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María Cristina Casero, David Velázquez, Miguel Medina-Cobo, Antonio Quesada, Samuel Cirés
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are complex communities that include coexisting toxic and non-toxic strains only distinguishable by genetic methods. This study shows a water-management oriented use of next generation sequencing (NGS) to specifically pinpoint toxigenic cyanobacteria within a bloom simultaneously containing three of the most widespread cyanotoxins (the hepatotoxins microcystins, MCs; and the neurotoxins anatoxin-a, ATX, and saxitoxins, STXs). The 2013 summer bloom in Rosarito reservoir (Spain) comprised 33 cyanobacterial OTUs based on 16S rRNA metabarcoding, 7 of which accounted for as much as 96...
February 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Pratik Kumar, Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Satinder Kaur Brar, Maximiliano Cledon, Azadeh Kermanshahi-Pour
Biological treatment of cyanotoxins has gained much importance in recent decades and holds a promise to work in coordination with various physicochemical treatments. In drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), effective removal of cyanotoxins with reduced toxicity is a primary concern. Commonly used treatments, such as ozonation, chlorination or activated carbon, undergo significant changes in their operating conditions (mainly dosage) to counter the variation in different environmental parameters, such as pH, temperature, and high cyanotoxin concentration...
February 6, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Andrea Zsuzsanna Ujvárosi, Milán Riba, Tamás Garda, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, György Vereb, Márta M-Hamvas, Gábor Vasas, Csaba Máthé
Overproduction of toxic cyanobacteria is a type of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The heptapeptide microcystins (MCs) are one of the most common cyanotoxins. There is increasing research concerning the effects of MCs on growth and physiology of vascular plants, however there is a lack of studies on their direct effects on aquatic macrophytes in the real environment. Here we report the occurrence of a MC producing HAB in Lake Bárdos, Hungary in 2012 with harmful effects on cytological, histological and biochemical parameters of Ceratophyllum submersum (soft hornwort) plants naturally growing at the blooming site...
January 22, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Hanyan Li, Anwar Alsanea, Michael Barber, Ramesh Goel
The current study presents findings related to algal blooms in a fresh water lake, which has been experiencing severe cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). Primarily, picocyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus and filamentous cyanobacterial group belonging to Aphanizomenon and Dolichospermum dominated top water column during non-bloom and bloom periods respectively. The dominance of Synechococcus in early summer informs that blooming in Utah Lake starts in early summer and then later is taken over by other bloom-forming cyanobacteria, such as species belonging to the genus Aphanizomenon...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Nirina Khadgi, Akhanda Raj Upreti
In this work, we aimed to study photocatalytic degradation of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyanotoxin known to cause acute as well as chronic toxicity and even mortality. The nanocomposite (NC) based on zinc ferrite (ZnFe2 O4 ) was modified with graphene oxide (GO) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance its photocatalytic properties under visible light. The so-formed ZnFe2 O4 -Ag/rGO NC exhibited superior performance in visible light allowing complete degradation of MC-LR within 120 min of treatment with pseudo rate constant, k = 0...
January 7, 2019: Chemosphere
Mathias Ahii Chia, Benjamin J Kramer, Jennifer G Jankowiak, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Christopher J Gobler
Globally, eutrophication and warming of aquatic ecosystems has increased the frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms and their associated toxins, with the simultaneous detection of multiple cyanotoxins often occurring. Despite the co-occurrence of cyanotoxins such as microcystins and anatoxin-a (ATX) in water bodies, their effects on phytoplankton communities are poorly understood. The individual and combined effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and ATX on the cyanobacteria Microcystis spp., and Anabaena variabilis (a...
January 15, 2019: Toxins
Qin Qiao, Chakib Djediat, Hélène Huet, Charlotte Duval, Séverine Le Manach, Cécile Bernard, Marc Edery, Benjamin Marie
Among the diverse toxic components produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins (MCs) are one of the most toxic and notorious cyanotoxin groups. Besides their potent hepatotoxicity, MCs have been revealed to induce potential reproductive toxicity in various animal studies. However, little is still known regarding the distribution of MCs in the reproductive organ, which could directly affect reproductive cells. In order to respond to this question, an acute study was conducted in adult medaka fish (model animal) gavaged with 10 μg...
