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Central pattern generator

Ana Prohaska, Fernando Racimo, Andrew J Schork, Martin Sikora, Aaron J Stern, Melissa Ilardo, Morten Erik Allentoft, Lasse Folkersen, Alfonso Buil, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Daniel Geschwind, Andrés Ingason, Thomas Werge, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Identifying the causes of similarities and differences in genetic disease prevalence among humans is central to understanding disease etiology. While present-day humans are not strongly differentiated, vast amounts of genomic data now make it possible to study subtle patterns of genetic variation. This allows us to trace our genomic history thousands of years into the past and its implications for the distribution of disease-associated variants today. Genomic analyses have shown that demographic processes shaped the distribution and frequency of disease-associated variants over time...
March 21, 2019: Cell
David A Reed, Mamoru Yotsuya, Polina Gubareva, Peter T Toth, Andrew Bertagna
End stage temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is characterized by fibrillations, fissures, clefts, and erosion of the mandibular condylar cartilage. The goal of this study was to define changes in pericellular and interterritorial delineations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that occur preceding and concurrent with the development of this end stage degeneration in a murine surgical instability model. Two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was used to evaluate TMJ-OA mediated changes in the ECM...
2019: PloS One
Guido Alberto Gnecchi-Ruscone, Stefania Sarno, Sara De Fanti, Laura Gianvincenzo, Cristina Giuliani, Alessio Boattini, Eugenio Bortolini, Tullia Di Corcia, Cesar Sanchez Mellado, Taylor Jesus Dàvila Francia, Davide Gentilini, Anna Maria Di Blasio, Patrizia Di Cosimo, Elisabetta Cilli, Antonio Gonzalez-Martin, Claudio Franceschi, Zelda Alice Franceschi, Olga Rickards, Marco Sazzini, Donata Luiselli, Davide Pettener
Extensive European and African admixture coupled with loss of Amerindian lineages makes the reconstruction of pre-Columbian history of Native Americans based on present-day genomes extremely challenging. Still open questions remain about the dispersals that occurred throughout the continent after the initial peopling from the Beringia, especially concerning the number and dynamics of diffusions into South America. Indeed, if environmental and historical factors contributed to shape distinct gene pools in the Andes and Amazonia, the origins of this East-West genetic structure and the extension of further interactions between populations residing along this divide are still not well understood...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Angel M Pastor, Paula M Calvo, Rosa R de la Cruz, Robert Baker, Hans Straka
Computational capability and connectivity are key elements for understanding how central vestibular neurons contribute to gaze-stabilizing eye movements during self-motion. In the well-characterized and segmentally distributed hindbrain oculomotor network of goldfish, we determined afferent and efferent connections along with discharge patterns of descending octaval nucleus (DO) neurons during different eye motion. Based on activity correlated with horizontal eye and head movements, DO neurons were categorized into two complementary groups that either increased discharge during both contraversive (type II) eye (e) and ipsiversive (type I) head (h) movements (eII hI ) or vice versa (eI hII )...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marius Wehner, Merle Insa Silja Röhr, Michael Bühler, Vladimir Stepanenko, Wolfgang Wagner, Frank Würthner
Controlling polymorphism in molecular solids is of great interest since the properties and performances of molecular materials depend on the molecules' mutual packing arrangements. Herein, we describe a perylene bisimide (PBI) organogelator molecule PBI-4 that self-assembles into three different one-dimensional supramolecular polymorphs (Agg 1-3) in the same solvent and at the same concentration at room temperature. The three supramolecular polymorphs were characterized by UV/vis, CD, fluorescence and IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and theoretical calculations, revealing that their packing arrangements are governed by distinct pi-pi-stacking modes and unique hydrogen-bonding patterns...
March 20, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Charlotte Hewel, Julia Kaiser, Anna Wierczeiko, Jan Linke, Christoph Reinhardt, Kristina Endres, Susanne Gerber
With the rise of Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) methods, Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have achieved an important position in the research landscape and have been found to present valuable diagnostic tools in various diseases such as multiple sclerosis or lung cancer. There is also emerging evidence that miRNAs play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD). Apparently, these diseases come along with changes in miRNA expression patterns which led to attempts from researchers to use these small RNA species from several body fluids for a better diagnosis and in order to observe disease progression...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chunyan Li, Amrit Chiluwal, Adil Afridi, Wayne Chaung, Keren Powell, Weng-Lang Yang, Ping Wang, Raj K Narayan
OBJECTIVES: To determine if trigeminal nerve stimulation can ameliorate the consequences of acute blood loss and improve survival after severe hemorrhagic shock. DESIGN: Animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Severe hemorrhagic shock was induced in rats by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial blood pressure reached 27 ± 1 mm Hg for the first 5 minutes and then maintained at 27 ± 2 mm Hg for 30 minutes...
