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Risk taking behaviour

Yvonne Moriarty, Julia Townson, Harriet Quinn-Scoggins, Louise Padgett, Sioned Owen, Stephanie Smits, Rebecca Playle, Polyxeni Dimitropoulou, Bernadette Sewell, Vasiliki Kolovou, Peter Buckle, Ben Carter, Adrian Edwards, Julie Hepburn, Maura Matthews, Caroline Mitchell, Richard D Neal, Michael Robling, Fiona Wood, Kate Brain
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival is lower in socioeconomically deprived communities, partly due to low awareness of symptoms, negative beliefs and delayed help-seeking. We developed an interactive health check questionnaire facilitated by trained lay advisors. It entails 29 questions about background, lifestyle and health with tailored behaviour change advice. Personalised results are printed using a traffic light (red/amber/green) system, highlighting areas where action should be taken. This is an individually randomised control trial to test effectiveness of the health check on symptom recognition...
March 11, 2019: BMC Public Health
Jennie Rose, Cris Glazebrook, Heather Wharrad, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Judy Anne Swift, Dilip Nathan, Stephen Franklin Weng, Pippa Atkinson, Joanne Ablewhite, Fiona McMaster, Vicki Watson, Sarah Anne Redsell
BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority. Interventions that establish healthy growth trajectories early in life promise lifelong benefits to health and wellbeing. Proactive Assessment of Obesity Risk during Infancy (ProAsk) is a novel mHealth intervention designed to enable health professionals to assess an infant's risk of future overweight and motivate parental behaviour change to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to explore parents' and health professionals' experiences of the overweight risk communication and behaviour change aspects of this mHealth intervention...
March 12, 2019: BMC Public Health
Annemarie Lodder, Chris Papadopoulos, Gurch Randhawa
Background: Stigma is prominent in the lives of autistic individuals and their families and contributes significantly to the challenges faced by families raising an autistic child. Parents and carers can feel blamed for their child's behaviour, feel socially excluded and isolated and suffer from low self-esteem and poor psychological well-being. This increases the risk of experiencing self-stigma which further exacerbates these and other negative consequences. Therefore, there is a need for interventions that help parents/family carers cope with autism-related stigma as well as prevent the internalisation of stigma...
2019: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Soraya Fathollahi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Nazila Rezaei, Ayyoob Jafari, Niloofar Peykari, Rosa Haghshenas, Mehran Shams-Beyranvand, Bahman Damerchilu, Ashkan Mehregan, Maryam Khezrian, Milad Hasan, Ezzatollah Momen Nia Rankohi, Mahboobeh Darman, Alireza Moghisi, Farshad Farzadfar
BACKGROUND: To achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.6 in Iran, we need to have a comprehensive understanding of the distribution of risky behaviours regarding road-traffic injuries at national and sub-national levels. Little is known about the road-use vulnerability patterns of road-traffic injuries in Iran. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of self-reported human risk factors in road-traffic injuries using the findings from a large-scale cross-sectional study based on the World Health Organization's stepwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPs)...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Paul Dillon, Susan M Smith, Paul John Gallagher, Gráinne Cousins
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests that older adults are at an increased risk of injurious falls when initiating antihypertensive medication, while the evidence regarding long-term use of antihypertensive medication and the risk of falling is mixed. However, long-term users who stop and start these medications may have a similar risk of falling to initial users of antihypertensive medication. Our aim was to evaluate the association between gaps in antihypertensive medication adherence and injurious falls in older (≥65 years) community-dwelling, long-term (≥≥1 year) antihypertensive users...
March 4, 2019: BMJ Open
Álvaro Luna, Antonio Palma, Ana Sanz-Aguilar, José L Tella, Martina Carrete
Dispersal propensity has been correlated with personality traits, conspecific density and predation risk in a variety of species. Thus, changes in the relative frequency of behavioural phenotypes or in the ecological pressures faced by individuals in contrasting habitats can have unexpected effects on their dispersal strategies. Here, using the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia as a study model, we test whether changes in the behavioural profile of individuals and changes in conspecific density and predation pressure associated with urban life influence their breeding dispersal decisions compared to rural conspecifics...
