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Neonates,newborn,term ,preterm

Archana B Patel, Kunal Kurhe, Amber Prakash, Savita Bhargav, Suchita Parepalli, Elizabeth V Fogleman, Janet L Moore, Dennis D Wallace, Hemant Kulkarni, Patricia L Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Although rates of preterm birth continue to increase globally, identification of preterm from low birth weight infants remains a challenge. The burden of low birth weight vs preterm is greatest in resource-limited settings, where gestational age (GA) prior to delivery is frequently not known because ultrasound in early pregnancy is not available and estimates of the date of the mother's last menstrual period (LMP) may not be reliable. An alternative option is to assess GA at birth to optimize referral and care of preterm newborns...
March 12, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, John A F Zupancic, Grecio Sandoval, William A Grobman, Sean C Blackwell, Alan T N Tita, Uma M Reddy, Lucky Jain, George R Saade, Dwight J Rouse, Jay D Iams, Erin A S Clark, John M Thorp, Edward K Chien, Alan M Peaceman, Ronald S Gibbs, Geeta K Swamy, Mary E Norton, Brian M Casey, Steve N Caritis, Jorge E Tolosa, Yoram Sorokin, J Peter VanDorsten
Importance: Administration of corticosteroids to women at high risk for delivery in the late preterm period (34-36 weeks' gestation) improves short-term neonatal outcomes. The cost implications of this intervention are not known. Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of treatment with antenatal corticosteroids with no treatment for women at risk for late preterm delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids trial, a multicenter randomized clinical trial of antenatal corticosteroids vs placebo in women at risk for late preterm delivery conducted from October 30, 2010, to February 27, 2015...
March 11, 2019: JAMA Pediatrics
Amelie Maillard, Elodie Garnier, Elie Saliba, Geraldine Favrais
AIM: The primary objective was to assess the effect of prematurity at term-equivalent age on skin conductance and behavioural responses to acute stress. The secondary objective was to explore the reliability of skin conductance in detecting neonatal discomfort in preterm and full-term populations. METHODS: Very preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy full-term neonates, 34 infants in each group, underwent the hip dysplasia screening test. The acute pain in newborn infants (APN) scale was scored before and 15, 45 and 90 seconds after stimulus...
March 9, 2019: Acta Paediatrica
Masoomeh Mirzamoradi, Zahra Joshaghani, Fatemeh Hasani Nejhad, Mahya Vafaeenia, Zahra Heidar
BACKGROUND: Compared with vaginal delivery, early-term cesarean section (CS) is associated with an increased risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity. Given the role of steroids in lung maturation in preterm labor, few studies have investigated their effects on early-term delivery. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of antenatal betamethasone on neonatal respiratory morbidity in early-term elective cesarean (37-38 weeks and 6 d). METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran in 2017...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nicolas Bamat, Julie Fierro, Yifei Wang, David Millar, Haresh Kirpalani
BACKGROUND: Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) is a common therapy for neonatal respiratory failure. While CMV facilitates gas exchange, it may simultaneously injure the lungs. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has received less attention than other ventilation parameters when considering this benefit-risk balance. While an appropriate PEEP level may result in clinical benefits, both inappropriately low or high levels may cause harm. An appropriate PEEP level may also be best achieved by an individualized approach...
February 26, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alemayehu Gonie Mekonnen, Sisay Shewasinad Yehualashet, Alebachew Demelash Bayleyegn
Background: Kangaroo mother care is a comprehensive intervention given for all newborns especially for premature and low birthweight infants. It is the most feasible and preferred intervention for decreasing neonatal morbidity and mortality. Even though time to initiating breastfeeding has been examined by randomized controlled trials, varying findings have been reported. Therefore, the main objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled mean time to initiate breastfeeding among preterm and low birthweight infants...
2019: International Breastfeeding Journal
Arun Ambadkar, Madhva Prasad, Anahita R Chauhan
Aim: To compare the clinical, obstetric and neonatal parameters between patients with > 34-week gestation having severe preeclampsia receiving magnesium sulphate and those with > 34-week gestation with preeclampsia but not receiving magnesium sulphate. Materials and Methods: Single-centre prospective study studied 60 patients in each of the two groups. Magnesium sulphate was administered by Pritchard regimen as per standard protocol. Standard obstetric management was followed for both groups...
February 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Katelyn J Rittenhouse, Bellington Vwalika, Alexander Keil, Jennifer Winston, Marie Stoner, Joan T Price, Monica Kapasa, Mulaya Mubambe, Vanilla Banda, Whyson Muunga, Jeffrey S A Stringer
BACKGROUND: Globally, preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death with estimated prevalence and associated mortality highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Accurate identification of preterm infants is important at the individual level for appropriate clinical intervention as well as at the population level for informed policy decisions and resource allocation. As early prenatal ultrasound is commonly not available in these settings, gestational age (GA) is often estimated using newborn assessment at birth...
2019: PloS One
Lisa Fikac
There are many common risks for blood loss in the newborn infant. Blood loss can occur prenatally, intrapartally, and during the neonatal period. This article looks at the most common risks to be aware of in the newborn infant. Babies are not just tiny versions of adults. They have differences in the maturity all body systems, and that includes circulating blood volume and factors that contribute to those differences. Circulating blood volume is about 80 to 100 mL/kg in the term infant and 90 to 105 mL/kg in the preterm infant...
