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Mirian A Silva-Cutini, Simone A Almeida, Andrews M Nascimento, Gláucia R Abreu, Nazaré S Bissoli, Dominik Lenz, Denise C Endringer, Girlandia A Brasil, Ewelyne M Lima, Vinicia C Biancardi, Tadeu U Andrade
This work evaluated the effects of long-term kefir treatment in cardiac function (cardiac contractility and calcium-handling proteins) and the central nervous system (CNS) control of the sympathetic signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male normotensive rats [Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs)] and SHRs were divided into three groups: WKYs and SHRs treated with vehicle, and SHRs treated with milk fermented by the grains of kefir (5%; SHR-Kefir; oral gavage, 0.3 ml/100 g daily/9 weeks). At the end of treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by direct arterial catheterization...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Bojana Stefanovic, Natasa Spasojevic, Predrag Jovanovic, Sladjana Dronjak
This study investigated the effects of melatonin treatment on adrenal catecholamine content, synthesis, uptake and vesicular transport induced by the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in rats. This entailed quantifying the norepinephrine, epinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-b-hydroxylase (DBH), phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in the adrenal medulla...
February 16, 2019: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Koji Yoshida, Takahiro Nonaka, Shingo Nakamura, Miki Araki, Tatsuo Yamamoto
26RFa is an endogenous ligand for the QRFP receptor. We previously found that intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa produces an analgesic effect in a rat formalin test. In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that the analgesic effects of 26RFa in the formalin test are mediated in well-recognized regions of the descending inhibitory pain pathways, such as the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), locus coeruleus (LC), and periaqueductal grey (PAG) in rats. Injection cannulae were stereotaxically placed in the RVM, LC, or PAG through a burr hole...
February 14, 2019: Peptides
Naoya Iguchi, Junko Kosaka, Lindsea C Booth, Yoko Iguchi, Roger G Evans, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May, Yugeesh R Lankadeva
BACKGROUND: Global and intra-renal perfusion and oxygenation may be affected by the choice of anaesthetic. We compared the effects of isoflurane with those of propofol and fentanyl on renal blood flow (RBF) and intra-renal perfusion and oxygenation, and assessed how these were associated with renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). METHODS: A renal artery flow probe and laser Doppler and oxygen-sensing probes were surgically implanted in the renal medulla and cortex in 20 Merino ewes...
March 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Adam Stenman, Jan Zedenius, Carl Christofer Juhlin
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and abdominal paragangliomas (PGLs), collectively abbreviated PPGLs, are neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla and paraganglia, respectively. These tumors exhibit malignant potential but seldom display evidence of metastatic spread, the latter being the only widely accepted evidence of malignancy. To counter this, pre-defined histological algorithms have been suggested to stratify the risk of malignancy: Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and the Grading system for Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP)...
February 15, 2019: Cancers
Samuel N Heyman, Yuri Gorelik, Danny Zorbavel, Christian Rosenberger, Zaid Abassi, Seymour Rosen, Mogher Khamaisi
Concepts regarding hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) are derived from widely used warm ischemia-reflow (WIR) models, characterized by extensive proximal tubular injury and associated with profound inflammation. However, there is ample clinical and experimental data indicating that hypoxic AKI may develop without total cessation of renal blood flow, with a different injury pattern that principally affects medullary thick limbs in the outer medulla. This injury pattern likely reflects an imbalance between blood and oxygen supply and oxygen expenditure, principally for tubular transport...
February 14, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Guihua Zhang, Yajin Qu, Yujuan Niu, Huixia Zhang, Qinqin Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yue Li, Hui Zhang, Mengda Liu
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J has been found to infect many types of chickens with various genetic backgrounds. The ALV-J strain NX0101, which was isolated from broiler breeders in 2001, mainly induces the formation of myeloid cell tumors. However, strain HN10PY01, which was recently isolated from laying hens, mainly induces the formation of myeloid cell tumors and hemangioma. In order to determine the difference in pathogenicity of the 2 strains in broiler chickens, 2 groups of chicken embryos were infected with NA0101 and HN10PY01 separately...
