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Energy systems

Negin Ashoori, Marc Teixido, Stephanie Spahr, Gregory H LeFevre, David L Sedlak, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater is increasingly being valued as a freshwater resource in arid regions and can provide opportunities for beneficial reuse via aquifer recharge if adequate pollutant removal can be achieved. We envision a multi-unit operation approach to capture, treat, and recharge (CTR) stormwater using low energy, cost-effective technologies appropriate for larger magnitude, less frequent events. Herein, we tested nutrient, metal, and trace organic contaminant removal of a pilot-scale CTR system in the laboratory using biochar-amended woodchip bioreactors following eight months of aging under field conditions with exposure to real stormwater...
February 2, 2019: Water Research
Ming Li, Minghua Zhou, Jianmei Luo, Chaolin Tan, Xiaoyu Tian, Pei Su, Tingyue Gu
This study developed a bubbling-type photosynthetic algae microbial fuel cell (B-PAMFC) to treat synthetic wastewater and capture CO2 using Chlorella vulgaris with simultaneous power production. The performance of B-PAMFC in CO2 fixation and bioenergy production was compared with the photosynthetic algae microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) and bubbling photobioreactor. Different nitrogen sources for C. vulgaris growth, namely sodium nitrate, urea, ammonium acetate and acetamide were studied. The maximum CO2 fixation rate in B-PAMFC with 2...
February 7, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Sai Wang, Lin Wang, Yu Zheng, Zhong-Bing Chen, Yang Yang, Hsing-Juh Lin, Xiao-Qin Yang, Tuan-Tuan Wang
Eutrophication is a leading cause of impairment of lentic water bodies throughout the world. To inhibit algal blooms and remove excess nutrients, a 10,000 m2 restoration project consisting of vegetation establishment and fish manipulation was conducted in the eutrophic bay of the Yantian Reservoir, southern China. Three Ecopath models were constructed to assess the recovery effects at an ecosystem level, and time series data were simulated to propose a fishery policy. During the restoration, 1) the redundant primary production flowing back to detritus decreased due to the increased predation of four stocked fish with different feeding habits; 2) the transfer efficiencies (TEs) through trophic levels increased due to the reinforced energy flows along the planktivorous, herbivorous, and molluscivorous food chains; 3) the groups that had the highest keystoneness shifted from carnivorous fish to invertivorous fish and omnivorous shrimp, indicating the shift of mixed trophic impacts from top-down to wasp-waist control; and 4) the changing indices of path length, flow fluxes, matter cycling, and network information showed that the restored system was more mature, developed, and organized than before...
January 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaobing Pang, Haijun Lan, Jinping Zhong, Daiqi Ye, Marvin D Shaw, Alastair C Lewis
Conventional volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring based on thermal desorption - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) or gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (TD-GC-FID) is relatively cumbersome and expensive. In this study commercial off the shelf low-cost and low-power photo-ionization detector (PID) sensors are used as simple detectors in VOC analysis systems based on GC, including a miniaturised GC × GC device with portable, low-cost, and low-energy-consumption features. PID sensors produce a voltage signal positively proportional to VOC concentration, which when incorporated into a TD-GC system gave limit of detection of 0...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
S L Jat, C M Parihar, A K Singh, B Kumar, M Choudhary, H S Nayak, M D Parihar, N Parihar, B R Meena
A greater energy grant in diesel-fed machinery driven farming substantiate the higher GHGs emission along with improper input (fertilizer, pesticide and irrigation) use and intensive soil management. Practicing conservation tillage, residue retention and diversified crop rotations were advocated because of their multiple benefits. Hence we explored the energy requirement and carbon footprint of conservation agriculture (CA) based maize production systems. Coated N fertilizer [sulphur coated urea (SCU) and neem coated urea (NCU)] were compared with unfertilized and uncoated prilled urea (PU) in the scenario of with and without residue retention on permanent beds (PB) under diversified maize systems [MMuMb, maize-mustard-mungbean and MWMb, maize-wheat-mungbean] in search of a sustainable and energy efficient production system with lesser C-footprint...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Bruno Henriques, Francesca Coppola, Rui Monteiro, João Pinto, Thainara Viana, Carlo Pretti, Amadeu Soares, Rosa Freitas, Eduarda Pereira
Recently, anthropogenic enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs) have been reported in natural environments, due to increasing use and discharges of hospital/industrial wastewaters. Gadolinium (Gd), which is mainly used as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging in medical exams, may reach concentrations in water up to two orders of magnitude larger than baseline levels. Nevertheless, in marine systems scarce information is available concerning the toxicity of REE towards inhabiting organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical impact of anthropogenic Gd in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is a species of commercial interest and one of the most accepted pollution bioindicator...
