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Knee Surgery
Sarah G Swygert, Seungsoo Kim, Xiaoying Wu, Tianhong Fu, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Oliver J Rando, Robert N Eisenman, Jay Shendure, Jeffrey N McKnight, Toshio Tsukiyama
Quiescence is a stress-resistant state in which cells reversibly exit the cell cycle and suspend most processes. Quiescence is essential for stem cell maintenance, and its misregulation is implicated in tumor formation. One of the hallmarks of quiescent cells is highly condensed chromatin. Because condensed chromatin often correlates with transcriptional silencing, it has been hypothesized that chromatin compaction represses transcription during quiescence. However, the technology to test this model by determining chromatin structure within cells at gene resolution has not previously been available...
December 13, 2018: Molecular Cell
Patrick A Carroll, Brian W Freie, Haritha Mathsyaraja, Robert N Eisenman
Transcription factor networks have evolved in order to control, coordinate, and separate, the functions of distinct network modules spatially and temporally. In this review we focus on the MYC network (also known as the MAX-MLX Network), a highly conserved super-family of related basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) proteins that functions to integrate extracellular and intracellular signals and modulate global gene expression. Importantly the MYC network has been shown to be deeply involved in a broad spectrum of human and other animal cancers...
August 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Kumud R Poudel, Minna Roh-Johnson, Allen Su, Thuong Ho, Haritha Mathsyaraja, Sarah Anderson, William M Grady, Cecilia B Moens, Maralice Conacci-Sorrell, Robert N Eisenman, Jihong Bai
Normal cells acquire aggressive behavior by modifying signaling pathways. For instance, alteration of endocytosis profoundly impacts both proliferation and migration during tumorigenesis. Here we investigate the mechanisms that enable the endocytic machinery to coordinate these processes. We show that a membrane curvature-sensing protein, endophilin A3, promotes growth and migration of colon cancer cells through two competing mechanisms: an endocytosis pathway that is required for proliferation and a GTPase regulatory pathway that controls cell motility...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Cell
Franz X Schaub, Varsha Dhankani, Ashton C Berger, Mihir Trivedi, Anne B Richardson, Reid Shaw, Wei Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhang, Andrea Ventura, Yuexin Liu, Donald E Ayer, Peter J Hurlin, Andrew D Cherniack, Robert N Eisenman, Brady Bernard, Carla Grandori
Although the MYC oncogene has been implicated in cancer, a systematic assessment of alterations of MYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatory proteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN), across human cancers is lacking. Using computational approaches, we define genomic and proteomic features associated with MYC and the PMN across the 33 cancers of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Pan-cancer, 28% of all samples had at least one of the MYC paralogs amplified. In contrast, the MYC antagonists MGA and MNT were the most frequently mutated or deleted members, proposing a role as tumor suppressors...
March 28, 2018: Cell Systems
Luigi Maccotta, Mayra A Lopez, Babatunde Adeyemo, Beau M Ances, Brian K Day, Lawrence N Eisenman, Joshua L Dowling, Eric C Leuthardt, Bradley L Schlaggar, Robert Edward Hogan
OBJECTIVES: Specific changes in the functional connectivity of brain networks occur in patients with epilepsy. Yet whether such changes reflect a stable disease effect or one that is a function of active seizure burden remains unclear. Here, we longitudinally assessed the connectivity of canonical cognitive functional networks in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), both before and after patients underwent epilepsy surgery and achieved seizure freedom. METHODS: Seventeen patients with intractable TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery with Engel class I outcome and 17 matched healthy controls took part in the study...
November 2017: Epilepsia
Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Takashi Tanaka, Narumi Ogonuki, Atsuo Ogura, Hiroko Morimoto, Pei Feng Cheng, Robert N Eisenman, Andreas Trumpp, Takashi Shinohara
Myc plays critical roles in the self-renewal division of various stem cell types. In spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), Myc controls SSC fate decisions because Myc overexpression induces enhanced self-renewal division, while depletion of Max, a Myc-binding partner, leads to meiotic induction. However, the mechanism by which Myc acts on SSC fate is unclear. Here we demonstrate a critical link between Myc/Mycn gene activity and glycolysis in SSC self-renewal. In SSCs, Myc/Mycn are regulated by Foxo1, whose deficiency impairs SSC self-renewal...
