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salt tolerance mechanism

Baogang Wang, Hui Tan, Tailiang Zhang, Wenmeng Duan, Yuanqiang Zhu
N-Doped carbon dots (NCDs) were facilely synthesized by a hydrothermal method using an ethanolamine-ionic liquid (1-carboxyethyl-3-methyl imidazole chloride) gel as a precursor. The NCDs had an average particle size of 3.4 nm and were partially crystalline and abundant in amide and hydroxyl groups and pyridinic/pyrrolic nitrogen atoms on their surfaces. In water, the NCDs showed excitation- and concentration-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties with a high salt tolerance and a quantum yield of 24.7% under 350 nm excitation...
March 21, 2019: Analyst
T A Kuznetsova, E V Persiyanova, T S Zaporozhets, N N Besednova
The review article presents the characteristics of the main adjuvant groups (mineral salts of aluminum, synthetic squalenebased adjuvants - MF59 and AS03, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides, virosomes, polyoxidonium, sovidone) included in the licensed influenza vaccine. The main mechanisms of adjuvant action, advantages and disadvantages of these adjuvants are shown. The vaccines adjuvants in the phase of experimental studies and clinical trials (ISCOMs, Advax™, chitosan) are described too. Particular attention is paid to sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidans) from marine brown algae as vaccine adjuvants...
2019: Voprosy Virusologii
Wen-Wen Wu, Sha-Sha He, Yu-Yan An, Rong-Xiang Cao, Yong-Ping Sun, Quan Tang, Liang-Ju Wang
To explore the mechanisms of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-improved plant salt tolerance, strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. 'Benihoppe') were treated with 10 mg l-1 ALA under 100 mmol l-1 NaCl stress. We found that the amount of Na+ increased in the roots but decreased in the leaves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) observations showed that ALA-induced roots had more Na+ accumulation than NaCl alone. Measurement of the xylem sap revealed that ALA repressed Na+ concentrations to a large extent...
March 20, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Richard Odongo Magwanga, Pu Lu, Joy Nyangasi Kirungu, Qi Dong, Xiaoyan Cai, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Yuqing Hou, Yanchao Xu, Renhai Peng, Stephen Gaya Agong, Kunbo Wang, Liu Fang
We identified 672, 374, and 379 CYPs proteins encoded by the CYPs genes in G ossypium hirsutum, G ossypium raimondii , and G ossypium arboreum , respectively. The genes were found to be distributed in all 26 chromosomes of the tetraploid cotton, with chrA05, chrA12, and their homeolog chromosomes harboring the highest number of genes. The physiochemical properties of the proteins encoded by the CYP450 genes varied in terms of their protein lengths, molecular weight, isoelectric points (pI), and even grand hydropathy values (GRAVY)...
March 18, 2019: Genes
Mingquan Wang, Yufeng Wang, Yifei Zhang, Chunxia Li, Shichen Gong, Shuqin Yan, Guoliang Li, Guanghui Hu, Honglei Ren, Jianfei Yang, Tao Yu, Kejun Yang
BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a devastating environmental stress that causes plant growth inhibition and yield reduction. OBJECTIVE: The identification of salt-tolerant genes brings hope for the generation of salinity-tolerant crop plants through molecular breeding. METHODS: In this study, one salt-sensitive and one salt-tolerant maize inbred line were screened from 242 maize inbred lines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related enzyme activities were detected and salt-responsive comparative transcriptome analysis was performed for control and 220 mM NaCl treated maize leaves...
March 19, 2019: Genes & Genomics
Han Li, Quanyu Zhao, He Huang
Natural and human activities lead to soil degradation and soil salinization. The decrease of farmlands threatens food security. There are approximately 1 billion ha salt-affected soils all over of world, which can be made available resources after chemical, physical and biological remediation. Nostoc, Anabaena and other cyanobacterial species have outstanding capabilities, such as the ability to fix nitrogen from the air, produce an extracellular matrix and produce compatible solutes. The remediation of salt-affected soil is a complex and difficult task...
