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Navin Bhatt, Sudha Agrawal, Kabindra Mehta
BACKGROUND: Facial appearance has increasing importance to individuals and women, in particular. Till date, there are no reports of the extrinsic factors influencing skin aging in Nepalese population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk factors and self-perception for facial aging in Nepalese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 attendees aged 30-70 years visiting the dermatology outpatient department of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
W P T James, R J Johnson, J R Speakman, D C Wallace, G Frühbeck, P O Iverson, P J Stover
Our understanding of human evolution has improved rapidly over recent decades, facilitated by large-scale cataloguing of genomic variability amongst both modern and archaic humans. It seems clear that the evolution of the ancestors of chimpanzees and hominins separated 7-9 million years ago with some migration out of Africa by the earlier hominins; Homo sapiens slowly emerged as climate change resulted in drier, less forested African conditions. The African populations expanded and evolved in many different conditions with slow mutation and selection rates in the human genome, but with much more rapid mutation occurring in mitochondrial DNA...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Luisa C Pusch, Christian F Kammerer, Jörg Fröbisch
The cranial anatomy of the early non-mammalian cynodont Galesaurus planiceps from the South African Karoo Basin is redescribed on the basis of a computed tomographic reconstruction of the skull. Previously, little was known about internal skull morphology and the nervous and sensory system of this taxon. The endocranial anatomy of various cynodonts has been intensively studied in recent years to understand the origin of mammalian characters in the nasal capsule, brain and ear. However, these studies have focused on only a few taxa, the earliest of which is another Early Triassic cynodont, Thrinaxodon liorhinus...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Andrew J Simkin, Patricia E López-Calcagno, Christine A Raines
A number of recent studies have provided strong support demonstrating that improving the photosynthetic processes through genetic engineering can provide an avenue to improve yield potential. The major focus of this review is on improvement of the Calvin-Benson cycle and electron transport. Consideration is also given to how altering regulatory process may provide an additional route to increase photosynthetic efficiency. Here we summarize some of the recent successes that have been observed through genetic manipulation of photosynthesis, showing that, in both the glasshouse and the field, yield can be increased by >40%...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Marshall G Miller, Shibu M Poulose, Amanda N Carey, Derek R Fisher
Daily supplementation of blueberries (BBs) reverses age-related deficits in behavior in aged rats. However, it is unknown whether BB is more beneficial to one subset of the population dependent on baseline cognitive performance and inflammatory status. To examine the effect of individual differences on the efficacy of BB, aged rats (17 mo old) were assessed for cognition in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) and divided into good, average, and poor performers based on navigation errors. Half of the rats in each cognitive group were then fed a control or a 2% BB diet for 8 weeks before re-testing...
February 17, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Zeinab Latifi, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Sina Abroon, Aynaz Mihanfar, Laya Farzadi, Parvin Hakimi, Hamed Hajipour, Mohammad Nouri, Amir Fattahi
TGF-β signaling in the endometrium is active during the implantation period and has a pivotal role in regulating endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. During embryo implantation, both apoptosis and proliferation of endometrial cells happen at the same time and it seems TGF-β is the factor that controls both of these processes. As shown in cancer cells, in special conditions this cytokine can have a dual effect and switch the action from apoptosis to proliferation. Owing to the similarity between embryo implantation and cancer development and also unusual pattern of proliferation and remodeling in the uterus, in this review we suggest the existence of such a switching in endometrium during the early pregnancy...
February 17, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Benedict T Green, Dale R Gardner, James A Pfister, Kevin D Welch, Gary L Bennett, Daniel Cook
Cattle losses from larkspur (Delphinium spp.) toxicity are a long-term challenge on the rangelands of western North America. In addition to animal factors that affect livestock poisonings, plant alkaloid composition (chemotype) affects the intoxication of cattle because some chemotypes are significantly more toxic. Differences in larkspur chemotype toxicity are due to the ratios of N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids to non-MSAL-type alkaloids and the concentrations of those alkaloids in the plant material...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Sóstenez A Vessaro-Silva, Marcílio Hubner Miranda Neto, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucineia Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Ana Tereza Bittencout Guimarães, Camila Maria Toigo de Oliveira
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a DNA virus that infects different tissues in Bombyx mori at immature stage. Caterpillars become infected after ingesting polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB) present in contaminated mulberry leaves and spread through the body after passing the epithelium of the midgut. As this organ is responsible for digestion, most absorption of nutrients requires an intact epithelium to maintain gastrointestinal physiology. Considering the importance of this organ in the feeding of caterpillars and in the production of quality silk threads, and because it is also the first barrier faced by the BmNPV, the study analyzed details of cytopathological events in the intestinal cells as well as evaluated the action of the antioxidant systems as a response to cellular infection...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Garan Jones, Luke C Pilling, Chia-Ling Kuo, George Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by chronic inflammation plus muscle mass and strength loss, termed sarcopenia. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) types are drivers of autoimmune disease, although with limited penetrance. We tested whether autoimmune diagnoses are associated with sarcopenia, and whether HLA types and related genetic variants associate with sarcopenia in autoimmune disease free older people. METHODS: Data from 181,301 UK Biobank European descent volunteers aged 60 - 70 with measured hand-grip strength and impedance...
February 17, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Takuya Matsushiro, Toshihiro Fujimatsu, Kagami Miyaji
This report presents a case of a 68-year-old woman with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR). Preoperative echocardiography showed stenosis of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and systolic anterior leaflet motion (SAM) of the mitral valve. She underwent mitral valve replacement( MVR) alone, and obstruction of LVOT was successfully released. Although a septal myectomy is the "gold standard" surgical therapy for HOCM, complications such as heart-block and ventricular septal perforation still remain...