February 15, 2019: Poultry Science
Eelco F M Wijdicks
We now recognize that the main breathing generator resides principally in the medulla oblongata. Vivisectionists-specifically, Julien Legallois-discovered "the respiratory center." Cutting through the brainstem stops respiration but not if the medulla remains intact and the brain is sliced in successive portions. Pierre Flourens localized surgical ablation experiments further identified a 1-mm area in the medulla, which he called vital knot or node (noeud vital). Detailed characterization had to wait until the 1920s, when Lumsden carried out more specific transection experiments to improve morphological differentiation of the respiratory center into inspiratory and expiratory divisions...
February 14, 2019: Neurocritical Care
Mukesh Dube, Raunak Dani, Ayush Dubey, Dinesh Chouksey
BACKGROUND: In the list of named numerical neuro-ophthalmological syndromes, such as one-and-a-half syndrome and others, we report for the first time twenty-and-a-half syndrome, which is characterized by one-and-a-half syndrome with bilateral seventh and right fifth nerve palsy (1.5 + 7 + 7 + 5 = 20.5) in a patient with ischemic stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old Asian Hindu woman presented with vomiting and imbalance of 1 day's duration. She had left-sided ataxic hemiparesis with one-and-a-half syndrome with bilateral seventh and right fifth nerve palsy...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Igor Petrusic, Marko Dakovic, Jasna Zidverc-Trajkovic
BACKGROUND: The brainstem plays a significant role in migraine pathogenesis, but a relationship between volume alterations of brainstem subregions and migraine aura characteristics has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the volume of the brainstem, and its subregions, between patients with a migraine with aura (MwA) and healthy controls (HC), and also to correlate characteristics of MwA and the volume of the brainstem subregions. METHODS: Forty-two MwA and 42 HCs, balanced by sex and age, were selected for this study...
February 4, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jigang Chen, Wen Chen, Kaiwei Han, Enbo Qi, Rongbin Chen, Minkun Yu, Lijun Hou, Liquan Lv
Sympathetic hyperactivity occurs in a subgroup of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a key region for the activity of sympathetic nervous system. Oxidative stress in the RVLM is proved to be responsible for the increased level of sympathetic activity in animal models of hypertension and heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress in the RVLM contributed to the development of sympathetic hyperactivity after TBI in rats. Model of diffuse axonal injury was induced using Sprague-Dawley rats, and level of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma Norepinephrine (NE) was measured to evaluate the sympathetic activity...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Monika Kusz, Beata Bieniaś, Anna Wieczorkiewicz-Płaza, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Paweł Wieczorek, Przemysław Sikora
RATIONALE: Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by cystic dilatation of the medullary collecting tubules. The disorder is likely to be complicated by nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis, tubular dysfunctions, and urinary tract infections. In addition, it may be rarely associated with extrarenal anomalies. PATIENT CONCERN: We present a case of 17-year old girl who was referred for metabolic evaluation of bilateral nephrocalcinosis...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Reinhard Pabst
The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ where T lymphocyte proliferation and selection takes place. The different subsets of lymphocytes leave the thymus as recent thymic emigrants. Peripheral dendritic cells migrate to the thymus. In addition to the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells to the thymus, there is evidence for lymphocyte entry from peripheral lymphoid tissues mainly into the medulla. The entry sites are the venules in the medullary part near to the cortex with a higher endothelium. Furthermore, there are also B lymphocytes in the thymus...