March 19, 2019: Critical Care Medicine
Sofie Ährlund-Richter, Yang Xuan, Josina Anna van Lunteren, Hoseok Kim, Cantin Ortiz, Iskra Pollak Dorocic, Konstantinos Meletis, Marie Carlén
The local and long-range connectivity of cortical neurons are considered instrumental to the functional repertoire of the cortical region in which they reside. In cortical networks, distinct cell types build local circuit structures enabling computational operations. Computations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to be central to cognitive operation, including decision-making and memory. We used a retrograde trans-synaptic rabies virus system to generate brain-wide maps of the input to excitatory neurons as well as three inhibitory interneuron subtypes in the mPFC...
March 18, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Wen-Chang Li, Stephen R Soffe
Vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) controlling locomotion contain neurons which provide the excitation that drives and maintains network rhythms. In a simple vertebrate, the developing Xenopus tadpole, we study the role of excitatory descending neurons with ipsilateral projecting axons (descending interneurons, dINs) in the control of swimming rhythms. In tadpoles with both intact central nervous system (CNS) and transections in the hindbrain, exciting some individual dINs in the caudal hindbrain region could start swimming repeatedly...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Gusta van Zwieten, Ali Jahanshahi, Marlieke L van Erp, Yasin Temel, Robert J Stokroos, Marcus L F Janssen, Jasper V Smit
Deep brain stimulation of the central auditory pathway is emerging as a promising treatment modality for tinnitus. Within this pathway, the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of tinnitus and is believed to be a tinnitus generator. We hypothesized that high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the DCN would influence tinnitus-related abnormal neuronal activity within the auditory pathway and hereby suppress tinnitus. To this end, we assessed the effect of HFS of the DCN in a noise-induced rat model of tinnitus...
January 2019: Trends in Hearing
Susana Ramírez-Vizcaya, Tom Froese
Habits are the topic of a venerable history of research that extends back to antiquity, yet they were originally disregarded by the cognitive sciences. They started to become the focus of interdisciplinary research in the 1990s, but since then there has been a stalemate between those who approach habits as a kind of bodily automatism or as a kind of mindful action. This implicit mind-body dualism is ready to be overcome with the rise of interest in embodied, embedded, extended, and enactive (4E) cognition. We review the enactive approach and highlight how it moves beyond the traditional stalemate by integrating both autonomy and sense-making into its theory of agency...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Ignasi Bolíbar, Ignasi Gich, Albert Anglès, Josep M Romero, José R Escudero
BACKGROUND: Indications for the revascularization treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) generate much discussion, and practice varies significantly among hospitals. This study looked at patients with PAD admitted to all hospitals of the Catalan Health Service and analyzed patterns of revascularization techniques with subsequent amputation procedures. METHODS: We used the clinical-administrative registry of admissions of all patients in the hospitals of Catalonia, north-east Spain, between 2009 and 2014...
February 2019: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Rebecca Peyser, Scott MacDonnell, Yinglin Gao, Luis Cheng, Yong Kim, Theodore Kaplan, Qin Ruan, Yi Wei, Min Ni, Christina Adler, Wen Zhang, Kishor Devalaraja-Narashimha, Justin Grindley, Gabor Halasz, Lori Morton
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal lung disorder driven by unrelenting extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Fibroblasts are recognized as the central mediators of ECM production in IPF, however, the characteristics of the underlying fibroblast cell populations in IPF remain poorly understood. Here we use an unbiased single cell RNA-sequencing analysis of a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model to characterize molecular responses to fibrotic injury. Lung cells were isolated on day 11 to capture emerging fibrosis and gene expression was analyzed by 3 complementary techniques which together generated a 49-gene signature that defined an activated subpopulation of fibroblasts...
