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Behavioral plasticity

Pedro Montes, Rosa María Vigueras-Villaseñor, Julio César Rojas-Castañeda, Tomas Monfil, Miguel Cervantes, Gabriela Moralí
OBJECTIVE: Rats treated with progesterone (P4) after ischemia show an adequate functional performance despite a significant loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, suggesting that P4 could favour a permissive microenvironment for cerebral plasticity mechanisms. The possibility of P4 treatment promoting the survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons, in relation to the performance of ischemic rats in a spatial learning task, was assessed in this study. METHODS: Adult male rats were subjected to a severe global cerebral ischemia episode (30 min) and treated with P4 or its vehicle at 15 min, 2, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of reperfusion...
February 14, 2019: Neurological Research
James E Orfila, Robert M Dietz, Krista M Rodgers, Andra Dingman, Olivia P Patsos, Ivelisse Cruz-Torres, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Christian Schroeder, Paco S Herson
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and clinical data suggest that children may recover from stroke better than adults; however, supporting experimental data are lacking. We used our novel mouse model of experimental juvenile ischemic stroke (MCAO) to characterize age-specific cognitive dysfunction following ischemia. Juvenile and adult mice subjected to 45-min MCAO, and extracellular field recordings of CA1 neurons were performed to assess hippocampal synaptic plasticity changes after MCAO, and contextual fear conditioning was performed to evaluate memory and biochemistry used to analyze Nogo-A expression...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ning Li, Yang Li, Li-Juan Li, Ke Zhu, Yan Zheng, Xiao-Min Wang
Mounting evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity provides the cellular biological basis of learning and memory, and plasticity deficits play a key role in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanisms by which synaptic dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease remain unclear. In the present study, Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice were used to determine the relationship between decreased hippocampal synaptic plasticity and pathological changes and cognitive-behavioral deterioration, as well as possible mechanisms underlying decreased synaptic plasticity in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease-like diseases...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Rachel D Penrod, Jaswinder Kumar, Laura N Smith, Daniel McCalley, Todd Nentwig, Brandon Hughes, Gabriella Barry, Kelsey Glover, Makoto Taniguchi, Christopher W Cowan
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc, also known as Arg3.1) regulates glutamatergic synapse plasticity and has been linked to neuropsychiatric illness; however, its role in behaviors associated with mood and anxiety disorders remains unclear. We find that stress upregulates Arc expression in the adult mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) - a brain region implicated in mood and anxiety behaviors. Global Arc knockout mice have altered AMPAR-subunit surface levels in the adult NAc, and the Arc-deficient mice show reductions in anxiety-like behavior, deficits in social novelty preference, and anti-depressive-like behavior...
February 13, 2019: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Sijia Liu, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xiuyan Guo
Brain adverse structural changes, especially the atrophy of gray matter, are inevitable in aging. Fortunately, the human brain is plastic throughout its entire life. The current cross-section study aimed to investigate whether long-term Tai Chi exercise could slow gray matter atrophy and explore the possible links among gray matter volume (GMV), long-term Tai Chi experience and emotional stability in a sequential risk-taking task by using voxel-based morphometry. Elders with long-term Tai Chi experience and controls, who were matched to Tai Chi group in age, gender, physical activity level, participated in the study...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Katherine E Gentry, David A Luther
Background noise can interfere with acoustic communication and subsequently influence signaling behavior. Immediate signaling flexibility (ISF) is a context-dependent form of behavioral plasticity that allows animals to temporarily change their acoustic behavior in response to noise fluctuations and potentially improve the chances of successful communication in noisy environments. The adaptive value of ISF is ultimately contingent on the response of the intended receiver, and there are differential effects on receiver response depending on which signal component is modified...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jianyun Chen, Keshi Zhang, Zheng Kuang, Guijuan Hu, Qiao Song, Yanjun Chang
Considering the cross effect in the evolution of subsequent yield surfaces for metals, an anisotropic distortional yield surface constitutive model is developed. By introducing an anisotropic distortional hardening function into the isotropic hardening part of the classical Chaboche rate-dependent constitutive model, the plastic-deformation-induced distortional and anisotropic hardening behaviors of subsequent yield surfaces are characterized. The experimental data of distortional yield surfaces for T2 pure copper under three different loading paths, including pre-tension, pre-torsion, and pre-tension-torsion proportional loading of 45-degree, are simulated by implementing the models into a numerical user defined material (UMAT) procedure based on the ABAQUS finite element package...
