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AP-1 melanin

Mingyeong Kang, See-Hyoung Park, Se Jung Park, Sae Woong Oh, Ju Ah Yoo, Kitae Kwon, Jangsoon Kim, Eunbi Yu, Jae Youl Cho, Jongsung Lee
BACKGROUND: Melanin plays a crucial role in protecting human skin against exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, its overproduction induces hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin. PURPOSE: To investigate effects of phenylethyl resorcinol as one resorcinol derivative on melanogenesis and its mechanisms using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes. METHODS: Effects of phenylethyl resorcinol on melanogenesis and its mechanism of action were examined using several in vitro assays (i...
February 26, 2019: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jung-Eun Yang, Hien T T Ngo, Eunson Hwang, Seul A Seo, Sul Woong Park, Tae-Hoo Yi
Exposure of skin to UVB radiation is associated with skin thickening, erythema, deep wrinkles, and marked losses of elasticity, resilience, and hydration. To find effective anti-aging materials, scientists have studied not only natural nutritional sources, but also biotransformed metabolites. Although Hibiscus syriacus L., the national flower of Korea has been used extensively throughout history, it has not yet been examined for possible anti-aging effects. In this study, skin anti-aging effects of H. syriacus L...
December 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Cécile Campagne, Léa Ripoll, Floriane Gilles-Marsens, Graça Raposo, Cédric Delevoye
Melanocytes are specialized cells that generate unique organelles called melanosomes in which melanin is synthesized and stored. Melanosome biogenesis and melanocyte pigmentation require the transport and delivery of melanin synthesizing enzymes, such as tyrosinase and related proteins (e.g., TYRP1), from endosomes to maturing melanosomes. Among the proteins controlling endosome-melanosome transport, AP-1 together with KIF13A coordinates the endosomal sorting and trafficking of TYRP1 to melanosomes. We identify here β1-adaptin AP-1 subunit-derived peptides of 5 amino acids that block the interaction of KIF13A with AP-1 in cells...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
I-Y Tsao, J-W Chen, C-J Li, H-L Lo, B M Christensen, C-C Chen
Phenoloxidases (POs) play key roles in various physiological functions in insects, e.g., cuticular sclerotization, wound healing, egg tanning, cuticle formation and melanotic encapsulaction of pathogens. Previously, we identified five POs, designated As-pro-PO I-V, from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus and demonstrated that the functions of As-pro-PO I, II and III, were associated with filarial parasite melanization, blood feeding and cuticle formation, respectively. In the present study, we delineate the dual functions of As-pro-PO V...
September 2015: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Kyung Hu Kim, Soo Jin Park, Ji Eun Lee, Young Joon Lee, Chang Hyun Song, Seong Hun Choi, Sae Kwang Ku, Su Jin Kang
BACKGROUND: There have been many attempts to search for affordable and effective functional cosmetic ingredients, especially from natural sources. OBJECTIVES: As research into developing a functional cosmetic ingredient, we investigated whether exopolymers from Aureobasidium pullulans SM2001 (E-AP-SM2001) exert antioxidant, antiwrinkle, whitening, and skin moisturizing effects. METHODS: Antioxidant effects of E-AP-SM2001 were determined by measuring free radical scavenging capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity...
September 2014: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Van Thai Ha, Heung Soo Beak, Eunji Kim, Kwang-Soo Baek, Muhammad Jahangir Hossen, Woo Seok Yang, Yong Kim, Jun Ho Kim, Sungjae Yang, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Yung Hyup Joo, Chang Seok Lee, Joonho Choi, Hong-Ju Shin, Sungyoul Hong, Song Seok Shin, Jae Youl Cho
AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
Jarred J Bultema, Santiago M Di Pietro
Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) exist in specialized cells to serve specific functions and typically co-exist with conventional lysosomes. The biogenesis of LROs is known to utilize much of the common protein machinery used in the transport of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes. Consequently, an outstanding question in the field has been how specific cargoes are trafficked to LROs instead of lysosomes, particularly in cells that simultaneously produce both organelles. One LRO, the melanosome, is responsible for the production of the pigment melanin and has long been used as a model system to study the formation of specialized LROs...
