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Sex conflict

R V S Santos, A M Novoa-Pabon, H M Silva, M R Pinho
This paper summarises the detailed information on catch, fork length, weight, sex and maturity of alfonsinos Beryx splendens and Beryx decadactylus collected from targeted surveys in Azores waters, complemented by fishery data, over the past c. 20 years. Nevertheless, it was not possible until now to define if the Azorean component of the population can be considered as a discrete local management unit. The reason for this is the lack of available information for these resources covering the entire spatial distribution of the species in the North Atlantic Ocean...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Fish Biology
Sonal Saxena, Poornima Kkani, Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian, Srinivasan Ganesh Kumar, Raghav Monisha, Gundugurti Prasad Rao, Kommu Naga Mohan
Copy number variants (CNVs) of 15q11.2 yielded conflicting reports on their association with schizophrenia (SZ), indicating the need for replication studies. Because there are no 15q11.2 CNV studies on Indian patients, we began by testing 307 SZ patients and 359 age- and sex-matched controls from South India. Using an improved multiplex ligation probe amplification, six deletions were found in patients and three in controls (p = 0.31), whereas one duplication was found in patients and three in controls (p = 0...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Human Genetics
Silvia Guerra, Andrea Spoto, Umberto Castiello, Valentina Parma
A strong male prevalence has been observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since its definition, but the behavioral manifestations of sex disparity have yet to be clarified. Here, we investigate sex differences in the perception of the Numbness Illusion (NI), a procedure based on a tactile conflict, in adults with ASD and with typical development. We aim to assess if women and men with ASD perceive NI-dependent body ownership differently and whether sex differences emerge in individuals with typical development...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrés G de la Filia, Gyda Fenn-Moltu, Laura Ross
Genomic conflicts arising during reproduction might play an important role in shaping the striking diversity of reproductive strategies across life. Among these is paternal genome elimination (PGE), a form of haplodiploidy which has independently evolved several times in arthropods. PGE males are diploid but transmit maternally-inherited chromosomes only, while paternal homologues are excluded from sperm. Mothers thereby effectively monopolize the parentage of sons, at the cost of the father's reproductive success...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jing Wang, Xuena Wang, Yeqing Gu, Mingyue Liu, Thi Quynh Chi Vu, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Xue Bao, Shunming Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Zuolin Lu, Liu Wang, Lixiao Zheng, Xiaona Wang, Chunling Tian, Jingzhu Fu, Shaomei Sun, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Jian Huang, Junsheng Huo, Bing Zhang, Gangqiang Ding, Kaijun Niu
OBJECTIVE: Handgrip strength (HGS) begins an accelerating decline around 50y. Many of the studies performed in old adults have demonstrated a significant relationship between vitamin D and HGS, but the studies performed in participants with a broad age range have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D and HGS using age 50 as a specific cutoff. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 5,102 participants (2,911 males, 2,191 females) from the TCLSIH Cohort...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Endocrinology
Marcella A Raney, Colette F Hendry, Samantha A Yee
INTRODUCTION: Nature exposure is associated with many wellbeing benefits. However, the influence of green space on the physical activity and social behaviors of children is not completely understood. The purpose of the study was to complete a stepwise impact evaluation of a large-scale playground greening project at a Title 1 elementary school in Los Angeles, California. METHODS: Physical activity and social interaction data were collected with direct observation and accelerometers pre-, immediately post-, and 4 months post-greening at control (students enrolled=393) and experimental (students enrolled=538) locations from 2016 to 2017...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
David M Shahian, David F Torchiana, Daniel T Engelman, Thoralf M Sundt, Richard S D'Agostino, Ann F Lovett, Matthew J Cioffi, James D Rawn, Vladimir Birjiniuk, Robert H Habib, Sharon-Lise T Normand
OBJECTIVES: Beginning in 2002, all 14 Massachusetts nonfederal cardiac surgery programs submitted Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database data to the Massachusetts Data Analysis Center for mandatory state-based analysis and reporting, and to STS for nationally benchmarked analyses. We sought to determine whether longitudinal prevalences and trends in risk factors and observed and expected mortality differed between Massachusetts and the nation. METHODS: We analyzed 2003 to 2014 expected (STS predicted risk of operative [in-hospital + 30-day] mortality), observed, and risk-standardized isolated coronary artery bypass graft mortality using Massachusetts STS data (N = 39,400 cases) and national STS data (N = 1,815,234 cases)...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Rebecca K Campbell, Katrina L Devick, Brent A Coull, Whitney Cowell, Talia Askowitz, Brandon Goldson, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
Women's experience of trauma may cause lifelong alterations in physiological stress regulation, which can be transmitted to offspring in utero. We investigated, in a prospective pregnancy cohort, associations among maternal lifetime interpersonal trauma (IPT) history, prenatal cortisol dysregulation, and children's memory domains. Sex-specific effects were also explored. Pregnant women were enrolled from Brigham & Women's Hospital and affiliated clinics near Boston, MA, in 2002-2007. IPT was assessed with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, short form...
February 15, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Genjun Chen, Shengping Hu, Zhen Lai, Binsong Qiu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by joint destruction with cartilage loss and occasional gross derangement of joint integrity. In recent years, several studies have reported the association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, the results were conflicting. To determine the association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and knee OA, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study with 282 knee OA cases and 316 controls to investigate the association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and knee OA susceptibility in a Chinese Han population...