February 27, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sayuri Hayakawa, Becky Ka Ying Lau, Sophie Holtzmann, Albert Costa, Boaz Keysar
People consider choices that involve risk on a daily basis. In principle, willingness to take risks should be independent of the language used while considering the available options. However, research has shown that using a foreign language can increase willingness to take risks, presumably because a foreign language is less emotional. Here, we investigate the robustness of this effect of language on risk by varying participant language background and methodological design features. In addition, we investigate whether using a foreign language increases risk-seeking behaviour in general, or whether it promotes a more strategic approach to risk...
January 2019: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ruth Barratt, Ramon Z Shaban, Gwendoline L Gilbert
Outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are global threats to society. Planning for, and responses to, such events must include healthcare and other measures based on current evidence. An important area of infection prevention and control (IPC) is the optimal use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare workers (HCWs), including masks for protection against respiratory pathogens. Appropriate mask use during routine care is a forerunner to best practice in the event of an outbreak...
February 21, 2019: Infection, Disease & Health
Ruslan V Tekliuk, Ihor V Serheta, Oksana A Serebrennikova
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Both positive and risky health behaviours among adolescents are of paramount importance as they often pathway further lifestyles and determine future health outcomes. The paper focuses on the trends of health promotion activities and health risks among adolescents who have been instructed on these topics at secondary schools. The aim: to detect trends in pro-active health behaviour and risk taking activities of Ukrainian adolescents in the last 14 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: males and females, aged 15-17, who studied in secondary schools of the urban area of Vinnytsia city, Ukraine, in the years 2003, 2013, 2017, anonymously filled in the 118-item questionnaire...
2019: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Gerardo Salvato, Gabriele De Maio, Gabriella Bottini
In everyday life, we continuously make decisions, assuming the risk by making choices on material possessions or our body. Bodily signals may support the decision-making process, informing us about possible outcomes. Sensibility for such internal bodily changes influences the way we perceive the environment, and it can boost the body-related stimuli processing. Thus, the question arises of whether the individual sensibility to interoceptive signals modulates decision-making in the presence of biological stimuli...
February 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Emily K Rousham, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Papreen Nahar, Patricia Jane Lucas, Nahitun Naher, Syed Masud Ahmed, Fosiul Alam Nizame, Leanne Unicomb
INTRODUCTION: Global actions to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR) include optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health. In countries with weak healthcare regulation, this requires a greater understanding of the drivers of antibiotic use from the perspective of providers and consumers. In Bangladesh, there is limited research on household decision-making and healthcare seeking in relation to antibiotic use and consumption for humans and livestock. Knowledge is similarly lacking on factors influencing the supply and demand for antibiotics among qualified and unqualified healthcare providers...
January 25, 2019: BMJ Open
Fatou Jaiteh, Yoriko Masunaga, Joseph Okebe, Umberto D'Alessandro, Julie Balen, John Bradley, Charlotte Gryseels, Joan Muela Ribera, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Innovative and cost-effective strategies that clear asymptomatic malaria infections are required to reach malaria elimination goals, but remain a challenge. This mixed methods study explored people's attitudes towards the reactive treatment of compound contacts of malaria cases with a 3-day course of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP), the socio-cultural representations of asymptomatic infections, and more specifically their treatment. METHODS: Prior to the start of the intervention, a sequential mixed method study was carried out...
February 18, 2019: Malaria Journal
Julia Garami, Ahmed Moustafa
While the link between delay discounting and drug addiction has been well established, much less is known about probability discounting (PD) in the context of substance abuse. This study is the first to investigate how opioid-dependent individuals make risky decisions about gains and losses using the PD paradigm. Fifty-six opioid-dependent adults receiving opioid maintenance therapy and 55 controls performed two tasks that assessed PD of hypothetical monetary gains and losses, and completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Dominic P Morgan, David Muscatello, Andrew Hayen, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: Programmes that reduce the time to defibrillation are likely to improve overall survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). This research sought to identify human factors common among community responders taking an automated external defibrillator (AED) to a victim of an OHCA that are either barriers or enablers of desired behaviour. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was used. Community members who had access to an AED and who had been notified of an incident of OHCA near them were approached to participate in the research...