January 2013: Small GTPases
Min-Ho Jeong, Kwang-Mo Yang, Jung-Ki Kim, Byung-Hyouk Nam, Gi-Yong Kim, Sang-Wha Lee, Su-Yeong Seo, Wol-Soon Jo
The control of melanogenesis is an important strategy in the treatment of abnormal skin pigmentation for cosmetic purposes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of Asterina pectinifera (A. pectinifera) extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay, cellular tyrosinase assay, melanin content assay and the analysis of related protein expression in melan-a cells. A. pectinifera was extracted with 80% methanol (80-MAP) and further fractionated with hexane (He-AP) and ethyl acetate (EA-AP)...
January 2013: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Andreas Gerondopoulos, Lars Langemeyer, Jin-Rui Liang, Andrea Linford, Francis A Barr
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a human disease characterized by partial loss of pigmentation and impaired blood clotting. These symptoms are caused by defects in the biogenesis of melanosomes and platelet dense granules, often referred to as lysosome-related organelles. Genes mutated in HPS encode subunits of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complexes (BLOCs). BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, together with the AP-3 clathrin adaptor complex, act at early endosomes to sort components required for melanin formation and melanosome biogenesis away from the degradative lysosomal pathway toward early stage melanosomes...
November 20, 2012: Current Biology: CB
Jarred J Bultema, Andrea L Ambrosio, Carolyn L Burek, Santiago M Di Pietro
Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are synthesized in specialized cell types where they largely coexist with conventional lysosomes. Most of the known cellular transport machinery involved in biogenesis are ubiquitously expressed and shared between lysosomes and LROs. Examples of common components are the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelle complex (BLOC)-2. These protein complexes control sorting and transport of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins from early endosomes to both lysosomes and LROs such as the melanosome...
June 1, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Diego J Hoyle, Imilce A Rodriguez-Fernandez, Esteban C Dell'angelica
The biogenesis of melanosomes is a multistage process that requires the function of cell-type-specific and ubiquitously expressed proteins. OCA2, the product of the gene defective in oculocutaneous albinism type 2, is a melanosomal membrane protein with restricted expression pattern and a potential role in the trafficking of other proteins to melanosomes. The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes...
April 2011: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Cédric Delevoye, Ilse Hurbain, Danièle Tenza, Jean-Baptiste Sibarita, Stéphanie Uzan-Gafsou, Hiroshi Ohno, Willie J C Geerts, Arie J Verkleij, Jean Salamero, Michael S Marks, Graça Raposo
Specialized cell types exploit endosomal trafficking to deliver protein cargoes to cell type-specific lysosome-related organelles (LROs), but how endosomes are specified for this function is not known. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor AP-1 and the kinesin motor KIF13A together create peripheral recycling endosomal subdomains in melanocytes required for cargo delivery to maturing melanosomes. In cells depleted of AP-1 or KIF13A, a subpopulation of recycling endosomes redistributes to pericentriolar clusters, resulting in sequestration of melanosomal enzymes like Tyrp1 in vacuolar endosomes and consequent inhibition of melanin synthesis and melanosome maturation...
October 19, 2009: Journal of Cell Biology
Karolina Lesiak, Małgorzata Sztiller-Sikorska, Małgorzata Czyz
Melanoma (melanoma malignum) is a malignant tumor derived from melanin-producing melanocytes. Both environmental factors and genetic predisposition are important in tumor development and progression. If not detected and removed early, it is very aggressive and unresponsive to current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, one of the major goals of melanoma research is to better understand cancer biology, which in turn might result in the development of novel treatment strategies. This article reviews selected aspects of the molecular biology of melanoma with an emphasis on describing the role of transcription factors...
October 15, 2007: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Subba Rao Gangi Setty, Danièle Tenza, Steven T Truschel, Evelyn Chou, Elena V Sviderskaya, Alexander C Theos, M Lynn Lamoreux, Santiago M Di Pietro, Marta Starcevic, Dorothy C Bennett, Esteban C Dell'Angelica, Graça Raposo, Michael S Marks
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic disorder characterized by defects in the formation and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS in humans or mice is caused by mutations in any of 15 genes, five of which encode subunits of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, a protein complex with no known function. Here, we show that BLOC-1 functions in selective cargo exit from early endosomes toward melanosomes. BLOC-1-deficient melanocytes accumulate the melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Tyrp1), but not other melanosomal proteins, in endosomal vacuoles and the cell surface due to failed biosynthetic transit from early endosomes to melanosomes and consequent increased endocytic flux...
