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Sex allocation

Damian Weikum, Angela Kelly-Hanku, Parker Hou, Martha Kupul, Angelyne Amos-Kuma, Steven G Badman, Nick Dala, Kelsey C Coy, John M Kaldor, Andrew J Vallely, Avi J Hakim
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender women (TGW) are at high risk of acquiring HIV in many settings, such as Papua New Guinea (PNG). An understanding of the approximate size of these populations can inform resource allocation for HIV services for FSW, MSM, and TGW. OBJECTIVE: An objective of this multi-site survey was to conduct updated population size estimations (PSE) of FSW and MSM/TGW. METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) biobehavioral surveys of FSW and MSM/TGW were conducted in 3 major cities-(1) Port Moresby, (2) Lae, and (3) Mount Hagen-between June 2016 and December 2017...
March 21, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Alexander J Rondon, Noam Shohat, Timothy L Tan, Karan Goswami, Ronald C Huang, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: The use of aspirin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has increased in popularity; however, the potential cardioprotective effects of aspirin when administered as VTE prophylaxis remain unknown. The present study investigated the influence of VTE prophylaxis, including aspirin, on mortality following TJA. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 31,133 patients who underwent primary TJA from 2000 to 2017...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Steven A Ramm, Birgit Lengerer, Roberto Arbore, Robert Pjeta, Julia Wunderer, Athina Giannakara, Eugene Berezikov, Peter Ladurner, Lukas Schärer
Phenotypic plasticity can enable organisms to produce optimal phenotypes in multiple environments. A crucial life history trait that is often highly plastic is sex allocation, which in simultaneous hermaphrodites describes the relative investment into the male versus female sex functions. Theory predicts - and morphological evidence supports - that greater investment into the male function is favoured with increasing group size, due to the increasing importance of sperm competition for male reproductive success...
March 19, 2019: Molecular Ecology
K J Griffiths, A L Ridler, Cwr Compton, R A Corner-Thomas, P R Kenyon
AIMS: To investigate associations between lamb growth to weaning and dam udder and teat scores at four management times: pre-mating, pre-lambing, docking and weaning. METHODS: Romney ewes (n = 1,009) were enrolled from a commercial sheep flock located near Masterton, Wairarapa, New Zealand in a prospective observational study. Ewes had a range of udder and teat scores measured at each of pre-mating, pre-lambing, docking and weaning management times. The udder and teats of each ewe were scored using both visual assessment and hands-on palpation techniques, with ewes in both standing and sitting positions...
March 19, 2019: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Branko F Olij, Martien J M Panneman, Ed F van Beeck, Juanita A Haagsma, Klaas A Hartholt, Suzanne Polinder
OBJECTIVES: Fall-related injuries are a leading cause of morbidity among older adults, leading to a high healthcare consumption and mortality. We aim to describe and quantify time trends of fall-related healthcare use and mortality among adults aged ≥65 years in the Netherlands, 1997-2016. DESIGN: Data were extracted from the Dutch Injury Surveillance System, Dutch Hospital Discharge Registry, and Cause-of-Death Statistics Netherlands, by age, sex, diagnosis, injury location, and year...
March 13, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
João Luiz Miraglia, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra, Camila Nascimento Monteiro, Luciana Morais Borges
BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were responsible for 72.3% of global deaths in 2016, with cardiovascular diseases accounting for almost half of those deaths and low- and middle-income countries carrying the biggest burden. As a result, the prevention and control of NCDs is recognized as urgent, while better surveillance at the country level could result in more effective policies. Hence, the objective of this study was to obtain more detailed information on the distribution of the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among the population of two large districts of the city of São Paulo in Brazil, and to compare these findings to the results of a citywide health survey...