February 13, 2019: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
A D Duncan, B S Peters, C Rivas, L M Goff
AIM: To conduct a mixed-methods feasibility study of the effectiveness and acceptability of an individualized diet and physical activity intervention designed to reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes experienced by people living with HIV. METHODS: Participants with impaired fasting glucose and HIV were invited to take part in a 6-month diet and physical activity intervention. Individualized advice to achieve 10 lifestyle goals was delivered monthly. Diabetes risk was assessed pre- and post-intervention by measurement of the glucose and insulin response to a 3-h meal tolerance test...
February 7, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Victor O Owino
Africa is experiencing a sharp rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) related to rapid globalisation and urbanisation leading to shifts in dietary and lifestyle patterns characterised by increased energy intake and physical inactivity. However, unlike more resource-endowed regions, Africa has a double burden of disease: NCD co-exist with infectious diseases including lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. The African economy is also relatively weaker, making it difficult to cope with this burden...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Jing Han, Jennifer Zh Bouey, Liming Wang, Guodong Mi, Zihuang Chen, Ying He, Tara Viviani, Fujie Zhang
INTRODUCTION: HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is high in China. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising mean to prevent HIV transmission but it is not widely available in China. We conducted a large Internet-based online survey to assess the willingness of Chinese MSM to take PrEP and associated factors to their uptake preferences. METHODS: Between 19 January and 6 February, 2017, 4581 MSM aged over 15 years were recruited via a social networking app to take an online PrEP survey...
February 2019: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Penelope Gray, Tapio Luostarinen, Simopekka Vänskä, Tiina Eriksson, Camilla Lagheden, Irene Man, Johanna Palmroth, Ville N Pimenoff, Anna Söderlund-Strand, Joakim Dillner, Matti Lehtinen
Oncogenic non-vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV) types may conceivably fill the vacated ecological niche of the vaccine types. The likelihood of this may differ by the risk of acquiring HPV infections. We examined occurrence of HPV types among vaccinated and unvaccinated subgroups of 1992-1994 birth cohorts with differing acquisition risks up to 9 years post-implementation of HPV vaccination in 33 Finnish communities randomized to: Arm A (gender-neutral HPV16/18 vaccination), Arm B (girls-only HPV16/18 vaccination and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys), and Arm C (gender-neutral HBV vaccination)...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Madeleine M Southey, Trent Rees, Margaret Rolfe, Sabrina Pit
BACKGROUND: Residential opioid rehabilitation aims to improve the mental health and quality of life of opioid users through abstinence and residential program participation. This study aimed to determine the depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life amongst maintenance to abstinence (MTA) program residents. Secondary study aims were to assess the personal characteristics of MTA clients, addiction and risk taking behaviours, factors associated with program completion, as well as to assess the reliable change in participants' mental health and quality of life on exit...
February 4, 2019: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Laio Magno, Inês Dourado, Cassandra Sutten Coats, Daniel Wilhite, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Oluwadamilola Oni-Orisan, Julianna Brown, Fabiane Soares, Lígia Kerr, Yusuf Ransome, Philip Andrew Chan, Amy Nunn
Few studies evaluate knowledge and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in middle-income countries. Brazil added PrEP to public drug formularies in December 2017, but little is known about local knowledge and attitudes about PrEP among MSM outside metropolitan areas in Southern Brazil. The cross-sectional HIV Surveillance Survey Project in Brazil estimates HIV and STD prevalence among MSM in 12 state capitals. Among 32 participants at the Salvador, Bahia study site, we used qualitative interviews to assess knowledge, willingness, and barriers to PrEP use among MSM; few MSM had previous knowledge of PrEP and were willing to use PrEP...
February 4, 2019: Global Public Health
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