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Cancer Sensor

Patricia Dauer, Nikita S Sharma, Vineet K Gupta, Brittany Durden, Roey Hadad, Santanu Banerjee, Vikas Dudeja, Ashok Saluja, Sulagna Banerjee
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling have been shown to be dysregulated in multiple cancer types. Glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), the master regulator of the UPR, plays a role in proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) make up a crucial component of the tumor heterogeneity in pancreatic cancer, as well as other cancers. "Stemness" in pancreatic cancer defines a population of cells within the tumor that have increased therapeutic resistance as well as survival advantage...
February 12, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Muhannad Abu-Remaileh, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Rania Akkawi, Ibrahim Knani, Shiran Udi, Micheal E Pacold, Joseph Tam, Rami I Aqeilan
OBJECTIVE: WWOX, a well-established tumor suppressor, is frequently lost in cancer and plays important roles in DNA damage response and cellular metabolism. METHODS: We re-analyzed several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using the Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Portal website to uncover WWOX's association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Using several engineered mouse models, we studied the effect of somatic WWOX loss on glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: Several WWOX variants were found to be strongly associated with MetS disorders...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Rosamaria Capuano, Alexandro Catini, Roberto Paolesse, Corrado Di Natale
The positive outcome of lung cancer treatment is strongly related to the earliness of the diagnosis. Thus, there is a strong requirement for technologies that could provide an early detection of cancer. The concept of early diagnosis is immediately extended to large population screening, and then, it is strongly related to non-invasiveness and low cost. Sensor technology takes advantage of the microelectronics revolution, and then, it promises to develop devices sufficiently sensitive to detect lung cancer biomarkers...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Peter Thomas
Rapid (nongenomic) membrane-initiated androgen actions have been described in nuclear androgen (AR) receptor-null cells. Four distinct proteins have been proposed as membrane androgen receptors (mAR) or sensors. TRPM8 is a calcium channel that acts as a pain receptor and mediates androgen- and menthol-induced increases in calcium levels and survival of prostate cancer cells. Testosterone (T) directly interacts with TRPM8, but extensive androgen receptor binding studies to confirm its role as a mAR are lacking...
February 11, 2019: Endocrinology
Amandeep Kaur, Elizabeth J New
The availability of electrons to biological systems underpins the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) that powers living cells. It is little wonder, therefore, that the sufficiency of electron supply is critical to cellular health. Considering mitochondrial redox activity alone, a lack of oxygen (hypoxia) leads to impaired production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the major energy currency of the cell, whereas excess oxygen (hyperoxia) is associated with elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the interaction of oxygen with electrons that have leaked from the ETC...
February 12, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Serena Imperato, Carmela Mistretta, Maria Marone, Ilaria Migliaccio, Ilaria Pulcinelli, Maria Rosaria Faraone Mennella
Increased DNA damage and the propension to cancer development, depend on the modulation of the mechanisms to control and maintain genomic integrity. Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase activation and automodification are early responses to genotoxic stress. Upon binding to DNA strand breaks, the enzyme, a molecular DNA nick sensor, is hyperactivated: this is the first step in a series of events leading to either DNA repair or apoptosis. Enzyme hyperactivation and automodification can be easily measured and are widely used to look at DNA damage extent in the cell...