February 12, 2019: Materials
Timothy J Boycott, Jingyi Gao, Megan D Gall
The efficacy of animal signals is strongly influenced by the structure of the habitat in which they are propagating. In recent years, the habitat structure of temperate forests has been increasingly subject to modifications from foraging by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Increasing deer numbers and the accompanying browsing have been shown to alter vegetation structure and thus the foraging, roosting, and breeding habitats of many species. However, despite a large body of literature on the effects of vegetation structure on sound propagation, we do not yet know what impact deer browsing may have on acoustic communication...
2019: PloS One
Mary H Patton, Katherine E Padgett, Paige N McKeon, Houman Qadir, Michael S Patton, Chaoqi Mu, Bradley M Roberts, Brian N Mathur
The nucleus accumbens is a critical integration center for reward-related circuitry and is comprised primarily of medium spiny projection neurons. The dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition onto medium spiny neurons determines the output of this structure. While nucleus accumbens excitatory synaptic plasticity is well-characterized, inhibitory synaptic plasticity mechanisms and their potential relevance to shaping motivated behaviors is poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mouse nucleus accumbens core...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Maya Opendak, Patrese Robinson-Drummer, Anna Blomkvist, Roseanna M Zanca, Kira Wood, Lily Jacobs, Stephanie Chan, Stephen Tan, Joyce Woo, Gayatri Venkataraman, Emma Kirschner, Johan N Lundström, Donald A Wilson, Peter A Serrano, Regina M Sullivan
Child development research highlights caregiver regulation of infant physiology and behavior as a key feature of early life attachment, although mechanisms for maternal control of infant neural circuits remain elusive. Here we explored the neurobiology of maternal regulation of infant fear using neural network and molecular levels of analysis in a rodent model. Previous research has shown maternal suppression of amygdala-dependent fear learning during a sensitive period. Here we characterize changes in neural networks engaged during maternal regulation and the transition to infant self-regulation...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
H-W Huang, F E Uslu, P Katsamba, E Lauga, M S Sakar, B J Nelson
Bacteria can exploit mechanics to display remarkable plasticity in response to locally changing physical and chemical conditions. Compliant structures play a notable role in their taxis behavior, specifically for navigation inside complex and structured environments. Bioinspired mechanisms with rationally designed architectures capable of large, nonlinear deformation present opportunities for introducing autonomy into engineered small-scale devices. This work analyzes the effect of hydrodynamic forces and rheology of local surroundings on swimming at low Reynolds number, identifies the challenges and benefits of using elastohydrodynamic coupling in locomotion, and further develops a suite of machinery for building untethered microrobots with self-regulated mobility...
January 2019: Science Advances
Claudia Barile, Caterina Casavola, Benedetto Gambino, Alessandro Mellone, Marco Spagnolo
In the last decades, the increasing use of laminate materials, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics, in several engineering applications has pushed researchers to deeply investigate their mechanical behavior, especially in consideration of the delamination process, which could affect their performance. The need for improving the capability of the current instruments in predicting some collapse or strength reduction due to hidden damages leads to the necessity to combine numerical models with experimental campaigns...
February 8, 2019: Materials
Xianchuan Chen, Xiong Xiong, Xiaoming Jiang, Huahong Shi, Chenxi Wu
Plastic pollution has been increasingly reported in both marine environment and inland waters, but their fate is not well understood. Several studies have showed that the surface of plastic debris can be colonized by microbes, leading to the sinking of floating plastic debris in marine environment. In this work, development of biofilm on polypropylene sheet (squares with a side length of 5 and 10 mm) and their buoyancy changes were studied in a freshwater lake in four seasons. Results showed that biofilm development have different growth rate and distinct algae composition in different seasons, which are mainly related to the difference in temperature, nutrient levels, and suspend solids in lake water...
