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child and development

Bridget Callaghan, Heidi Meyer, Maya Opendak, Michelle Van Tieghem, Chelsea Harmon, Anfei Li, Francis S Lee, Regina M Sullivan, Nim Tottenham
Children's development is largely dependent on caregiving; when caregiving is disrupted, children are at increased risk for numerous poor outcomes, in particular psychopathology. Therefore, determining how caregivers regulate children's affective neurobiology is essential for understanding psychopathology etiology and prevention. Much of the research on affective functioning uses fear learning to map maturation trajectories, with both rodent and human studies contributing knowledge. Nonetheless, as no standard framework exists through which to interpret developmental effects across species, research often remains siloed, thus contributing to the current therapeutic impasse...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Daniel Vigo, Laura Jones, Daniel E Maidana, Michael Krausz, Devora Kestel
The objective of this study is to provide an estimate of the burden of disease related to mental health in Argentina, in order to provide elements for the rational prioritization of resource allocation and the development of services. Based on the estimations made by the Study of the Global Burden of Disease (1) we add an analysis of the load product of: a) self-injuries and suicide; b) common neurological disorders with severe psychological and behavioral manifestations; c) somatic consequences of alcohol use disorder; and iv) an estimate of the disorder by somatic symptoms with prominent pain...
November 2018: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Christine Graham, Janet Seeley, Ayanda Gina, Yougan Saman
Understanding mother's knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) is essential for the success of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) as poor compliance and follow-up remains a global challenge. To determine content area for a questionnaire that measures PCHI-related KAP in rural mothers, we trained moderators who interviewed 145 pregnant women (17 groups) from 5 ante-natal clinics. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, summarised and analysed using thematic framework analysis...
2019: PloS One
Eduardo Garcia Vilela, Camilla Dos Santos Pinheiro, Saulo Fernandes Saturnino, Célio Geraldo de Oliveira Gomes, Vanuza Chagas do Nascimento, Marcos Vinicius Melo de Andrade
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal varices and associated bleeding are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential role of the biomarkers HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) and IL-6 (Interleukin-6) as predictors of infection, acute kidney injury and mortality in these patients. METHODS: It is a prospective, observational study that included 32 cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. RESULTS: The subjects'mean age was 52±5 years and 20 (62...
October 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Jena D Hamadani, Syeda F Mehrin, Fahmida Tofail, Mohammad I Hasan, Syed N Huda, Helen Baker-Henningham, Deborah Ridout, Sally Grantham-McGregor
BACKGROUND: Poor development in young children in developing countries is a major problem. Child development experts are calling for interventions that aim to improve child development to be integrated into health services, but there are few robust evaluations of such programmes. Previous small Bangladeshi trials that used individual play sessions with mothers and their children (at home or in clinics), which were predominantly run by employed women, found moderate improvements on child development...
March 2019: Lancet Global Health
Amanda Sanders, Hannah Rackers, Mary Kimmel
Perinatal depression is a significant public health problem, due to its negative impact on maternal well-being and long-term adverse effects for children. Mother-infant interaction and maternal responsiveness and sensitivity are a hypothesized mechanism by which perinatal depression effects child development, and increasing research in the microbiota-gut-brain axis may provide a new avenue of investigation. There is limited efficacy for treatment of perinatal depression for improving the mother-infant relationship and child outcomes...
February 20, 2019: International Review of Psychiatry
Raul Palacio, Jing Shen, Luke Vale, Christopher Robert Vernazza
OBJECTIVES: This study illustrates the use of a decision analytic model (DAM) to evaluate whether fluoride varnish application (FV) increases the proportion of caries-free children in the Chilean preschool population, at an acceptable cost. METHODS: Different FV interventions were compared with an oral health counselling-only intervention. The FV interventions were tested (with and without screening) every 6 months over 2 years, in either a preschool setting or during a well-child programme appointment in a primary care setting...
