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Jennifer Berglund
Just 2 Miles northeast of sleek downtown skyscrapers, across the Buffalo Bayou River from the Houston Astros' Minute Maid Park, lies a landscape greener than most of the urban sprawl, but absent the charm of typical Southern suburbia. The Fifth Ward of Houston, TX, is dotted with a patchwork of homes with screenless windows, many desperately clinging to their beams, surrounded by twisted chain link fences patrolled by trotting packs of skeletal stray dogs. Broken roads are lined with piles of abandoned tires, and pools of stagnant, dirty water...
January 2019: IEEE Pulse
Daniel O B Jones, Andrew R Gates, Veerle A I Huvenne, Alexander B Phillips, Brian J Bett
Hundreds of Oil & Gas Industry structures in the marine environment are approaching decommissioning. In most areas decommissioning operations will need to be supported by environmental assessment and monitoring, potentially over the life of any structures left in place. This requirement will have a considerable cost for industry and the public. Here we review approaches for the assessment of the primary operating environments associated with decommissioning - namely structures, pipelines, cuttings piles, the general seabed environment and the water column - and show that already available marine autonomous systems (MAS) offer a wide range of solutions for this major monitoring challenge...
February 22, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Michael Schindler, Haley Mantha, Michael F Hochella
Mineralogical studies of contaminated soils affected by smelter emission and dust from mining activities indicate that minerals of the spinel group are one of the common hosts of metal-bearing contaminants. Spinel group minerals typically originate from high temperature processes, but an increasing number of studies indicate that metal-bearing spinel group minerals can also form under ambient Earth surface conditions in surficial soils. In this contribution to honor Donald Sparks, we show that the spinels Zn-bearing magnetite (Zn0...
March 13, 2019: Geochemical Transactions
Miriam Piles, Carlos Fernandez-Lozano, María Velasco-Galilea, Olga González-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo Sánchez, David Torrallardona, Maria Ballester, Raquel Quintanilla
BACKGROUND: To date, the molecular mechanisms that underlie residual feed intake (RFI) in pigs are unknown. Results from different genome-wide association studies and gene expression analyses are not always consistent. The aim of this research was to use machine learning to identify genes associated with feed efficiency (FE) using transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) data from pigs that are phenotypically extreme for RFI. METHODS: RFI was computed by considering within-sex regression on mean metabolic body weight, average daily gain, and average backfat gain...
March 13, 2019: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Lutz Heinemann, Edward Krisiunas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Jiehui Li, James E Cone, Robert M Brackbill, Ingrid Giesinger, Janette Yung, Mark R Farfel
Dust created by the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on 9/11 included metals and toxicants that have been linked to an increased risk of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in the literature. Little has been reported on PF among WTC responders. This report used self-reported physician diagnosis of PF with an unknown sub-type to explore the association between levels of WTC dust exposure and PF. We included 19,300 WTC responders, enrolled in the WTC Health Registry in 2003⁻2004, who were followed for 11 years from 2004 to 2015...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bruna Menegassi, Priscila de Morais Sato, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi, Jean-Claude Moubarac
The aim of this study is to have an exploratory insight on how a sample of Brazilian adults classify food, attempting to identify the main factors involved in this process, and to compare these classifications to the NOVA food classification of the 2014 Brazilian dietary guidelines. An exploratory and qualitative approach was conducted with a selected sample of teachers, administrative technicians, and students (N = 24) from the Federal University of Grande Dourados, Brazil. First, using the pile sort method, participants were asked to freely classify 24 pictures of food (sourced from examples of the four food groups specified in NOVA) into food groups meaningful to them...
March 9, 2019: Appetite
Steven M Valles, Adam R Rivers
The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) escaped its natural enemies when it was introduced into North America in the 1930s from South America. US efforts have focused on discovery of natural enemies, like viruses, to provide sustainable control of the ant. Nine new virus genomes were sequenced from the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta using metagenomic RNA sequencing. The virus genomes were verified by Sanger sequencing and random amplification of cDNA ends reactions. In addition to the nine new virus genomes, the previously described Solenopsis viruses were also detected, including Solenopsis invicta virus 1 (SINV-1), SINV-2, SINV-3, SINV-4, SINV-5, and Solenopsis invicta densovirus...
March 7, 2019: Virus Genes
Janusz Kozubal, Marek Wyjadłowski, Dmitri Steshenko
Sulphate attack is one of the most important factors that limit the lifetime of pure concrete constructions. Harsh environmental conditions have a large impact on the operational costs of concrete columns or piles dipped into soil. The results are non-deterministic; therefore, reliability analysis is often used. The strength characteristics of the substrate around the construction were modelled as one-dimensional prismatic beams related with random p-y curves. Sulphate deterioration is defined as a set of random variables jointed with two dimensional mechanical systems at acceptable levels...
2019: PloS One
Keolebogile Shirley Caroline M Motaung, Franca Nneka Alaribe
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapy is still in a very early phase in the African continent, despite the significant progress that has been made in many parts of the world. Although South Africa's position in the world competitiveness scale has improved, there is an urgent need for a skilled and technically sophisticated work force to be developed in the African continent. The existence of traditional and complementary medicine is known to be a fertile ground source of Western Medicine and Africa is rich with medicinal plants...