January 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
M Pellegrini, M Bloemendal, N Hoekstra, G Spaak, A Andreu Gallego, J Rodriguez Comins, T Grotenhuis, S Picone, A J Murrell, H J Steeman
A transition to a low carbon energy system is needed to respond to global challenge of climate change mitigation. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is a technology with worldwide potential to provide sustainable space heating and cooling by (seasonal) storage and recovery of heat in the subsurface. However, adoption of ATES varies strongly across Europe, because of both technical as well as organizational barriers, e.g. differences in climatic and subsurface conditions and legislation respectively. After identification of all these barriers in a Climate-KIC research project, six ATES pilot systems have been installed in five different EU-countries aiming to show how such barriers can be overcome...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Muhammad Sufyan, Nasrudin Abd Rahim, ChiaKwang Tan, Munir Azam Muhammad, Siti Rohani Sheikh Raihan
The incessantly growing demand for electricity in today's world claims an efficient and reliable system of energy supply. Distributed energy resources such as diesel generators, wind energy and solar energy can be combined within a microgrid to provide energy to the consumers in a sustainable manner. In order to ensure more reliable and economical energy supply, battery storage system is integrated within the microgrid. In this article, operating cost of isolated microgrid is reduced by economic scheduling considering the optimal size of the battery...
2019: PloS One
Stephanie L Bond, Persephone Greco-Otto, Raymond Sides, Grace P S Kwong, Renaud Leguillette, Warwick M Bayly
A prospective, randomised, controlled study was designed to determine relative aerobic and anaerobic (lactic and alactic) contributions at supramaximal exercise intensities using 2 different methods. Thoroughbred racehorses (n=5) performed a V̇O2max test and 3 supramaximal treadmill runs (105%, 115% and 125%V̇O2max ). Blood lactate concentration (BL) was measured at rest, every 15s during runs, and 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60mins post-exercise. Method 1: Oxygen demand was calculated for each supramaximal intensity based on the V̇O2max test, and relative aerobic and anaerobic contributions were calculated from measured V̇O2 and the accumulated oxygen deficit...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ivan Devic, José Manuel Encarnación Escobar, Detlef Lohse
We calculate the equilibrium shape of a droplet sitting on a tilted substrate with a ''chemical step'', i.e., different lypophilicity at the two sides of the step. This problem can be generalized to that of a droplet experiencing a body force, pushing it from the lyophilic part to the lyophobic part of the substrate. We present phase diagrams, in which we show for which droplet sizes there are dynamically inaccessible equilibrium shapes. We also identify what determines the threshold volume. While this given system was studied previously in the literature using contact angle hysteresis laws, we present the full static thermodynamical solution of the interfacial energy including the contact energy, while omitting the hysteresis effects from the contact line...
February 14, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xiao Li, José A Martínez-González, Kangho Park, Cecilia Yu, Ye Zhou, Juan J de Pablo, Paul F Nealey
Chemically patterned surfaces can be used to selectively stabilize blue-phases as macroscopic single crystals with a prescribed lattice orientation. By tailoring the interfacial free energy through the pattern characteristics, it is possible to set, with nanoscale precision, the optimal conditions to induce a spontaneously blue-phase crystal nucleation on the patterned substrate where a uniform, defect-free, blue-phase single crystal is finally formed in matter of seconds. The chemical patterns took into consideration in this work are made up of alternated stripe-like regions of homeotropic and planar anchoring...
February 14, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaohui Wang, Xingzhao Tu, Boming Deng, John Z H Zhang, Zhaoxi Sun
The equilibrium and nonequilibrium adaptive alchemical free energy simulation methods optimum Bennett's acceptance ratio and optimum crooks' equation (OCE), based on the statistically optimal bidirectional reweighting estimator named Bennett's Acceptance Ratio or Crooks' equation, perform initial sampling in the staging alchemical transformation and then determine the importance rank of different states via the time-derivative of the variance. The method is proven to give speedups compared with the equal time rule...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Riccardo Scott, Anatol V Prudnikau, Artsiom Antanovich, Sotirios Christodoulou, Thomas Riedl, Guillaume H V Bertrand, Nina Owschimikow, Jörg K N Lindner, Zeger Hens, Iwan Moreels, Mikhail Artemyev, Ulrike Woggon, Alexander W Achtstein
In a comparative study we investigate the carrier-phonon coupling in CdSe based core-only and hetero 2D as well as 0D nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the coupling can be strongly tuned by the lateral size of nanoplatelets, while, due to the weak lateral confinement, the transition energies are only altered by tens of meV. Our analysis shows that an increase in the lateral platelet area results in a strong decrease in the phonon coupling to acoustic modes due to deformation potential interaction, yielding an exciton deformation potential of 3...