March 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Rinku Sharma, Shashankaditya Upadhyay, Basharat Bhat, Garima Singh, Sudeepto Bhattacharya, Ashutosh Singh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) are the largest families of trans-acting gene regulatory species, which are pivotal players in a complex regulatory network. Recently, extensive research on miRNAs and TFs in agriculture has identified these trans-acting regulatory species, as an effective tool for engineering new crop cultivars to increase yield and quality as well tolerance to environmental stresses but our knowledge of regulatory network is still not sufficient to decipher the exact mechanism...
March 12, 2019: Genomics
Xiaoning Zhang, Lijun Liu, Bowen Chen, Zihai Qin, Yufei Xiao, Ye Zhang, Ruiling Yao, Hailong Liu, Hong Yang
Salt stress (SS) has become an important factor limiting afforestation programs. Because of their salt tolerance and fully sequenced genomes, poplars ( Populus spp.) are used as model species to study SS mechanisms in trees. Here, we review recent insights into the physiological and molecular responses of Populus to SS, including ion homeostasis and signaling pathways, such as the salt overly sensitive (SOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathways. We summarize the genes that can be targeted for the genetic improvement of salt tolerance and propose future research areas...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Achim J Herrmann, Michelle M Gehringer
The oldest species of bacteria capable of oxygenic photosynthesis today are the freshwater Cyanobacteria Gloeobacter spp., belonging to the class Oxyphotobacteria. Several modern molecular evolutionary studies support the freshwater origin of cyanobacteria during the Archaean and their subsequent acquisition of salt tolerance mechanisms necessary for their expansion into the marine environment. This study investigated the effect of a sudden washout event from a freshwater location into either a brackish or marine environment on the photosynthetic efficiency of two unicellular freshwater cyanobacteria: the salt-tolerant Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC7203 and the cyanobacterial phylogenetic root species, Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421...
March 15, 2019: Geobiology
Chenliang Yu, Qinqfei Wu, Chendong Sun, Mengling Tang, Junwei Sun, Yihua Zhan
Soil salinization is a major environmental stresses that seriously threatens land use efficiency and crop yields worldwide. Although the overall response of plants to NaCl has been well studied, the contribution of protein phosphorylation to the detoxification and tolerance of NaCl in okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seedlings is unclear. The molecular bases of okra seedlings' responses to 300 mM NaCl stress are discussed in this study. Using a combination of affinity enrichment, tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry analysis, a large-scale phosphoproteome analysis was performed in okra...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Weilong Kong, Hua Zhong, Ziyun Gong, Xinyi Fang, Tong Sun, Xiaoxiao Deng, Yangsheng Li
Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops worldwide, while its growth and productivity are threatened by various abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Unraveling how rice adapts to salt stress at the transcription level is vital. It can provide valuable information on enhancing the salt stress tolerance performance of rice via genetic engineering technologies. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of different rice genotypes at the seedling stage based on 96 public microarray datasets, aiming to identify the key salt-responsive genes and understand the molecular response mechanism of rice under salt stress...