February 8, 2019: Cells
Vijayakumar R Vishnu, Raveendran S Renjith, Archana Mukherjee, Shirly Raichal Anil, Janardanan Sreekumar, Jyothi Narayanan Alummoottil
The structure and in vitro anti-proliferative activity of anthocyanins in the root tubers of a sweet potato variety cv Bhu Krishna and the purple leaves of a promising accession S-1467 were studied with the objectives of understanding the structure-activity relationship and to compare the leaf and tuber anthocyanins. The chemical structure of anthocyanins was determined by HR-ESI-MS analysis. FRET-based caspase sensor probe had been used to study the anti-proliferative property and analysis of cell cycle was done after staining with propidium iodide and subsequent fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jennifer Sand, Gabriele Fenini, Serena Grossi, Paulina Hennig, Michela Di Filippo, Mitchell Levesque, Sabine Werner, Lars E French, Hans-Dietmar Beer
The inflammasome protein NLRP1 is an important innate immune sensor in human keratinocytes and mediates, together with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1, the activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. These cytokines and inflammasomes can have in part opposing roles during tumorigenesis in mice. In contrast, ASC expression is impaired in different types of cancer in humans. In this study, we analyzed inflammasome activation and expression of inflammasome proteins including their downstream cytokines in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), a type of non-melanoma skin cancer derived from keratinocytes...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Shane C Wright, Paweł Kozielewicz, Maria Kowalski-Jahn, Julian Petersen, Carl-Fredrik Bowin, Greg Slodkowicz, Maria Marti-Solano, David Rodríguez, Belma Hot, Najeah Okashah, Katerina Strakova, Jana Valnohova, M Madan Babu, Nevin A Lambert, Jens Carlsson, Gunnar Schulte
Class F receptors are considered valuable therapeutic targets due to their role in human disease, but structural changes accompanying receptor activation remain unexplored. Employing population and cancer genomics data, structural analyses, molecular dynamics simulations, resonance energy transfer-based approaches and mutagenesis, we identify a conserved basic amino acid in TM6 in Class F receptors that acts as a molecular switch to mediate receptor activation. Across all tested Class F receptors (FZD4,5,6,7, SMO), mutation of the molecular switch confers an increased potency of agonists by stabilizing an active conformation as assessed by engineered mini G proteins as conformational sensors...
February 8, 2019: Nature Communications
Miguel Nava, Pranabananda Dutta, Nathan R Zemke, Robin Farias-Eisner, Jaydutt V Vadgama, Yanyuan Wu
BACKGROUND: The Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/HER1) can be activated by several ligands including Transforming Growth Factor alpha (TGF-α) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Following ligand binding, EGFR heterodimerizes with other HER family members, such as HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2). Previously, we showed that the EGFR is upregulated in trastuzumab resistant HER2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer cells. This study is aimed to determine the downstream effects on transcription following EGFR upregulation in HER2+ breast cancer cells...
February 8, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
Sheta M Sheta, Said M El-Sheikh, Mokhles M Abd-Elzaher
The analytical quantification and follow-up of the hormone prolactin is very important in clinical diagnosis (e.g., in cases of breast cancer), treatment, and the medical laboratory. The development of a new simple, fast, and less costly method is of considerable importance. Novel praseodymium metal-organic framework nanofibers (Pr-MOF-NFs) were synthesized by a facile and simple method for the determination of human prolactin in serum samples. The Pr-MOF-NFs were well characterized with several spectroscopic tools, such as mass spectrometry, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy...
February 8, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
I Wayan Sumardika, Youyi Chen, Nahoko Tomonobu, Rie Kinoshita, I Made Winarsa Ruma, Hiroki Sato, Eisaku Kondo, Yusuke Inoue, Akira Yamauchi, Hitoshi Murata, Ken-Ichi Yamamoto, Shuta Tomida, Kazuhiko Shien, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Junichi Soh, Junichiro Futami, Endy Widya Putranto, Toshihiko Hibino, Masahiro Nishibori, Shinichi Toyooka, Masakiyo Sakaguchi
Compiling evidence indicates an unusual role of extracellular S100A8/A9 in cancer metastasis. S100A8/A9 secreted from either cancer cells or normal cells including epithelial and inflammatory cells stimulates cancer cells through S100A8/A9 sensor receptors in an autocrine or paracrine manner, leading to cancer cell metastatic progression. We previously reported a novel S100A8/A9 receptor, neuroplastin-β (NPTNβ), which plays a critical role in atopic dermatitis when it is highly activated in keratinocytes by an excess amount of extracellular S100A8/A9 in the inflammatory skin lesion...
February 5, 2019: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Peter C Fino, Fay B Horak, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Carolyn Guidarelli, Mary E Medysky, Sarah J Nagle, Kerri M Winters-Stone
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults, and the proportion of older adults that has been diagnosed with cancer is growing. Yet, while falls, peripheral neuropathy, and postural instability are more common in aging cancer survivors, it is unclear how these factors interact. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our objective was to examine how components of sway related to self-reported neuropathy and falls. METHODS: Postural sway during static stance was recorded with an inertial sensor (APDM Opal), placed on the lumbar spine region in 434 older female cancer survivors (mean age 63) and 49 healthy older female control subjects (mean age 63)...