February 14, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Óscar López-Pérez, Alicia Otero, Hicham Filali, David Sanz-Rubio, Janne M Toivonen, Pilar Zaragoza, Juan J Badiola, Rosa Bolea, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel
Autophagy is a dynamic cellular mechanism involved in protein and organelle turnover through lysosomal degradation. Autophagy regulation modulates the pathologies associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Using sheep naturally infected with scrapie as a natural animal model of prion diseases, we investigated the regulation of autophagy in the central nervous system (CNS) during the clinical phase of the disease. We present a gene expression and protein distribution analysis of different autophagy-related markers and investigate their relationship with prion-associated lesions in several areas of the CNS...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Imanuel Lerman, Bryan Davis, Mingxiong Huang, Charles Huang, Linda Sorkin, James Proudfoot, Edward Zhong, Donald Kimball, Ramesh Rao, Bruce Simon, Andrea Spadoni, Irina Strigo, Dewleen G Baker, Alan N Simmons
The mechanisms by which noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) affect central and peripheral neural circuits that subserve pain and autonomic physiology are not clear, and thus remain an area of intense investigation. Effects of nVNS vs sham stimulation on subject responses to five noxious thermal stimuli (applied to left lower extremity), were measured in 30 healthy subjects (n = 15 sham and n = 15 nVNS), with fMRI and physiological galvanic skin response (GSR). With repeated noxious thermal stimuli a group × time analysis showed a significantly (p < ...
2019: PloS One
Marc A Oliver, Meritxell Marti, Luisa Coderch, Victor Carrer, Martin Kreuzer, Clara Barba
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to determine the lipid profile of brown and white Caucasian hair fibres and the effects of lipids on the properties of fibres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the structures of white and brown hair lipid bilayers, cross sections of fibres of both hair types were examined using synchrotron-based μ-FTIR mapping. Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) analyses were also performed to determine the differences in the barrier function of both fibres...
February 13, 2019: Skin Research and Technology
Krystal J Vail, Nicole M Tate, Tasha Likavec, Katie M Minor, Philippa M Gibbons, Raquel R Rech, Eva Furrow
A 2-year-old mixed breed goat was presented for a 1-day history of anorexia and 1 week of weight loss. Serum biochemistry disclosed severe azotemia. Abdominal ultrasound examination showed decreased renal corticomedullary distinction, poor visualization of the renal pelves, and dilated ureters. On necropsy, the kidneys were small, the pelves were dilated, and the medulla was partially effaced by variably sized yellow nephroliths. Histologically, cortical and medullary tubules were distended by yellow-brown, multilayered crystals...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Michelle M Castillo, Qiuhui Yang, Min Zhan, Amy Y Pan, Michael W Lawlor, Alan E Mast, Rashmi Sood
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a serine protease with multiple anticoagulant activities. The Kunitz1 (K1) domain of TFPI binds the active site of factor VIIa and is required for inhibition of tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa catalytic activity. Mice lacking TFPI K1 domain die in utero. TFPI is highly expressed on trophoblast cells of the placenta. We used genetic strategies to selectively ablate exon 4 encoding TFPI K1 domain in the embryo, while maintaining expression in trophoblast cells. This approach resulted in expected Mendelian frequency of TFPI K1 domain-deficient mice...
February 12, 2019: Blood Advances
Chutimon Thanaboonnipat, Saikaew Sutayatram, Chollada Buranakarl, Nan Choisunirachon
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common diseases occurring in cats. It is characterized by renal fibrosis, which is strongly correlated with impairment of renal function. Since renal biopsy is not performed routinely in clinical practice, the non-invasive method of ultrasonographic shear-wave elastography (SWE) was used to determine renal parenchymal stiffness. Currently, urinary procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (uPIIINP) is a renal fibrosis biomarker in humans...
February 11, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
M Netravathi, B Hari Krishna, B Maya, V H Ganaraja, P Shwetha, M Anita, L K Nitish, A Nalini, R Yadav, P K Pal, P Satishchandra
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune astrocytopathic disorder due to AQP4 antibodies. OBJECTIVES: To analyse clinical, neuroimaging features in NMO patients and assess the efficacy of various therapeutics. METHODS: AQP4+ve NMO patients were diagnosed based on consensus diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: 101 AQP4+ve NMO patients were seen with female (90) predominance. Adult population (71.3%) formed the larger group followed by pediatric (19...
February 4, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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