March 12, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Wenying Gao, Zheng Feng, Qingqing Bai, Jinjin He, Yingjuan Wang
Melatonin (MT; N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that has been demonstrated to play an important role in plant growth, development, and regulation of environmental stress responses. Studies have been conducted on the role of the exogenous application of MT in a few species, but the potential mechanisms of MT-mediated stress tolerance under salt stress are still largely unknown. In this study, naked oat seedlings under salt stress (150 mM NaCl) were pretreated with two different concentrations of MT (50 and 100 μM), and the effects of MT on the growth and antioxidant capacity of naked oat seedlings were analyzed to explore the regulatory effect of MT on salt tolerance...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bastian L Franzisky, Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Markus Kränzlein, Xudong Zhang, Christian Zörb
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is sensitive to salinity. While toxic effects of sodium (Na+ ) are well studied, toxicity aspects of chloride (Cl- ) and the underlying tolerance mechanisms to Cl- are not well understood. For this reason, shoot Cl- translocation and its effect as potential determinant for tolerance was tested. Diverse V. faba varieties were grown hydroponically and stressed with 100 mM NaCl until necrotic leaf spots appeared. At this point, biomass formation, oxidative damage of membranes as well as Na+ , Cl- and potassium concentrations were measured...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ian S Acuña-Rodríguez, Hermann Hansen, Jorge Gallardo-Cerda, Cristian Atala, Marco A Molina-Montenegro
Salinization of soils is one of the main sources of soil degradation worldwide, particularly in arid and semiarid ecosystems. High salinity results in osmotic stress and it can negatively impact plant grow and survival. Some plant species, however, can tolerate salinity by accumulating osmolytes like proline and maintaining low Na+ concentrations inside the cells. Another mechanism of saline stress tolerance is the association with symbiotic microorganism, an alternative that can be used as a biotechnological tool in susceptible crops...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Lu Long, Wen-Wen Yang, Peng Liao, Ya-Wei Guo, Arvind Kumar, Wei Gao
Salinity is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and development that has caused severe damage to yield and quality of cotton fiber. Uncovering the mechanisms of response to salt stress is important in breeding salt-tolerant cotton varieties. Transcriptome analysis identified 2356 differentially expressed genes in cotton under salt stress, of which 9.4% were predicted transcription factors (TFs). Approximately 17.6% (39 out of 222) of the differentially expressed TFs belonged to the ethylene response factor (ERF) family...
April 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Huanyan Wang, Meiping Wang, Zongliang Xia
As an essential regulatory process of post-translational modifications, Sumoylation has been shown to play a central role in stress responses in higher plants. However, the mechanisms underlying the involvement of the Sumoylation in stress responses in crops are largely unknown. In this study, a putative SUMO conjugating enzyme ortholog from Zea mays (ZmSCE1e) was isolated. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that ZmSCE1e possesses a central active domain similar to known SCE1 proteins, but is the cereal-specific isoform...
April 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Abdul Aziz Eida, Hanin S Alzubaidy, Axel de Zélicourt, Lukáš Synek, Wiam Alsharif, Feras F Lafi, Heribert Hirt, Maged M Saad
Salinity severely hampers crop productivity worldwide and plant growth promoting bacteria could serve as a sustainable solution to improve plant growth under salt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance promotion by beneficial bacteria remain unclear. In this work, six bacterial isolates from four different desert plant species were screened for their biochemical plant growth promoting traits and salinity stress tolerance promotion of the unknown host plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Shenghao Liu, Pengying Zhang, Chengcheng Li, Guangmin Xia
Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates (JAs) are the primary plant hormones involved in mediating salt tolerance. In addition, these two plant hormones exert a synergistic effect to inhibit seed germination. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between ABA signalling and JA signalling is still not well documented. Here, a moss jasmonate ZIM-domain gene (PnJAZ1), which encodes a nucleus-localized protein with conserved ZIM and Jas domains, was cloned from Pohlia nutans. PnJAZ1 expression was rapidly induced by various abiotic stresses...
March 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Pedro Robles, Víctor Quesada
Given their endosymbiotic origin, chloroplasts and mitochondria genomes harbor only between 100 and 200 genes that encode the proteins involved in organellar gene expression (OGE), photosynthesis, and the electron transport chain. However, as the activity of these organelles also needs a few thousand proteins encoded by the nuclear genome, a close coordination of the gene expression between the nucleus and organelles must exist. In line with this, OGE regulation is crucial for plant growth and development, and is achieved mainly through post-transcriptional mechanisms performed by nuclear genes...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hongju Yin, Mengzhan Li, Dingding Li, Sardar-Ali Khan, Shelley R Hepworth, Suo-Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Zygophyllum xanthoxylum is a succulent xerophyte with remarkable tolerance to diverse abiotic stresses. Previous studies have revealed important physiological mechanisms and identified functional genes associated with stress tolerance. However, knowledge of the regulatory genes conferring stress tolerance in this species is poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of regulatory genes based on the transcriptome of Z. xanthoxylum roots exposed to osmotic stress and salt treatments...
February 28, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
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