December 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Haiwei Gu, Patrick A Carroll, Jianhai Du, Jiangjiang Zhu, Fausto Carnevale Neto, Robert N Eisenman, Daniel Raftery
The balance between metabolism and biomass is very important in biological systems; however, to date there has been no quantitative method to characterize the balance. In this methodological study, we propose to use the distribution of amino acids in different domains to investigate this balance. It is well known that endogenous or exogenous amino acids in a biological system are either metabolized or incorporated into free amino acids (FAAs) or proteome amino acids (PAAs). Using glycine (Gly) as an example, we demonstrate a novel method to accurately determine the amounts of amino acids in various domains using serum, urine, and cell samples...
December 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Sarah Anderson, Kumud Raj Poudel, Minna Roh-Johnson, Thomas Brabletz, Ming Yu, Nofit Borenstein-Auerbach, William N Grady, Jihong Bai, Cecilia B Moens, Robert N Eisenman, Maralice Conacci-Sorrell
MYC-nick is a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive member of the MYC oncoprotein family, generated by a proteolytic cleavage of full-length MYC. MYC-nick promotes migration and survival of cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents or withdrawal of glucose. Here we report that MYC-nick is abundant in colonic and intestinal tumors derived from mouse models with mutations in the Wnt, TGF-β, and PI3K pathways. Moreover, MYC-nick is elevated in colon cancer cells deleted for FBWX7, which encodes the major E3 ligase of full-length MYC frequently mutated in colorectal cancers...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dong-Wook Kim, Nan Wu, Young-Chul Kim, Pei Feng Cheng, Ryan Basom, Dongkyoon Kim, Colin T Dunn, Anastasia Y Lee, Keebeom Kim, Chang Sup Lee, Andrew Singh, Adi F Gazdar, Chris R Harris, Robert N Eisenman, Kwon-Sik Park, David MacPherson
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating neuroendocrine carcinoma. MYCL (L-Myc) is frequently amplified in human SCLC, but its roles in SCLC progression are poorly understood. We isolated preneoplastic neuroendocrine cells from a mouse model of SCLC and found that ectopic expression of L-Myc, c-Myc, or N-Myc conferred tumor-forming capacity. We focused on L-Myc, which promoted pre-rRNA synthesis and transcriptional programs associated with ribosomal biogenesis. Deletion of Mycl in two genetically engineered models of SCLC resulted in strong suppression of SCLC...
June 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Roberta Scognamiglio, Nina Cabezas-Wallscheid, Marc Christian Thier, Sandro Altamura, Alejandro Reyes, Áine M Prendergast, Daniel Baumgärtner, Larissa S Carnevalli, Ann Atzberger, Simon Haas, Lisa von Paleske, Thorsten Boroviak, Philipp Wörsdörfer, Marieke A G Essers, Ulrich Kloz, Robert N Eisenman, Frank Edenhofer, Paul Bertone, Wolfgang Huber, Franciscus van der Hoeven, Austin Smith, Andreas Trumpp
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are maintained in a naive ground state of pluripotency in the presence of MEK and GSK3 inhibitors. Here, we show that ground-state ESCs express low Myc levels. Deletion of both c-myc and N-myc (dKO) or pharmacological inhibition of Myc activity strongly decreases transcription, splicing, and protein synthesis, leading to proliferation arrest. This process is reversible and occurs without affecting pluripotency, suggesting that Myc-depleted stem cells enter a state of dormancy similar to embryonic diapause...
February 11, 2016: Cell
Haritha Mathsyaraja, Robert N Eisenman
Myc and its paralog MycN are thought to be functionally redundant, but Myc- and MycN-driven medulloblastomas exhibit distinct phenotypes. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Vo and colleagues (2016) show that this phenotypic difference stems from the preferential ability of Myc, relative to MycN, to bind Miz1 and repress transcription.
January 11, 2016: Cancer Cell
Liam C Hunt, Beisi Xu, David Finkelstein, Yiping Fan, Patrick A Carroll, Pei-Feng Cheng, Robert N Eisenman, Fabio Demontis
Metabolic stress and changes in nutrient levels modulate many aspects of skeletal muscle function during aging and disease. Growth factors and cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, known as myokines, are important signaling factors, but it is largely unknown whether they modulate muscle growth and differentiation in response to nutrients. Here, we found that changes in glucose levels increase the activity of the glucose-responsive transcription factor MLX (Max-like protein X), which promotes and is necessary for myoblast fusion...