February 14, 2019: Nanoscale
Guan-Yu Chen, Bo-Ren Chang, Ting-An Shih, Chien-Hsiang Lin, Chieh-Liang Lo, Yan-Zhi Chen, You-Xuan Liu, Yu-Ru Li, Jin-Ting Guo, Chin-Wei Lu, Zu-Po Yang, Hai-Ching Su
Near-infrared (NIR) solid-state light-emitting devices have recently received much attention as NIR light sources, which can penetrate deep into human tissue and are suitable for bioimaging and labeling. On the other hand, solid-state NIR light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) show several promising advantages over NIR organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). However, in the reported ionic transition metal complex (iTMC)-based NIR LECs, there is currently no iridium-based LEC that can display NIR electroluminescence (EL) peaks near or above 800 nm...
February 14, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lirong Liu, Gangbing Zhu, Wei Zeng, Baohe Lv, Yinhui Yi
We present a new "off-on" fluorescence probe for detecting hypochlorite (ClO- ) based on silicon quantum dots coupled with silver nanoparticles (SiQDs/AgNPs) as nanocomplexes. Via introducing N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine and catechol as initial reactants, silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) with excellent properties were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology and structure of quantum dots...
February 14, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yudong Zhang, Aiguo Xu, Guangcai Zhang, Yanbiao Gan, Zhihua Chen, Sauro Succi
Entropy production during the process of thermal phase-separation of multiphase flows is investigated by means of a discrete Boltzmann kinetic model. The entropy production rate is found to increase during the spinodal decomposition stage and to decrease during the domain growth stage, attaining its maximum at the crossover between the two. Such behaviour provides a natural criterion to identify and discriminate between the two regimes. Furthermore, the effects of heat conductivity, viscosity and surface tension on the entropy production rate are investigated by systematically probing the interplay between non-equilibrium energy and momentum fluxes...
February 14, 2019: Soft Matter
Jakub Lang, Jiří Brabec, Masaaki Saitow, Jiří Pittner, Frank Neese, Ondřej Demel
In this article we report an implementation of the perturbative triples correction to Mukherjee's state-specific multireference coupled cluster method based on the domain-based pair natural orbital approach (DLPNO-MkCC). We tested the performance of DLPNO-MkCCSD(T) in calculations involving tetramethyleneethane and isomers of naphthynes. These tests show that more than 97% of triples energy was recovered with respect to the canonical MkCCSD(T) method, which together with the DLPNO-MkCCSD part accounts for about 99...
February 14, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kathleen Vinck, Linda Scheelen, Els Du Bois
This research project focuses on the problem of organic (or food waste) waste recycling in Flanders, Belgium. Here, the total amount of organic waste produced annually by restaurants is estimated at 166,000 tonnes. Despite being in the evolution towards a circular economy, more than 61% of the restaurants do not collect organic waste separately from residual waste. Within the research, this problem was explored from a human-centred perspective by analysing existing food-waste collection and processing equipment, and by observing the kitchen workflow and interior design of different urban located restaurants...
January 2019: Waste Management & Research
Amani Maalouf, Mutasem El-Fadel
Solid waste management has witnessed much progress in recent years with considerable efforts targeting the reduction of associated impacts and carbon emissions. Such efforts remain relatively limited in developing economies due to inefficient management practices. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is adopted to identify integrated systems with minimal impacts and reduced emissions in a developing context coupled with an economic valuation and sensitivity analysis to assess the effect of varying influencing parameters individually...
January 2019: Waste Management & Research
Qinglin Deng, Yanpeng Fu, Changbao Zhu, Yan Yu
Niobium-based oxides including Nb2 O5 , TiNbx O2+2.5x compounds, M-Nb-O (M = Cr, Ga, Fe, Zr, Mg, etc.) family, etc., as the unique structural merit (e.g., quasi-2D network for Li-ion incorporation, open and stable Wadsley- Roth shear crystal structure), are of great interest for applications in energy storage systems such as Li/Na-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors. Most of these Nb-based oxides show high operating voltage (>1.0 V vs Li+ /Li) that can suppress the formation of solid electrolyte interface film and lithium dendrites, ensuring the safety of working batteries...
February 14, 2019: Small
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