February 19, 2019: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Sarah M Lee, Gabrielle F Miller, Nancy Brener, Shannon Michael, Sherry E Jones, Zanie Leroy, Caitlin Merlo, Leah Robin, Lisa Barrios
BACKGROUND: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model provides an organizing framework for schools to develop and implement school health policies, practices, and programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of practices that support school health for each component of the WSCC model in US schools. METHODS: Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2014 were analyzed to determine the percentage of schools with practices in place that support school health for WSCC components...
February 19, 2019: Journal of School Health
Laura Graham Holmes, Donald S Strassberg, Michael B Himle
Families are critical for supporting healthy sexuality and relationship development for youth with autism. The objective of this study was to describe family sexuality communication for adolescent girls with autism. Participants were 141 parents of autistic daughters who completed an online survey about sexuality development. Most parents relied on discussion alone rather than visual supports or skills-based teaching techniques. Intellectual functioning, child age, race/ethnicity, and whether youth expressed sexual interest in others affected family sexuality communication...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Christina J Sun, Esther S Seloilwe, Mabel Magowe, Kefalotse Dithole, Janet S St Lawrence
Globally, adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are the youth most affected by HIV. Parent-adolescent relationships can be protective in child and adolescent development and may be implicated in lowered adolescent HIV sexual risk. However, the importance of parental and adolescent perceptions of their relationship and assessing the implications of family functioning in adolescents' risk for HIV or other sexually transmitted infections are not well established in the research literature. This dyadic study simultaneously assessed both parents' and adolescents' perceptions of family functioning and their relationships with adolescent sexual behaviors in Botswana...
February 19, 2019: AIDS and Behavior
Tricia Aung, Debora Niyeha, Shagihilu Shagihilu, Rose Mpembeni, Joyceline Kaganda, Ashley Sheffel, Rebecca Heidkamp
Background: Reproductive, maternal, newborn, child health, and nutrition (RMNCH&N) data is an indispensable tool for program and policy decisions in low- and middle-income countries. However, being equipped with evidence doesn't necessarily translate to program and policy changes. This study aimed to characterize data visualization interpretation capacity and preferences among RMNCH&N Tanzanian program implementers and policymakers ("decision-makers") to design more effective approaches towards promoting evidence-based RMNCH&N decisions in Tanzania...
2019: Global Health Research and Policy
Harshini Manohar, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reduce progressive symptom development. Delay in diagnosis and initiation of ASD-specific interventions is observed across settings. This study aimed to assess the trends in time to diagnosis and treatment initiation in a tertiary care pediatric setting. Methodology: Families of children with ASD ( n = 50) were assessed, and details regarding age at first symptom recognition, medical consultation, receiving the diagnosis, and initiation of treatment were collected, in addition to detailed clinical assessment...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Michelle M Ernst, Melissa Gardner, Constance A Mara, Emmanuèle C Délot, Patricia Y Fechner, Michelle Fox, Meilan M Rutter, Phyllis W Speiser, Eric Vilain, Erica M Weidler, David E Sandberg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Utilization of a psychosocial screener to identify families affected by a disorder/difference of sex development (DSD) and at risk for adjustment challenges may facilitate efficient use of team resources to optimize care. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) has been used in other pediatric conditions. The current study explored the reliability and validity of the PAT (modified for use within the DSD population; PAT-DSD). METHODS: Participants were 197 families enrolled in the DSD-Translational Research Network (DSD-TRN) who completed a PAT-DSD during a DSD clinic visit...