2019: PloS One
Rameez A Qudsi, Faith Selzer, Stephen C Hill, Ariel Lerner, Jean Wildric Hippolyte, Eldine Jacques, Francel Alexis, Collin J May, Robert B Cady, Elena Losina
PURPOSE: The Ponseti Method has dramatically altered the management of clubfoot, with particular implications for limited-resource settings. We sought to describe outcomes of care and risk factors for sub-optimal results using the Ponseti Method in Haiti. METHODS: We conducted a records review of patients presenting from 2011-2015 to a CURE Clubfoot clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We report patient characteristics (demographics and clinical), treatment patterns (cast number/duration and tenotomy rates), and outcomes (relapse and complications)...
2019: PloS One
Abed Khalaileh, Tawfik Khoury, Subhi Harkrosh, Yakob Nowotny, Mohamad Massarwa, Rifaat Safadi, Eytan Mor, Richard Nakache, Samir Abu Gazala, Hadar Merhav
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for most end-stage liver diseases. This treatment increases survival rates and improves quality of life. Because of the shortage of organ donors, as opposed to waiting patients, the need to optimize the matching of donors to recipients for maximum utility is crucial. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine a predictive model based on the combination of donor and recipient risk factors using the liver Donor Risk Index (DRI) and recipient Model of End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) to predict patients' survival following LT...
March 11, 2019: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Paul Douglas Wesson, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, Anna Jonas, Krysta Gerndt, Ali Mirzazadeh, Frieda Katuta, Andrew Maher, Karen Banda, Nicholus Mutenda, Willi McFarland, David Lowrance, Dimitri Prybylski, Sadhna Patel
BACKGROUND: Key populations, including female sex workers (FSWs), are at a disproportionately high risk for HIV infection. Estimates of the size of these populations serve as denominator data to inform HIV prevention and treatment programming and are necessary for the equitable allocation of limited public health resources. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) adjusted reverse tracking method (RTM; RadR), a novel population size estimation approach that combines venue mapping data with RDS data to estimate the population size, adjusted for double counting and nonattendance biases...
March 14, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Cornelia Sauter, Jens T Kowalski, Michael Stein, Stefan Röttger, Heidi Danker-Hopfe
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a brief manual-based sleep health program within the workplace health promotion of the German Armed Forces. METHODS: The sleep health program comprised four weekly group sessions. Sixty-three members (48 males) were randomly allocated to either a treatment group or a waiting control group matching for age, sex, and baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The control group had to wait before participating in the sleep health program until the treatment group finished the intervention...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Jeanne Tonnabel, Patrice David, Etienne K Klein, John R Pannell
Sexual selection may contribute to the evolution of plant sexual dimorphism by favoring architectural traits in males that improve pollen dispersal to mates. In both sexes, larger individuals may be favored by allowing the allocation of more resources to gamete production (a 'budget' effect of size). In wind-pollinated plants, large size may also benefit males by allowing the liberation pollen from a greater height, fostering its dispersal (a 'direct' effect of size). To assess these effects and their implications for trait selection, we measured selection on plant morphology in both males and females of the wind-pollinated dioecious herb Mercurialis annua in two separate experimental common gardens at contrasting density...
March 10, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Francis Fatoye, Tadesse Gebrye, Isaac Odeyemi
Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem among adults of working age population, and its prevalence or incidence increases with increasing in age. The purpose of this review was to examine the real-world prevalence or incidence of LBP. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in accordance to the PRISMA guideline. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, SportDiscuss and Scopus electronic databases were searched using specifically developed search strategies to identify studies using patients' electronic medical records published in English up to February 2019...
March 8, 2019: Rheumatology International
Ali Arhami Dolatabadi, Seyedeh Roghieh Larimi, Arash Safaie
Introduction: Although vertigo is a common complaint in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED), its ideal treatment is still under debate. This study was conducted to compare oral betahistine and oral piracetam in management of outpatients with peripheral vertigo. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial performed on patients who were presented to the EDs of 4 teaching hospitals, with complaint of true vertigo. Patients were randomly allocated to either betahistine or piracetam group and their 7-day outcomes were compared...