January 17, 2019: Gait & Posture
Nur P Damayanti, Kevin Buno, Sherry L Voytik Harbin, Joseph M K Irudayaraj
Acetyltransferase is a member of the transferase group responsible for transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to amino group of a histone lysine residue. Past efforts on histone acetylation monitoring involved biochemical analysis that do not provide spatiotemporal information in a dynamic format. We propose a novel approach to monitor acetyltransferase acetylation in live single cells using time correlated single photon counting fluorescence lifetime imaging (TCSPC-FLIM) with peptide biosensors. Utilizing 2D and 3D cultures we show that the peptide sensor has a specific response to acetyltransferase enzyme activity in a fluorescence lifetime dependent manner ( P < 0...
February 6, 2019: ACS Sensors
Aasha I Hoogland, Hailey W Bulls, Brian D Gonzalez, Brent J Small, Lianqi Liu, Joseph Pidala, Heather S L Jim, Asmita Mishra
CONTEXT: Quality of life is increasingly recognized as an important outcome of cancer treatment. Previous studies have examined clinical predictors of quality of life, but with the increasing prevalence of wearable sensors that monitor sleep and activity patterns, further investigation into whether these behaviors are predictive of post-treatment quality of life is now feasible. Among patients receiving aggressive cancer treatment such as hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), analysis of circadian rhythms (24-hour patterns of sleep and activity) via wearable sensors is limited...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Claus W Heizmann
A multitude of Ca2+ -sensor proteins containing the specific Ca2+ -binding motif (helix-loop-helix, called EF-hand) are of major clinical relevance in a many human diseases. Measurements of troponin, the first intracellular Ca-sensor protein to be discovered, is nowadays the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Mutations have been identified in calmodulin and linked to inherited ventricular tachycardia and in patients affected by severe cardiac arrhythmias...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sajjad Janfaza, Maryam Banan Nojavani, Maryam Nikkhah, Taher Alizadeh, Ali Esfandiar, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
A chemiresistive sensor is described for the lung cancer biomarker hexanal. A composite consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes was used in the sensor that is typically operated at a voltage of 4 V and is capable of selectively sensing gaseous hexanal at room temperature. It works in the 10 to 200 ppm concentration range and has a 10 ppm detection limit (at S/N = 3). The sensor signal recovers to a value close to its starting value without the need for heating even after exposure to relatively high levels of hexanal...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Kumuthini Rajendran, Thangavelu Kokulnathan, Shen-Ming Chen, Joseph Anthuvan Allen, Chinnuswamy Viswanathan, Helen Annal Therese
An electrochemical sensor is described for the determination of nilutamide (NLM) in biological fluids. A flexible mat of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) was prepared by electrospinning. This was followed by carbonization and the growth of one-dimensional vanadium tetrasulfide (VS4 ) nanorods in the circumference of the NCNFs by a solvothermal route. The material was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry revealed an excellent electrocatalytic activity of the VS4 /NCNF mat towards NLM at a working potential of - 0...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Tailin Liu, Bo Fu, Jincheng Chen, Kang Li
A nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor is described for the prostate cancer biomarker sarcosine (Sar). Riboflavin was employed to mimic the active center of the enzyme sarcosine oxidase for constructing the biomimetic sensor. The use of riboflavon (Rf) avoids the disadvantages of an enzymatic sensor, such as high cost and poor stability. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a graphene-chitosan (GR) composite and further modified with gold-platinum bimetallic nanoparticles in a polypyrrole (PPy) matrix in order to enhance the catalytic activity of the enzyme mimic...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Mohamad Mahani, Zhahra Mousapour, Faten Divsar, Alireza Nomani, Huangxian Ju
A carbon quantum dot (CQD) labeled molecular beacon was synthesized and applied to the detection of microRNA-21. The CQDs possess low cytotoxicity, excellent water solubility, and photostability. The CQDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular beacon (MB) was labeled with the CQDs at the 5' end, and with Black Hole Quencher 1 (BHQ1) at the 3' end. The two labels act as the donor and acceptor parts of a FRET system, respectively...
February 1, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
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