April 2019: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Asit Kumar Mishra, C Sanyasi Naidu
Introduction: Neonatal jaundice affects nearly 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates during the first week of life. Although early discharge of healthy term newborns is a common practice, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) is the most common cause for readmission during the early neonatal period. Objective: To determine the association of cord serum albumin with serum bilirubin levels and whether it can be used as a risk indicator for the development of NH. Method: In this observational study, cord blood was collected from healthy term newborns for serum albumin level measurements...
December 2018: International journal of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
Carmen Peña-Bautista, Thierry Durand, Claire Vigor, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
Preterm newborns have an immature antioxidant defense system and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. Resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, intermittent hypoxia and apneic episodes require frequently oxygen supplementation which leads to oxidative stress in preterm newborns. The consequences of oxidative damage are increased short and long-term morbidities, neurodevelopmental impairment and increased mortality. Oxidative stress biomarkers are determined in blood samples from preterm children during their stay in neonatal intensive care units especially for research purposes...
February 22, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Annalisa Passariello, Paolo Montaldo, Marta Palma, Marilù Cirillo, Carmela Di Guida, Simona Esposito, Marco Caruso, Manuela Pugliese, Paolo Giliberti
Pain management is one of the main challenges in addressing the improved care of hospitalized newborns. The administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive suction has been proposed as a nonpharmacological intervention to relieve procedural pain in newborns. The effects have not yet been well characterized. The aim of this study is to investigate, using skin conductance algesimeter (SCA) pain monitor index, the effects of 24% sucrose solution on pain perception during capillary and arterial blood sampling...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Georg M Schmölzer, Gerhard Pichler, Anne Lee Solevåg, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os, Po-Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: The need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often unexpected, and the infrequent use of CPR in the delivery room (DR) limits the opportunity to perform rigorous clinical studies to determine the best method for delivering chest compression (CC) to newborn infants. The current neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend using a coordinated 3:1 compression-to-ventilation (C:V) ratio (CC at a rate of 90/min and ventilations at a rate of 30/min). In comparison, providing CC during a sustained inflation (SI) (CC + SI) significantly improved hemodynamics, minute ventilation, and time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) compared to 3:1 C:V ratio in asphyxiated piglets...
February 19, 2019: Trials
Mercedes García Reymundo, José Antonio Hurtado Suazo, M José Calvo Aguilar, Francisco Javier Soriano Faura, Gemma Ginovart Galiana, Yolanda Martín Peinador, Ana Jiménez Moya, Xavier Demestre Guasch
The population of late preterm infants (PT), those born between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation, accounts for 70-74% of all premature infants, and is not specifically included in most of the follow-up protocols for preterm infants. For many years, PTs have been handled as if they were term newborns, which has led to a limited knowledge of their outcome in the medium and long term. Their neonatal morbidity is associated with a higher incidence of postnatal complications, with an increased rate of hospital re-admissions due to malnutrition, hyperbilirubinaemia, and respiratory problems, when compared to term infants...
February 15, 2019: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Tara M Crawford, Chad C Andersen, Nicolette A Hodyl, Sarah A Robertson, Michael J Stark
Anaemia of prematurity will affect 90% of all very preterm infants, resulting in at least one red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. A significant proportion of preterm infants require multiple transfusions over the course of hospital admission. Growing evidence supports an association between transfusion exposure and adverse neonatal outcomes. In adults, transfusion-associated sepsis, transfusion-related acute lung injury and haemolytic reactions are the leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality; however, these are seldom recognised in newborns...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Beza Eshetu, Mulatu Gashaw, Melkamu Berhane, Alemseged Abdissa, Elizabeth M McClure, Robert L Goldenberg, Lulu M Muhe
Advances in neonatal care have led to the increasing survival of smaller and sicker infants, but nosocomial infections continue to be a serious problem, associated with increased mortality rates, immediate and long-term morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased cost of care. We report a case of hospital-acquired sepsis in a preterm baby secondary to Klebsiella oxytoca, resulting from contaminated intravenous fluid.
February 2, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Frédéric Debiève, Aude Joskin, Patricia Steenhaut, Pierre Bernard, Corinne Hubinont
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of cervical insufficiency is based on the previous history of recurrent second or early third trimester losses. Its incidence among pregnant women is 0.5-1% but can be as high as 75% among women with preterm birth. Transvaginal cerclage (TVC) is the common therapy of cervical insufficiency. However, this technique has several limits, especially in twin pregnancies. As some selected conditions, a transabdominal cerclage (TAC) is indicated, it has been offered to patients with multiple pregnancies...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Stefano Bembich, Gabriele Cont, Jenny Bua, Giulia Paviotti, Sergio Demarini
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is cerebrospinal fluid removal. The aim of this study was to assess how much cerebrospinal fluid volume removal, by ventricular reservoir taps, is needed to improve cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. METHODS: Cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy in four newborns (one term and three preterm) during 28 ventricular reservoir taps...
January 8, 2019: Pediatric Neurology
(no author information available yet)
The neonatal risks of late-preterm and early-term births are well established, and the potential neonatal complications associated with elective delivery at less than 39 0/7 weeks of gestation are well described. However, there are a number of maternal, fetal, and placental complications in which either a late-preterm or early-term delivery is warranted. The timing of delivery in such cases must balance the maternal and newborn risks of late-preterm and early-term delivery with the risks associated with further continuation of pregnancy...
February 2019: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
The neonatal risks of late-preterm and early-term births are well established, and the potential neonatal complications associated with elective delivery at less than 39 0/7 weeks of gestation are well described. However, there are a number of maternal, fetal, and placental complications in which either a late-preterm or early-term delivery is warranted. The timing of delivery in such cases must balance the maternal and newborn risks of late-preterm and early-term delivery with the risks associated with further continuation of pregnancy...
February 2019: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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