February 15, 2019: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Joht Singh Chandan, Tom Thomas, Karim Raza, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Julie Taylor
INTRODUCTION: A growing body of evidence is identifying the link between a history of child maltreatment and a variety of adverse health outcomes ultimately leading to significant social and healthcare burden. Initial work has identified a potential association between child maltreatment and the development of a selection of somatic and visceral central sensitivity syndromes: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, chronic lower back pain, chronic neck pain, chronic pelvic pain, interstitial cystitis, vulvodynia, chronic prostatitis, tension-type headache, migraine, myofascial pain syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome and restless legs syndrome...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Shilpa Anand, Susan Thomas, Mahesh Jayachandra, Tinku Thomas, Tor Arne Strand, Anura V Kurpad, Christopher P Duggan, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is highly prevalent in pregnant Indian women. Neuropsychological tests have shown an association between low maternal vitamin B12 status and poorer cognitive performances in the offspring, although findings from these studies have been inconsistent. Vitamin B12 has an important role in the formation of myelin which is important for the transmission speed of neural impulses and myelination in the central nervous system has been linked to cognition. Assessing neurophysiological measures using event-related potentials (ERPs) in children may provide additional information on the effect of maternal vitamin B12 supplementation on offspring brain function...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Mónica Ruiz-Casares, Sarah Lilley, Brett D Thombs, Robert William Platt, Susan Scott, Widjajanti Isdijoso, Emmy Hermanus, Michelle Andrina, Nancy Mayo
INTRODUCTION: Every year, up to 1 billion children are victims of violence worldwide. Most child abuse takes place in the context of punishment. The Families First Programme, an adaptation of the Positive Discipline in Everyday Parenting Programme to the West Java context, is a parenting support programme anchored on children's rights that gives parents guidance on child development, parenting and positive discipline practices. This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of the Families First Programme compared with a waitlist control group...
January 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Patricia Ibeziako, Khyati Brahmbhatt, Andrea Chapman, Claire De Souza, Lisa Giles, Shanti Gooden, Finza Latif, Nasuh Malas, Lisa Namerow, Ruth Russell, Petra Steinbuchel, Maryland Pao, Sigita Plioplys
Somatic symptom and related disorders (SSRDs) are commonly encountered in pediatric hospital settings. There is, however, a lack of standardization of care across institutions for youth with these disorders. These patients are diagnostically and psychosocially complex, posing significant challenges for medical and behavioral health care providers. SSRDs are associated with significant health care use, cost to families and hospitals, and risk for iatrogenic interventions and missed diagnoses. With sponsorship from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and input from multidisciplinary stakeholders, we describe the first attempt to develop a clinical pathway and standardize the care of patients with SSRDs in pediatric hospital settings by a working group of pediatric consultation-liaison psychiatrists from multiple institutions across North America...
February 19, 2019: Hospital Pediatrics
Yvonne Jie Chen, Namrata Chindarkar, Yun Xiao
BACKGROUND: Reliable basic infrastructure, particularly electricity, is a critical enabling factor in improving health systems and consequently achieving the health sustainable development goals (SDGs). Yet, there is no systematic and rigorous study examining the effect of reliable electricity on health systems in a developing country context. In this study, we examine the effect of Jyotigram Yojana (JGY), a rural electrification program providing 24-h electricity to rural non-agricultural users in Gujarat, India, on core components of health systems including health facilities, health information, and health services utilization...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Junfu Zheng, Yuening Zhang, Peng Li, Shibin Zhang, Yue Li, Lei Li, Huiguo Ding
BACKGROUND: The recurrence of esophageal varices remains high in patients with hepatic portal hypertension after the endoscopic esophageal variceal eradication therapies, including endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL), injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or EVL plus EIS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic ultrasound probe examinations (EUP) findings in the prediction of recurrence following esophageal variceal eradication in a prospective cohort. METHODS: A total of 206 cirrhotic portal hypertension patients with esophageal variceal eradication, who underwent endoscopic variceal therapy (EVL or EIS or EVL plus EIS) were initially enrolled...
February 19, 2019: BMC Gastroenterology
Elio Issa, Tamara Salloum, Balig Panossian, David Ayoub, Edmond Abboud, Sima Tokajian
Streptococcus intermedius (SI) is associated with prolonged hospitalization and low survival rates. The genetic mechanisms involved in brain abscess development and genome evolution in comparison to other members of the Streptococcus anginosus group are understudied. We performed a whole-genome comparative analysis of an SI isolate, LAU_SINT, associated with brain abscess following sinusitis with all SI genomes in addition to S. constellatus and S. anginosus . Selective pressure on virulence factors, phages, pan-genome evolution and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis were assessed...
February 13, 2019: Pathogens
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