February 6, 2019: Chemosphere
Yazmin Brown, Susan Hua, Pradeep S Tanwar
The identity of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains an enigma, with the question outstanding of whether CSCs are fixed entities or plastic cell states in response to microenvironmental cues. Recent evidence highlights the power of the tumor microenvironment to dictate CSC functionality and spatiotemporal regulation that gives rise to tumor heterogeneity. This microenvironmental regulation of CSCs parallels that of normal tissues, whereby resident stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments or 'niches', which provide the cellular and molecular signals that wire every aspect of stem cell behavior and fate...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Lauren Steinbaum, John Mboya, Ryan Mahoney, Sammy M Njenga, Clair Null, Amy J Pickering
Improved sanitation has been associated with a reduced prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection and has been hypothesized to prevent fecal contamination from spreading throughout the household environment. We evaluated the effect of providing households with a pit latrine with a plastic slab and drophole cover, child feces management tools, and associated behavioral messaging on reducing STH eggs in household soil. We collected soil samples from 2107 households (898 control and 1209 improved sanitation intervention households) that were enrolled in the WASH Benefits cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Kenya and performed a post-intervention analysis after two years of intervention exposure...
February 11, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dohee Jung, Ji-Won Park, Yun-Hee Kim, Joshua Sung Hyun You
BACKGROUND: Intermanual transfer of learning is an important movement basis for a keyboard and instrument playing movement. However, the issue of where neural plastic mechanism occurs in the brain after intermanual transfer training remains both controversial and unresolved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study is to investigate the neuroplastic mechanism associated with the interlimb transfer learning from non-dominant hand to dominant hand. METHODS: Twenty healthy right-handed adults were classified into either the control group (no-training) or the experimental group (training serial button-press motor task, SPMT), 5 days a week for two consecutive weeks...
February 4, 2019: NeuroRehabilitation
Caitlin Kroeger, Daniel E Crocker, David R Thompson, Leigh G Torres, Paul Sagar, Scott A Shaffer
Corticosterone (CORT) is a glucocorticoid hormone that maintains energy balance and can modulate foraging behaviors in seabirds. However, CORT responses are not always predictable under similar biophysical conditions and do not necessarily influence the same behaviors across breeding stages and species. To enhance our understanding of CORT's role as a proximate determinant of foraging behavior and energy maintenance, we examined the relationships between body condition, CORT, foraging behavior, and foraging success between two sympatric breeding albatross species with differing foraging strategies and life histories, the Campbell albatross (Thalassarache impavida) and the gray-headed albatross (Thalassarache chrysostoma), from Campbell Island, New Zealand...
March 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
D Rabaiotti, Rosie Woodroffe
Climate change is widely accepted to be one of the greatest threats to species globally. Identifying the species most at risk is, therefore, a conservation priority. Some species have the capacity to adapt to rising temperatures through changing their phenology, behavior, distribution, or physiology, and, therefore, may be more likely to persist under rising temperatures. Recent findings suggest that the African wild dog Lycaon pictus may be impacted by climate change, since reproductive success is consistently lower when pup-rearing coincides with periods of high ambient temperature...
February 10, 2019: Oecologia
Enrique Sanchis, Silvia Casans, Giuseppe Felici, Rafael García-Gil, Enrique Sanchis-Sánchez, Ignacio Pérez-Calatayud, Maria José Pérez-Calatayud, José Pérez-Calatayud
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to develop a bleeding detector integrated into the acrylic circular applicators for specific mobile linacs. Thus, a bleeding detector has been developed based on a capacitive sensor to be used with plastic applicators, as in the case of LIAC HWL from Sordina IORT Technologies SpA. According to the clinical impact, we have selected 0.5 cm as the minimum depth of fluid that should be detected. METHODS: An experiment was developed using water-simulating blood...
January 2019: Physica Medica: PM
Roberto Frau, Silvia Fanni, Valeria Serra, Nicola Simola, Sean Godar, Francesco Traccis, Paola Devoto, Marco Bortolato, Miriam Melis
Aggressive behavior (AB) is a multifaceted disorder based on the interaction between genetic and environmental factors whose underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The best-characterized gene by environment (GxE) interaction for AB is the relationship between child neglect/abuse and low-activity alleles of the monoamine-oxidase A (MAOA) gene. MAOA oxidizes monoamines like serotonin and dopamine, whose aberrant signaling at discrete developmental ages plays a pivotal role in the ontogeny of AB. Here, we investigated the impact of this GxE on dopamine function at pre-adolescence by exposing hypomorphic MAOA (MAONeo ) mice to early life stress (ES) and by performing behavioral and ex vivo electrophysiological analyses in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
February 6, 2019: Neuropharmacology
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