January 7, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
(no author information available yet)
Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. The major risk factors are chronic infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), high exposure to aflatoxins. In addition, exposure to cyanotoxins and some preventable health behaviors are also recognized to contribute to liver cancer development. To relieve the disease burden, primary prevention of etiological interventions is an important strategy. Based on the liver cancer epidemiology in China and the effective evidences and results from the etiological interventions conduced in Chinese population domestically, the following strategies are recommended in the "Strategies of primary prevention of liver cancer: Expert Consensus (2018)" to promote the effective prevention of liver cancer in general population...
January 6, 2019: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Douglas Silva Dos Santos, Maria Eduarda Rosa, Ana Paula Zanatta, Raquel Soares Oliveira, Carlos Gabriel Moreira de Almeida, Allan Pinto Leal, Miriam Sanz, Kelly Afonsina Fernandes, Velci Queiroz de Souza, Denis Reis de Assis, Ernani Pinto, Cháriston André Dal Belo
The detection of cyanotoxins, such as the anatoxin-a(s), is essential to ensure the biological safety of water environments. Here, we propose the use of Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches as an alternative biological model for the biomonitoring of the activity of anatoxin-a(s) in aquatic systems. In order to validate our proposed model, we compared the effects of a cyanobacterial extract containing anatoxin-a(s) (CECA) with those of the organophosphate trichlorfon (Tn) on biochemical and physiological parameters of the nervous system of Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches...
December 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Barbara Kubickova, Petra Laboha, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt, Klara Hilscherová, Pavel Babica
Anthropogenic eutrophication of freshwater bodies increases the occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms. The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is detected in the environment with increasing frequency, driving the scientific effort to assess emerging health risks from CYN-producing blooms. Oral exposure to CYN results primarily in hepatotoxicity. Nevertheless, extrahepatic manifestations of CYN toxicity have been reported. Furthermore, cyanotoxins have been detected in aerosols and dust particles, suggesting potential toxic effects in the respiratory tract...
December 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Claire Pancrace, Keishi Ishida, Enora Briand, Douglas Gatte Pichi, Annika R Weiz, Arthur Guljamow, Thibault Scalvenzi, Nathalie Sassoon, Christian Hertweck, Elke Dittmann, Muriel Gugger
The cyanobacterial genus Microcystis is known to produce an elaborate array of structurally unique and biologically active natural products including hazardous cyanotoxins. Cytotoxic aeruginoguanidines represent a yet unexplored family of peptides featuring a trisubstituted benzene unit and farnesylated arginine derivatives. In this study, we aimed at assigning these compounds to a biosynthetic gene cluster by utilizing biosynthetic attributes deduced from public genomes of Microcystis and the sporadic distribution of the metabolite in axenic strains of the Pasteur Culture Collection of Cyanobacteria...
December 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Alescia Cullen, Leanne A Pearson, Rabia Mazmouz, Tianzhe Liu, Angela H Soeriyadi, Sarah E Ongley, Brett A Neilan
Covering: up to 2018Marine and freshwater cyanobacteria produce a variety of toxic compounds that pose a threat to the health of humans, livestock and natural ecosystems world-wide. Significant research efforts have been directed towards understanding the biosynthesis of these cyanotoxins in an attempt to reduce their deleterious effects on water quality and, more recently, to harness their biotechnological potential. While a variety of complementary methods (such as bioinformatic analyses and isotope feeding studies) have been employed over the last three decades to address knowledge gaps in this field, this review focuses on the utility of heterologous expression and biochemical studies, including emerging technologies for engineering and expressing complete cyanotoxin gene clusters...
December 17, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Christophoros Christophoridis, Sevasti-Kiriaki Zervou, Korina Manolidi, Matina Katsiapi, Maria Moustaka-Gouni, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Theodoros M Triantis, Anastasia Hiskia
Toxic cyanobacteria occur in Greek surface water bodies. However, studies on the occurrence of cyanotoxins (CTs) are often limited to mainly microcystins (MCs), with use of screening methods, such as ELISA, that are not conclusive of the chemical structure of the CT variants and can be subject to false positive results. A multi-lake survey in Greece (14 lakes) was conducted in water and biomass, targeted to a wide range of multi-class CTs including MCs, nodularin-R (NOD), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), anatoxin-a (ANA-a) and saxitoxins (STXs), using multi-class/variant LC-MS/MS analytical workflows, achieving sensitive detection, definitive identification and accurate quantitation...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chi Ying Gary Ding, Li Mei Pang, Zhao-Xun Liang, Kau Kiat Kelvin Goh, Evgenia Glukhov, William H Gerwick, Lik Tong Tan
Certain strains of cyanobacteria produce a wide array of cyanotoxins, such as microcystins, lyngbyatoxins and aplysiatoxins, that are associated with public health issues. In this pilot study, an approach combining LC-MS/MS and molecular networking was employed as a rapid analytical method to detect aplysiatoxins present in four environmental marine cyanobacterial samples collected from intertidal areas in Singapore. Based on 16S-ITS rRNA gene sequences, these filamentous cyanobacterial samples collected from Pulau Hantu were determined as Trichodesmium erythraeum , Oscillatoria sp...