March 6, 2019: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Fan Wang, Yuren Chen, Jingqiu Guo, Chen Yu, Mark Stevenson, Haifeng Zhao
Road geometric design is a fundamental factor that impacts driving speed. Previous research generally paid attentions to the influences of specific road characteristics (e.g. curvature) on driving behaviors. Limited studies have focused on how drivers identify different alignments and how they further take the varying speed choices. This study aims at filling the gap by investigating the subjective categorization of road alignments based on middle-aged driver groups. A total of sixteen participants with ages ranging from 23 to 40 years were recruited...
March 2, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Süleyman Çoban, Safa Balekoğlu, Gülen Özalp
Clear-cutting of powerline corridors (PLCs) adversely affects ecosystem function by fragmenting intact forests and supports biodiversity with the development of a structurally diverse vegetation. The study aimed to determine diversity and composition caused by clear-cutting and monitor change in species composition on the PLC passing through Research Forest of IUC Faculty of Forestry. Species composition was monitored in 10 permanent plots on the clear-cut area (over 3 years) paired on the forest edge (over 2 years) and forest interior (first year)...
March 1, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zbigniew Muszyński, Marek Wyjadłowski
This article presents in situ research on the side surface of continuous flight auger (CFA) foundation piles using a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner (Leica ScanStation C10) in order to evaluate the morphology assessment of pile concrete surfaces in various geotechnical layers. Terrestrial laser scanning describes the 3D geometry of the construction with high spatial resolution and accuracy. A total of six areas were selected from the acquired point cloud for which a two-step approach for removing the form was applied...
February 27, 2019: Sensors
Jong Woo Park, Jeung-Whan Han
Cancer can be identified as a chaotic cell state, which breaks the rules that govern growth and reproduction, with main characteristics such as uncontrolled division, invading other tissues, usurping resources, and eventually killing its host. It was once believed that cancer is caused by a progressive series of genetic aberrations, and certain mutations of genes, including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, have been identified as the cause of cancer. However, piling evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications working in concert with genetic mechanisms to regulate transcriptional activity are dysregulated in many diseases, including cancer...
February 26, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Kristian Petersen Nørgaard, Jiri Hyks, Jesper Kølbæk Mulvad, Jens Ole Frederiksen, Ole Hjelmar
Development of temperature, CO2 level, and moisture was followed during several months of outdoor ageing of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (IBA) in seventeen 5000-ton piles, in order to obtain input data for possible optimization of the ageing process in terms of faster/better drying prior to the metal recovery operation. In addition, measured thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of IBA were combined with calculated thermal output and used as input to a model originally developed for accessing temperature development in hardening concrete structures...
February 15, 2019: Waste Management
Anju Elizbath Peter, S M Shiva Nagendra, Indumathi M Nambi
Open municipal solid waste (MSW) dumpsites are nowadays looming hotspots for water, air, and land pollution. Fresh and old MSW samples collected from a dumpsite in the coastal city of India were analyzed for moisture content, volatile content, energy content, elements, and toxic heavy metals. The compositional analysis results showed that fresh MSW consisted of 36% by weight bio-waste (food waste, yard waste, coconut waste) and around 30% recyclable materials (plastics, paper, cardboard, and metals). Approximately, 62% of the total fresh MSW was found to be combustible materials (plastics, paper, textile, rubber, cardboard, yard waste, and coconut husks)...
February 15, 2019: Waste Management
Christine M F Miller, Jennifer M Heguy, Betsy M Karle, Patricia L Price, Deanne Meyer
Precise applications of manure to cropland can help optimize productivity and minimize environmental nutrient losses. Applying manure precisely is a challenge because the nutrient content of manures is inherently variable and the accuracy of sampling protocols are unknown. This study aimed to quantify the accuracy of sampling protocols for static solid manure piles considering both the number and depth of grab samples entering a composite sample. Over 35 grab samples were collected from each of ten static piles of dairy manure in California's Central Valley...
February 15, 2019: Waste Management
Jihen Jalali, Pierre Gaudin, Hervé Capiaux, Emna Ammar, Thierry Lebeau
The phosphate industry in Tunisia generates large amounts of phosphogypsum (PG) with more than 107 t per year. Environmental impact of this solid waste was studied. Cd, Ce, La, Nd, Sr and Y were analyzed from soils near PG stockpiles (Sfax and M'dhilla) and sediments from marine discharge (Gabes). Their impacts on the bacterial community structure and wild plants were investigated. Metal trace elements (MTE) concentrations (in mg Kg-1 DM) were much higher in contaminated soil than in the control (at 12 km from PG stockpiles)...
February 22, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sarah Yardley, Sandra Martins Pereira, Catherine Walshe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Palliative Medicine
Danya Bakhbakhi, Christy Burden, Claire Storey, Alexander Edward Heazell, Mary Lynch, Laura Timlin, Katherine Gold, Dimitrios Siassakos
OBJECTIVE: Engaging bereaved parents in the review process that examines their care before and after a perinatal death might help parents deal with their grief more effectively and drive improvements in patient safety. The objective of this study is to explore whether healthcare professionals would accept or support parent engagement in the perinatal mortality review process. DESIGN: Qualitative focus group interviews. Transcripts were analysed with an inductive thematic approach...
February 22, 2019: BMJ Open
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