February 14, 2019: Bioscience Reports
Kalysha Closson, Abigail Hatcher, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Laura Washington, Smanga Mkhwanazi, Rachel Jewkes, Kristin Dunkle, Andrew Gibbs
Qualitative research suggests that men's inability to achieve dominant forms of masculinity may be related to HIV-risk behaviours and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Using clustered cross-sectional data, we assessed how young men's gender role conflict was associated with HIV-risk behaviours in urban informal settlements in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Gender Role Conflict and Stress (GRC/S) was measured using a South African adaptation of the GRC/S scale comprising three sub-scales: subordination to women; restrictive emotionality; and success, power and competition...
February 14, 2019: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Tadis Brhane Tesfahunegn, Etsay Hailu Gebremariam
BACKGROUND: Mental distress is becoming a common health problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mental distress is higher among university students than the general population. However, there is inadequate information in this regard in Ethiopia situations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among regular undergraduate students in Aksum University, North Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was carried out among 919 students from May 10 to 20, 2016...
February 13, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Kathryn B McNamara, Liam R Dougherty, Nina Wedell, Leigh W Simmons
The rapid evolutionary divergence of male genital structures under sexual selection is well documented. However, variation in female genital traits and the potential for sexual conflict to drive the coevolution between male and female traits has only recently received attention. In many lepidopterans females possess genital teeth (collectively, signa). Comparative studies suggest these teeth, involved in the deflation of spermatophores, may have coevolved with male spermatophore thickness via sexually antagonistic coevolution in a contest over the rate of deflation of spermatophores within the reproductive tract...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Angela J Crean, Alistair M Senior
Sperm counts have shown a progressive decline across the world since the mid-1900s. Global rates of obesity have been climbing at a similarly alarming rate, suggesting that these two factors may be linked. However, studies examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and male fertility have produced conflicting results. These discrepancies among studies are commonly attributed to limitations that are inherent in human studies such as correlational data and confounding factors-limitations that are absent from animal studies...
February 12, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study used data from 483 young adult marital dyads to evaluate conflict-with-partner and support-from-partner as moderators of alcohol use on two outcomes: alcohol problems and marital satisfaction. A path analytic modeling approach was used to test stress-exacerbating and stress-buffering hypotheses, and to accommodate the interdependent nature of the dyadic data. METHOD: This cross-sectional sample was selected from an adolescent-to-young adult longitudinal study in which spouses were recruited into the study during a later young adult assessment when the sample was, on average, 32...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Sevim Isparta, Jutta Peterburs, Marietta Papadatou-Pastou
Predator-prey relationships have been suggested to be one of the primary evolutionary factors driving the development of functional hemispheric asymmetries. However, lateralization in many predator species is not well understood and existing studies often are statistically underpowered due to small sample sizes and they moreover show conflicting results. Here, we statistically integrated findings on paw preferences in cats and dogs, two predator species within the Carnivora order that are commonly kept as pets in many societies around the globe...
February 10, 2019: Laterality
Runzhuo Ma, Cheng Liu, Min Lu, Xiaotian Yuan, Guanghui Cheng, Feng Kong, Jian Lu, Klas Strååt, Magnus Björkholm, Lulin Ma, Dawei Xu
OBJECTIVES: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the TERT rs2736100 and rs2736098 are associated with multicancer susceptibility, however, published findings regarding renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk are conflicting. In addition, the potential of these SNPs to predict outcomes in RCC remains unclear. The present study is designed to address these questions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 343 patients with RCC and ethnic-/sex-matched healthy controls...
February 6, 2019: Urologic Oncology
Chenchen Fang, Wenjun Wu, Xuejiang Gu, Shanshan Dai, Qi Zhou, Huihui Deng, Feixia Shen, Junjie Chen
Trace elements, such as copper, zinc and selenium, have been linked to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, previous studies concerning these trace elements in association with metabolic syndrome have presented conflicting results in different countries. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between serum copper, zinc and selenium concentrations and the risk of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and older Chinese adults. We performed a nested case-control study that included 349 individuals who developed metabolic syndrome (125 males and 224 females) during a 3-year follow-up and 349 controls matched by baseline age (±1 years), sex and area...
March 2019: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Caroline J Coats, Menelaos Pavlou, Oliver T Watkinson, Alexandros Protonotarios, Linda Moss, Rebecca Hyland, Khadija Rantell, Antonis A Pantazis, Maite Tome, William J McKenna, Michael P Frenneaux, Rumana Omar, Perry M Elliott
Importance: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causes limiting symptoms in patients, mediated partly through inefficient myocardial energy use. There is conflicting evidence for therapy with inhibitors of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Objective: To determine the effect of oral therapy with trimetazidine, a direct inhibitor of fatty acid β-oxidation, on exercise capacity in patients with symptomatic nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
February 6, 2019: JAMA Cardiology
Paulina Bravo, Angelina Dois, María José Hernández, Luis Villarroel
BACKGROUND: Decisional conflict refers to the personal uncertainty about which course of action to take when the choice involves risk, regret, or challenge to personal life values. AIM: To determine the level of decisional conflict (DC) of people with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or High Blood Pressure (HBP) attending primary care centers (PCC) in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Spanish version of the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) was applied to patients who were recruited if they had DM or HBP, were 18 years old or older, and had an appointment at the PCC the day of the recruitment...
November 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Arne Jungwirth, Rufus A Johnstone
The relationships between mating decisions and parental investment are central to evolution, but to date few theoretical treatments of their coevolution have been developed. Here we adopt a demographically explicit, adaptive dynamics approach to analyze the coevolution of female mating decisions and parental investment of both sexes in a self-consistent way. Our models predict that where females cannot interfere with one another's mating decisions and where they do not differ in their survival and fecundity prospects, monogamy should be rare, favored only under harsh environmental conditions, in sparse populations...
February 2019: American Naturalist
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