March 8, 2019: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Anne-Katrin Hickmann, Maximilian Frick, Dirk Hadaschik, Florian Battke, Markus Bittl, Oliver Ganslandt, Saskia Biskup, Dennis Döcker
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSL) is a devastating disease. Currently, a confirmatory biopsy is required prior to treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our investigation aims to prove the feasibility of a minimally-invasive diagnostic approach for the molecular characterization of CNSL. METHODS: Tissue biopsies from 6 patients with suspected CNSL were analyzed using a 649gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) tumor panel (tumor vs. reference tissue (EDTA-blood))...
March 1, 2019: BMC Cancer
Mark A Phuong, Michael E Alfaro, Gusti N Mahardika, Ristiyanti M Marwoto, Romanus Edy Prabowo, Thomas von Rintelen, Philipp Wh Vogt, Jonathan R Hendricks, Nicolas Puillandre
Understanding why some groups of organisms are more diverse than others is a central goal in macroevolution. Evolvability, or the intrinsic capacity of lineages for evolutionary change, is thought to influence disparities in species diversity across taxa. Over macroevolutionary time scales, clades that exhibit high evolvability are expected to have higher speciation rates. Cone snails (family: Conidae, >900 spp.) provide a unique opportunity to test this prediction because their toxin genes can be used to characterize differences in evolvability between clades...
February 28, 2019: Systematic Biology
Krishnakali Dasgupta, Juhee Jeong
The meninges are membranous layers surrounding the central nervous system. In the head, the meninges lie between the brain and the skull, and interact closely with both during development. The cranial meninges originate from a mesenchymal sheath on the surface of the developing brain, called primary meninx, and undergo differentiation into three layers with distinct histological characteristics: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. While genetic regulation of meningeal development is still poorly understood, mouse mutants and other models with meningeal defects have demonstrated the importance of the meninges to normal development of the calvaria and the brain...
February 25, 2019: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
I A Solopova, D S Zhvansky, V A Selionov, Y Ivanenko
In recent years, neuromodulation of the cervical spinal circuitry has become an area of interest for investigating rhythmogenesis of the human spinal cord and interaction between cervical and lumbosacral circuitries, given the involvement of rhythmic arm muscle activity in many locomotor tasks. We have previously shown that arm muscle vibrostimulation can elicit non-voluntary upper limb oscillations in unloading body conditions. Here we investigated the excitability of the cervical spinal circuitry by applying different peripheral and central stimuli in healthy humans...
February 21, 2019: Human Movement Science
Elena Makovac, Sabrina Fagioli, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Jonathan Smallwood, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
In Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), fluctuations in ongoing thoughts (i.e., mind-wandering) often take the form of rigid and intrusive perseverative cognition, such as worry. Here, we sought to characterise the neural correlates of mind-wandering and perseverative cognition, alongside autonomic nervous system indices of central arousal, notably pupil dilation. We implemented a protocol incorporating the dynamic delivery of thought-probes within a functional neuroimaging task. Sixteen individuals with GAD and sixteen matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with concomitant pupillometry...
February 21, 2019: NeuroImage
Xianyu Yu, Lei Jin, Qunwei Wang, Dequn Zhou
The electric power industry is not only an important part in the Chinese economic system but also the key industry with the highest emissions of air pollutants in China. This paper aims to control the pollution emissions of the Chinese electric power industry and enhance its electric-generation capacity though pollution-emission allocation patterns and inefficiency elimination. The data envelopment analysis centralized allocation model (DEA-CA) under metafrontier framework is adopted to distribute pollution emissions and electric-generation capacity considering technological heterogeneity at regional and national levels...
February 21, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Cristina D Picardo, Yae K Sugimura, Kaitlyn E Dorst, Prajkta S Kallurkar, Victoria T Akins, Xingru Ma, Ryoichi Teruyama, Romain Guinamard, Kaiwen Kam, Margaret S Saha, Christopher A Del Negro
Inspiratory breathing movements depend on pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) interneurons that express calcium (Ca2+)-activated nonselective cationic current (ICAN) to generate robust neural bursts. Hypothesized to be rhythmogenic, reducing ICAN is predicted to slow down or stop breathing; its contributions to motor pattern would be reflected in the magnitude of movements (output). We tested the role(s) of ICAN using reverse genetic techniques to diminish its putative ion channels Trpm4 or Trpc3 in preBötC neurons in vivo...
February 21, 2019: PLoS Biology
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