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Ocular Toxoplasma

Luz A de Wit, Donald A Croll, Bernie Tershy, Maria Dolores Correa, Hector Luna-Pasten, Paulo Quadri, A Marm Kilpatrick
Cats (Felis catus) are reservoirs of several pathogens that affect humans, including Toxoplasma gondii. Infection of pregnant women with T. gondii can cause ocular and neurological lesions in newborns, and congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with schizophrenia, epilepsy, movement disorders, and Alzheimer's disease. We compared seroprevalence of T. gondii and risk factors in people on seven islands in Mexico with and without introduced cats to determine the effect of cat eradication and cat density on exposure to T...
February 14, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alejandra de-la-Torre, Juanita Valdés-Camacho, Clara López de Mesa, Andrés Uauy-Nazal, Juan David Zuluaga, Lina María Ramírez-Páez, Felipe Durán, Elizabeth Torres-Morales, Jessica Triviño, Mateo Murillo, Alba Cristina Peñaranda, Juan Carlos Sepúlveda-Arias, Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marín
BACKGROUND: Making a definite diagnosis of infectious uveitis is a challenging task because many other infectious, and non-infectious uveitis, may have similar non-specific symptoms and overlapping clinical appearances. Co-infections in immunocompetent patients are not frequently proved with traditional serologic-diagnostic tools. METHODS: Descriptive transversal study, in a Uveitis Service of an Ophthalmology Reference Center, in Bogotá, Colombia, from July 2014 to February 2016...
January 25, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Artur Filipowicz, Mircea N Coca, Barbra M Blair, Peter Y Chang
PURPOSE: To report a case of systemic and ocular toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient, who developed myocarditis with resulting cardiogenic shock and multiple organ failure, followed by bilateral panuveitis masquerading as endogenous endophthalmitis. METHODS: Single case report with images. RESULTS: A 59-year-old man with a history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and associated scleromyxedema but otherwise immunocompetent was admitted to the intensive care unit for cardiogenic shock and multiple organ failure due to presumed viral myocarditis...
January 17, 2019: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Carlos A Gomez, Malaya K Sahoo, Ghazala Yasmeen Kahn, Lina Zhong, José G Montoya, Benjamin A Pinsky, Thuy Doan
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common infectious cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. Two multicopy targets (B1 and Rep529) are commonly used in T. gondii PCR assays, but studies evaluating these targets in ocular fluid samples are limited. Herein, we determine the analytical characteristics of a single-reaction, internally controlled, dual-target, real-time T. gondii PCR and evaluate the clinical performance of this assay in intraocular fluid samples obtained at a reference ophthalmologic centre in the USA...
January 12, 2019: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mehdi Arshadi, Lame Akhlaghi, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Leila Alizadeh Ghavidel, Kamal Nasiri, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Farideh Mousavi, Zahra Rampisheh, Majid Khanmohammadi, Elham Razmjou
Background: Our goal was to use molecular techniques to verify and characterise clinical diagnoses of ocular toxoplasmosis. Clinical cases were evaluated against IgM and IgG Toxoplasma antibodies, and IgG avidity was tested. B1 gene was assessed for molecular detection, and multi-locus genotyping were conducted to type Toxoplasma infections. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 patients with suspected active ocular toxoplasmosis. Patients were examined by an ophthalmologist and clinical manifestations were recorded...
January 9, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mehdi Sharif, Roghiyeh Faridnia, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Shirzad Gholami, Hamed Kalani, Ahmad Daryani
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of cyst production by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii, RH strain, in Wistar rat and BALB/c mouse and the purpose of this study was to introduce an animal model suitable for congenital, cerebral, and ocular toxoplasmosis. The mice and rats, considered as cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis models, were intraperitoneally infected by different number of the parasite and their eyes and brain were evaluated for the presence of T. gondii cyst using the microscopic examination and the bioassay method...
December 19, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Umashankar Vetrivel, Hemavathy Nagarajan
AIMS: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. Its parasitic invasion leads to encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis and congenital infection. Host invasion by T. gondii is mediated by Moving junction (MJ) complex formed by secretory proteins such as micronemes and Rhoptry Neck proteins (RONs). Among these secretory proteins, RON4 shows major interactions with RON2 and RON5 of MJ complex and is also found to facilitate invasion by interacting with the β-tubulin of the host...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
S Bala Murugan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Oliver Liesenfeld, Jose G Montoya
SUMMARYPrimary Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually subclinical, but cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present in some patients. Active infection is characterized by tachyzoites, while tissue cysts characterize latent disease. Infection in the fetus and in immunocompromised patients can cause devastating disease. The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (pyr-sulf), targeting the active stage of the infection, is the current gold standard for treating toxoplasmosis, but failure rates remain significant...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Caroline Paquet, Mark H Yudin
BACKGROUND: One of the major consequences of pregnant women becoming infected by Toxoplasma gondii is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause severe neurological or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. Prenatal care must include education about prevention of toxoplasmosis. The low prevalence of the disease in the Canadian population and limitations in diagnosis and therapy limit the effectiveness of screening strategies...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Marcelo Rudzinski, Carina Argüelles, Cristóbal Couto, José R Oubiña, Silvia Reina
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to analyze possible associations between systemic and ocular cytokine levels and specific clinical ophthalmologic signs from patients with a reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (RTR). METHODS: A total of 18 patients with an active RTR episode, 8 patients with inactive scars, and 14 control patients were included in the study. Serum samples and aqueous humor (AH) samples were analyzed for IFN (interferon)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-6 levels by ELISA...