February 2019: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Subashnie Devkaran, Patrick N O'Farrell, Samer Ellahham, Randy Arcangel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether hospital re-accreditation improves quality, patient safety and reliability over three accreditation cycles by testing the accreditation life cycle model on quality measures. DESIGN: The validity of the life cycle model was tested by calibrating interrupted time series (ITS) regression equations for 27 quality measures. The change in the variation of quality over the three accreditation cycles was evaluated using the Levene's test. SETTING: A 650-bed tertiary academic hospital in Abu Dhabi, UAE...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Steen Stender
OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, several countries have implemented a legislative restriction on I-TF in foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of I-TF in biscuits/cakes/wafers in 15 countries of the former Soviet Union that all have a high coronary mortality rate compared with countries in Western Europe. METHODS: Three large supermarkets in 15 capitals were visited in 2015 or 2016...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Anders Malthe Bach-Mortensen, Paul Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: Social services are increasingly commissioned to third and for-profit sector providers, but little is known about whether and how these changes influence quality indicators. We assessed quality-related outcomes across for-profit, public and third sector organisations delivering social care services. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was conducted on publically available data collected by the independent regulator of social care organisations in Scotland. All outcomes are reported as predicted probabilities derived from multivariate logistic regression coefficients...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Marin K Kurti, Klaus von Lampe, Yi He, Hiba Khanzada, Konstantina Kostara, Qin Da, Kevin R J Schroth
BACKGROUND: There is scant research on methods used to identify counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes. METHODS: Systematic analysis of internal tobacco industry documents characteristics of counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes. RESULTS: In the industry documents we identified as relevant, there were 42 characteristics of counterfeit Marlboro cigarettes. Overall, physical characteristics (88.1%) were the most commonly identified features across all locations, with the pack blank, cardboard shell of the cigarette pack, as the dominant site (30...
February 16, 2019: Tobacco Control
Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Rasim Mogulkoc, Saltuk Bugra Baltaci
Zinc is essential in the regulation of a variety of physiological and biochemical events in the organism. It plays a critical role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity, protein-carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, immune system, wound injury and in the regulation of a number of other biological processes associated with normal growth and development. Physiological and biochemical levels of many hormones are affected by zinc metabolism. Therefore, growth impairment, hypogonadism, and some endocrine diseases are associated with the deficiency of zinc...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mubshara Saadia, Muhammad Sher, Sajid Bashir, Mian Anjum Murtaza, Amin Shah, Mahmood Ahmad Khan
Synthetic drugs are associated with adverse side-effects and rapid increase in resistance to most of them inspires to evaluate plants for their therapeutic values. We have been aimed to suggest the medicinal use of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract to minimize the severity of liver damage via its antioxidant properties and its role in maintenance of cell ion-homeostasis. Annoyances in serum levels of some antioxidants and trace metals in human hepatitis C infected patients were compared with that from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxic rabbits...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Muhammad Farhan, Mehwish Parveen
Apomorphine is a classical psychostimulant and used throughout the world as prescribed medicine. Despite of their therapeutic effects, use of psychostimulants is restricted because some psychosis and impulse control disorders are the consequence of their long term use. Studies suggest that serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has a critical role in psychosis and drug abuse. Center of the present article is to assess the impacts of serotonin in the easing of misuse potential; the sensitization prompted by recommended psychostimulant apomorphine...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cen Chen, Qian Zhang, Feng-Qin Wang, Chun-Hong Li, Yuan-Jia Hu, Zhi-Ning Xia, Feng-Qing Yang
In the present study, the anti-platelet aggregation activity of 14 vegetables and fruits was tested in vitro. The aqueous, 90% ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, as well as concentrated juices of 14 foods (fruits and vegetables) were prepared, and the anti-platelet aggregation activity of those extracts was analyzed on a platelet aggregation analyzer in vitro with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), bovine thrombin (THR) and arachidonic acid (AA) as aggregation inducers, respectively. Aspirin (ASP) was used as the positive control...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cheng Jiayi, Ning Tianyi, Teng Dan, Kang Tingguo, Wang Qingfeng, Zhang Qianqian
To explore the protective effect and mechanism of isorhamnetin against oxidative injury caused by H2 O2 to endothelial cell strain CRL1730 of human umbilical vein. H2 O2 and endothelial cell strain CRL1730 were used, as a model of injured endothelial cell. Three levels of crude drugs areorhamnetin, 22.8μg/ml, 11.4μg/mL and 5.7μg/mL was added to the injured cell strain CRL1730 respectively. The cell injury was measured in terms of necrotic rate, quantities of von Wilebr and factor (vWf) and thrombomodulin (TM), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and intracellular free calcium ions through flow cytometry, ELISA, fluorescent spectrometer and laser scanning confocal microscopy respectively...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shamaila Khalid, Fuad Shaikh, Hafiz Syed Imran-Ul-Haq
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy, although associated with disturbances of hematological parameters, is now also considered as a source of oxidative stress (OS). Present study aims to detect any alteration in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes activity in pregnant women with IDA. Levels of GSH-Px and SOD were measured in 156 anemic, pregnant women and compared with similar levels in 20 non anemic, pregnant women. Activity of SOD was found to be reduced in the anemic group when compared with the control group...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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