December 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
U C Terin, L P Sabogal-Paz
A household slow sand filter (HSSF) is a widely used water treatment technology recognized as one of the most effective and sustainable in reducing waterborne diseases. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning its behaviour in the presence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate HSSF ability to remove Microcystis aeruginosa cells (stain BB005) and microcystin-LR from water, among other parameters, when operated under continuous (C-HSSF) and intermittent (I-HSSF) flows...
November 21, 2018: Water Research
Susanna A Wood, Laura Biessy, Jonathan Puddick
Proliferations of potentially toxic, mat-forming Microcoleus are increasing in streams globally. A range of cyanotoxins are produced by Microcoleus, with the neurotoxic anatoxins (anatoxin-a, dihydro-anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and dihydro-homoanatoxin-a) the most commonly reported. The anatoxins produced by Microcoleus are thought to be largely contained within the cells. More knowledge on whether anatoxins are been released into the overlying stream water is required to better assess health risks to human, animals, and aquatic organisms...
December 2018: Harmful Algae
Tereza Vanova, Jan Raska, Pavel Babica, Iva Sovadinova, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Petr Dvorak, Ludek Blaha, Vladimir Rotrekl
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has been recognized as a potent waterborne hepatotoxin with an increasing environmental occurrence. However, CYN effects on the specific populations of hepatic cells involved in liver tissue development, renewal and regeneration, have not been characterized yet. We used human embryonic stem cells to analyze the hepatic differentiation stage-specific effect of CYN. Our results strongly suggest that CYN might contribute to the development of chronic adverse outcomes by disrupting liver tissue homeostasis in terms of (i) cellular stress and damage induced in the mature differentiated hepatocytes, which was associated with a necrotic cell death and thus possibly also inflammatory responses; (ii) selective elimination of HNF4α+ cells from populations of progenitor cells and immature hepatocytes during hepatic differentiation, which could possibly lead to an impaired liver renewal and regeneration; (iii) impaired hepatic functions of immature hepatocytes, such as decreased ALB secretion or increased lipid accumulation, which could contribute to the development of liver steatosis; and (iv) survival of the immature and AFP-expressing cells with the limited ability to further differentiate, which could represent a tumor-promoting condition...
November 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Marek Šebela, Eva Jahodářová, Martin Raus, René Lenobel, Petr Hašler
Cyanobacteria represent a bacterial phyllum characteristic by the ability to photosynthesize. They are potentially applicable for the production of useful compounds but may also cause poisoning or at least health problems as they can produce cyanotoxins. The introduction of a fast methodology is important not only for fundamental taxonomic purposes, but also for reliable identifications in biological studies. In this work, we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of intact cells to study Chroococcidiopsis strains...
2018: PloS One
Soryong Chae, Tahereh Noeiaghaei, Yoontaek Oh, In S Kim, Jin-Soo Park
Harmful algal blooms are occurring more frequently in fresh water throughout the world. Certain cyanobacteria can produce and release potent toxic compounds, known as cyanotoxins, such as microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and anatoxin-a, and as such they have become a human and environmental health concern. Hybrid photocatalytic composites (HPCs) comprising carbon nanotubes on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes were designed in this study. The HPCs have a selective adsorption capacity to cyanotoxins and provide photocatalytic activity to produce reactive oxygen species for the degradation of cyanotoxins...
November 13, 2018: Water Research
Halina Falfushynska, Oksana Horyn, Agnieszka Brygider, Olga Fedoruk, Bogdan Buyak, Dmytro Poznansky, Barbara Poniedziałek, Mikołaj Kokociński, Piotr Rzymski
As yet European strains of Raphidiopsis raciborskii (previously Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) have not been found to produce known cyanotoxins although their extracts have caused adverse effects in mammals, as shown using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The present study investigated whether R. raciborskii isolated from Western Poland and Ukraine can affect fish cells using in vitro exposures of hepatocytes and red blood cells (RBC), and brain homogenates obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to 1...
November 17, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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