December 1, 2015: Genes & Development
Daniel Hiler, Xiang Chen, Jennifer Hazen, Sergey Kupriyanov, Patrick A Carroll, Chunxu Qu, Beisi Xu, Dianna Johnson, Lyra Griffiths, Sharon Frase, Alberto R Rodriguez, Greg Martin, Jiakun Zhang, Jongrye Jeon, Yiping Fan, David Finkelstein, Robert N Eisenman, Kristin Baldwin, Michael A Dyer
Cell-based therapies to treat retinal degeneration are now being tested in clinical trials. However, it is not known whether the source of stem cells is important for the production of differentiated cells suitable for transplantation. To test this, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from murine rod photoreceptors (r-iPSCs) and scored their ability to make retinae by using a standardized quantitative protocol called STEM-RET. We discovered that r-iPSCs more efficiently produced differentiated retinae than did embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or fibroblast-derived iPSCs (f-iPSCs)...
July 2, 2015: Cell Stem Cell
Haiwei Gu, Jianhai Du, Fausto Carnevale Neto, Patrick A Carroll, Sally J Turner, E Gabriela Chiorean, Robert N Eisenman, Daniel Raftery
Amino acids play essential roles in both metabolism and the proteome. Many studies have profiled free amino acids (FAAs) or proteins; however, few have connected the measurement of FAA with individual amino acids in the proteome. In this study, we developed a metabolomics method to comprehensively analyze amino acids in different domains, using two examples of different sample types and disease models. We first examined the responses of FAAs and insoluble-proteome amino acids (IPAAs) to the Myc oncogene in Tet21N human neuroblastoma cells...
April 21, 2015: Analyst
Patrick A Carroll, Daniel Diolaiti, Lisa McFerrin, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Jianhai Du, Pei Feng Cheng, Sarah Anderson, Michelle Ulrich, James B Hurley, Daniel Raftery, Donald E Ayer, Robert N Eisenman
Deregulated Myc transcriptionally reprograms cell metabolism to promote neoplasia. Here we show that oncogenic Myc requires the Myc superfamily member MondoA, a nutrient-sensing transcription factor, for tumorigenesis. Knockdown of MondoA, or its dimerization partner Mlx, blocks Myc-induced reprogramming of multiple metabolic pathways, resulting in apoptosis. Identification and knockdown of genes coregulated by Myc and MondoA have allowed us to define metabolic functions required by deregulated Myc and demonstrate a critical role for lipid biosynthesis in survival of Myc-driven cancer...
February 9, 2015: Cancer Cell
Patrick A Carroll, Robert N Eisenman
The Myc proto-oncogene has been intensively studied in tumorigenesis and development. A new paper in Cell reports the role of Myc as a determinant of mammalian longevity. Myc heterozygous mice exhibit extended lifespans resulting from alterations in multiple cellular processes distinct from those observed in other longevity models.
January 29, 2015: Cell
Daniel Diolaiti, Lisa McFerrin, Patrick A Carroll, Robert N Eisenman
The transcription factor MYC and its related family members MYCN and MYCL have been implicated in the etiology of a wide spectrum of human cancers. Compared to other oncoproteins, such as RAS or SRC, MYC is unique because its protein coding region is rarely mutated. Instead, MYC's oncogenic properties are unleashed by regulatory mutations leading to unconstrained high levels of expression. Under both normal and pathological conditions MYC regulates multiple aspects of cellular physiology including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, growth and metabolism by controlling the expression of thousands of genes...
May 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maralice Conacci-Sorrell, Celine Ngouenet, Sarah Anderson, Thomas Brabletz, Robert N Eisenman
Evasion of apoptosis is critical in Myc-induced tumor progression. Here we report that cancer cells evade death under stress by activating calpain-mediated proteolysis of Myc. This generates Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive cleavage product of Myc. We found conversion of Myc into Myc-nick in cell lines and tissues derived from multiple cancers. In colon cancer, the production of Myc-nick is enhanced under stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Under these conditions, ectopic expression of Myc-nick promotes anchorage-independent growth and cell survival at least in part by promoting autophagy...
April 1, 2014: Genes & Development
Maralice Conacci-Sorrell, Lisa McFerrin, Robert N Eisenman
This review is intended to provide a broad outline of the biological and molecular functions of MYC as well as of the larger protein network within which MYC operates. We present a view of MYC as a sensor that integrates multiple cellular signals to mediate a broad transcriptional response controlling many aspects of cell behavior. We also describe the larger transcriptional network linked to MYC with emphasis on the MXD family of MYC antagonists. Last, we discuss evidence that the network has evolved for millions of years, dating back to the emergence of animals...
January 1, 2014: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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