2019: Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine
Thora Majlund Kjærulff, Kristine Bihrmann, Ingelise Andersen, Gunnar Hilmar Gislason, Mogens Lytken Larsen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether geographical patterns in incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were explained by neighbourhood-level and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN: An open cohort study design of AMI-free adults (age ≥30 years) with a residential location in Denmark in 2005-2014 was used based on nationwide administrative population and health register data linked by the unique personal identification number. Poisson regression of AMI incidence rates (IRs) with a geographical random effect component was performed using a Bayesian approach...
March 1, 2019: BMJ Open
Tetyana Kendzerska, Kelly Wilton, Russell Bahar, Clodagh M Ryan
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in post-stroke patients and observational evidence suggests that untreated it is a harbinger of poorer outcomes in this population. Clinical trials on the impact of treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have countered difficulties with patient engagement and adherence to CPAP therapy. Real-world data on continuous positive airway pressure initiation and usage in the post-stroke population with obstructive sleep apnea is limited...
February 28, 2019: Sleep & Breathing
E Andrew Townsend, S Stevens Negus, S Barak Caine, Morgane Thomsen, Matthew L Banks
Clinical evidence suggest that men are more sensitive than women to the abuse-related effects of mu-opioid agonists. In contrast, preclinical studies suggest the opposite sex difference. The aim of the present study was to clarify this discrepancy using a fentanyl vs. diluted Ensure® choice procedure to assess sex differences in opioid reinforcement. Sex differences in intravenous (IV) fentanyl self-administration were examined under a fixed-ratio (FR5) schedule, a multi-day progressive-ratio (PR) schedule for behavioral economic analysis, and a concurrent (choice) schedule of fentanyl and diluted Ensure® reinforcement in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats...
February 28, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
S Das, J J Li, A Allston, M Kharfen
OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to inform area-based prevention intervention programs and plan resource allocation to reduce new infections in the District of Columbia (DC), United States of America. STUDY DESIGN: The analysis used spatial regression to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of the new HIV rate and its association with sexually transmitted infection repeaters (STIREPs) and socio-economic as well as demographic characteristics. The HIV and STIREP data were obtained from the DC Department of Health surveillance data (2010-2016)...
February 25, 2019: Public Health
Caitlyn G Edwards, Anne M Walk, Corinne N Cannavale, Sharon V Thompson, Ginger E Reeser, Hannah D Holscher, Naiman A Khan
SCOPE: Macular accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin) is known to have neuroprotective potential, yet their influence on cognition among adults with overweight and obesity remains limited. This study examined the impact of macular xanthophylls on attentional resource allocation and information processing speed among adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 . METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults between 25-45 years (N = 101) completed heterochromatic flicker photometry to determine macular pigment optical density (MPOD)...
February 28, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jianmin Guo, Yuankeng Huang, Xialing Lei, Hong Zhang, Baiquan Xiao, Zhong Han, Chun Liang, Wei Yang
BACKGROUND: To study the mechanism of reproductive systemic toxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii on SD rats. METHODS: The SD rats were randomly divided into groups and allocated three different treatments: control, 37.8 mg/kg Tripterygium glycosides, and 94.5 mg/kg Tripterygium glycosides, with each treatment applied for different lengths of time to 20 animals. Each group received treatment by intragastric administration once per day for 90 days. The estrus cycle was continuously observed throughout treatment...
January 2019: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Limin Feng, Lifeng Li, Wennan Liu, Jianzhou Yang, Qing Wang, Le Shi, Mingchi Luo
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in the aftermath of myocardial infarction (MI) and may not only lead to impaired long-term quality of life, but also cause increased mortality among patients with MI. The reported prevalence of depression among patients with MI varied considerably across studies, for which a pooled prevalence was obtained in the only 1 meta-analysis conducted in March 2004. Subsequently, numerous relevant studies have been published, indicating the need for an update on the pooled prevalence...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
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