August 6, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Genevieve Syn, Denise Anderson, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson
Recent interest has focussed on the influence of infectious disease organisms on the host epigenome. Toxoplasma gondii infection acquired congenitally or in early life is associated with severe ocular and brain developmental anomalies, while persistent asymptomatic infection is a proposed risk factor for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide analysis of the host methylome and transcriptome following T. gondii infection in a retinal cell line identified genes (132, 186 and 128 genes at 2, 6 and 24 h post-infection) concordant for methylation and expression, i...
November 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Khadija Khan, Wajihullah Khan
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite which is known to infect one-third of the total world population chronically though it is asymptomatic in immunocompetent patients. However, in an immunocompromised patient or an infected fetus, it may cause devastating effects. The parasite may cross the placenta of an infected pregnant woman and probably infect the fetus congenitally. The severity of the infection depends on the gestational age at which the infection has occurred i.e., if it has occurred in the early phase, the rate of transmission is low but the severity is high if the fetus is infected and if it has occurred in the later phase then transmission rate is higher while the severity would be low...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Alessandra Rassi, Bozho Todorich, Lisa J Faia, Michael Trese, Kimberly Drenser, Antonio Capone
PURPOSE: We report a case of congenital toxoplasmosis associated with retinal detachment. METHODS: A 9-month-old white boy presented a unilateral tractional retina detachment associated with congenital toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. RESULTS: The diagnosis is supported by positive IgG (>400) for toxoplasmosis and intracranial calcification on magnetic resonance imaging, along with positive family history of Toxoplasma infection in the mother...
July 13, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Christelle Pomares, Sébastien Devillard, Tyson H Holmes, Tudor Rares Olariu, Cynthia J Press, Raymund Ramirez, Jeanne Talucod, Remy Estran, Chunlei Su, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel Ajzenberg, Jose G Montoya
Whereas in Europe most of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes belong to the type II lineage, in Latin America, type II is rare and atypical strains predominate. In North America, data on T. gondii genotypes in humans are scarce.In this study, T. gondii DNA samples from 67 patients diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in the United States were available for genotyping. Discriminant analysis of principal components was used to infer each atypical genotype to a geographic area where patients were likely infected. Associations between genotype, disease severity, immune status, and geographic region, were also estimated...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lian Xun Piao, Jia Hui Cheng, Fumie Aosai, Xu Dong Zhao, Kazumi Norose, Xue Jun Jin
Congenital toxoplasmosis is caused by the vertical transmission of infection from mother to foetus through the placenta when a pregnant woman is infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Congenital infection can have serious consequences, such as intrauterine abortion, foetal death and severe neurological, ocular or other organ damage in the foetus. In this review, we focus on recent publications investigating vertical transmission of T. gondii infection, cellular immunopathogenesis and protective immunity in primary toxoplasmosis during pregnancy...
September 2018: Parasite Immunology
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Reda H El Bakary, Mohamed A El Barody
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of retinochoroiditis worldwide in humans. Some studies highlighted the idea that ocular lesions differ according to the route of infection but none of them mimicked the natural route. The current study aimed to investigate the ophthalmic outcomes in congenital and oral routes of infection with Toxoplasma in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups; group I: congenital infection, group II: acquired oral infection and group III: non-infected. We used Me49 chronic low-virulence T...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Hyun Beom Song, Bong-Kwang Jung, Jin Hyoung Kim, Young-Ha Lee, Min-Ho Choi, Jeong Hun Kim
The conversion of tachyzoites into bradyzoites is a way for Toxoplasma gondii to establish a chronic and asymptomatic infection and achieve lifelong persistence in the host. The bradyzoites form tissue cysts in the retina, but not much is known about the horizontal distribution of the cysts or their interactions with glial cells in the retina. A chronic ocular toxoplasmosis model was induced by per oral administration of T. gondii Me49 strain cysts to BALB/c mice. Two months after the infection, retinas were flat-mounted and immunostained to detect cysts, ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells, followed by observation under fluorescence and confocal microscope...
August 2018: Parasitology Research
Xinxin Tong, Shengjie Chen, Huanqin Zheng, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, and IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) consists of WSX-1 (the IL-27Rα subunit) and the signal-transducing subunit gp130. Human and mouse mast cells (MCs) express the IL-27R. To explore the expressions of IL-27/IL-27R subunits (WSX-1 and gp130) during acute ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), we established mouse model by intraocular injection of 500 Toxoplasma gondii RH strain tachyzoites. Histopathological changes were analyzed, MCs were counted by toluidine blue staining, and tryptase+ /IL-27+ MCs were examined by immunofluorescence double-staining in the eyes and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of T...
July 2018: Parasitology Research
Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Mohammad Zarei, Mehdi Mohebali, Hossein Keshavarz Valian, Saeedeh Shojaee, Raziyeh Mahmoudzadeh, Mirataollah Salabati
This prospective study was aimed to detect acute and chronic ocular toxoplasmosis by comparison of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibody levels and IgG avidity test. One hundred and seventeen patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) who referred to the Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were included in this study. Of the patients, 77 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgG, and 8 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgM. IgG avidity test revealed 11, 4, and 102 cases were low, intermediate, and high, respectively, and 6...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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