March 2007: Molecular Biology of the Cell
F M Theisen, M Haberhausen, M A Firnges, P Gregory, J H Reinders, H Remschmidt, J Hebebrand, J Antel
The underlying mechanisms of antipsychotic (AP)-induced weight gain are unknown, but both central and peripheral AP target receptors could potentially be involved. This study used radioligand binding assays to compare the binding affinities of clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol for candidate receptors potentially involved in AP-induced weight gain. Selected candidates derived from known pathways involved in body weight regulation included receptors classified as anorexigenic (bombesin receptor subtype 3, calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, cholecystokinin receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor, neurotensin receptor 1) or orexigenic (cannabinoid receptor 1, galanin 1 receptor, melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCHR), neuropeptide Y1 receptor) as well as receptors involved in physiological actions related to digestion and fluid homeostasis (angiotensin II type 1 receptor, bradykinin B2 receptor, endothelin receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1)...
August 2007: Pharmacogenomics Journal
A Guyon, G Banisadr, C Rovère, A Cervantes, P Kitabgi, S Melik-Parsadaniantz, J-L Nahon
Stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha), a chemoattractant for leucocytes and neurons, and its receptor, CXCR4 are expressed in subsets of neurons of specific brain areas. In rat lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) we show, using immunocytochemistry, that CXCR4 is localized within melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons, mainly involved in feeding behaviour regulation. We investigated whether SDF-1alpha may control MCH neuronal activity. Patch-clamp recordings in rat LHA slices revealed multiple effects of SDF-1alpha on the membrane potential of MCH neurons, indirect through glutamate/GABA release and direct through GIRK current activation...
February 2005: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jongsung Lee, Eunsun Jung, Junho Park, Kwangseon Jung, Eunkyung Park, Jieun Kim, Sungtaek Hong, Jinil Park, Sanghee Park, Sangyeop Lee, Deokhoon Park
In mammalian melanocytes, melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the critical enzyme in the melanogenic pathway. A recent report showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by glycyrrhizin (GR) is because of an increased tyrosinase expression at mRNA and protein levels. But, the molecular events of melanogenesis induced by GR remain to be elucidated. In this study, using B16 melanoma cells, we showed that GR activated activator protein-1 (AP-1) and cyclic response filament "CRE" promoters, but not the nuclear factor-kappaB promoter...
February 2005: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Richard M Niles
The incidence of melanoma is rapidly increasing in the U.S. population. At the present, there is no effective chemotherapy against invasive melanoma. At our laboratory, we have been studying retinoic acid (RA)-induced growth arrest and differentiation in the B16 murine melanoma cell model. Several immediate-early gene targets of RA were identified by gene arrays. In one of these genes, T-box binding protein-2 (Tbx-2), an RA response element, was identified in the promoter region that mediates the RA responsiveness of this gene...
January 2003: Journal of Nutrition
Ying Huang, Goran Boskovic, Richard M Niles
Retinoic acid (RA) inhibits growth and induces differentiation of B16 mouse melanoma cells. These effects are accompanied by a large increase in PKCalpha mRNA and protein levels and surprisingly an increase in activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity. To further investigate the RA-induced AP-1 activity we established clones of B16 cells stably expressing an AP-1-luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of these clones with phorbol dibutyrate increased AP-1 activity which peaked at 2-4 h and returned to baseline level by 24 h...
February 2003: Journal of Cellular Physiology
A N Eberle, J Bódi, G Orosz, H Süli-Vargha, V Jäggin, U Zumsteg
Antagonist and agonist activities of chemically synthetized mouse agouti protein fragment (91-131) (AP91-131) at the melanocortin type-1 receptor (MC1-R) were assessed using B 16-F1 mouse melanoma cells in vitro and the following assay systems: (i) receptor binding, (ii) adenylate cyclase, (iii) tyrosinase, (iv) melanin production, and (v) cell proliferation. In competition binding studies AP91-131 was about 3-fold less potent than the natural agonist alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in displacing the radioligand [125I]-[Nle4, D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH (Ki 6...
February 2001: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
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