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Culture-Bound Syndrome OR Dhat Syndrome

Julian M Stern
BACKGROUND: Unlike the majority of 'culture-bound syndromes', eating disorders are one of the few mental disorders initially conceptualized as 'culture-bound' to North America/Europe. Social norms vary massively within cultures-class, ethnicity and gender. Over time there have been substantial changes in body shape preferences. AIM: To describe some key areas in the transcultural aspects of eating disorders (ED) and body image disturbance (BID). METHOD: This lecture describes a different and complementary manner of understanding eating disorders, specifically anorexia nervosa (AN), from a cultural, social and psychoanalytic perspective...
September 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Joshua A Sommers, Tomasz Kulikowicz, Deborah L Croteau, Thomas Dexheimer, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Ajit Jadhav, David J Maloney, Anton Simeonov, Vilhelm A Bohr, Robert M Brosh
Werner syndrome (WS), an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, displays accelerated clinical symptoms of aging leading to a mean lifespan less than 50 years. The WS helicase-nuclease (WRN) is involved in many important pathways including DNA replication, recombination and repair. Replicating cells are dependent on helicase activity, leading to the pursuit of human helicases as potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Small molecule inhibitors of DNA helicases can be used to induce synthetic lethality, which attempts to target helicase-dependent compensatory DNA repair pathways in tumor cells that are already genetically deficient in a specific pathway of DNA repair...
2019: PloS One
Nannan Lai, Qing Min, Ermeng Xiong, Jun Liu, Lumin Zhang, Shoya Yasuda, Ji-Yang Wang
CD40 ligand (CD40 L) expressed by activated T cells interacts with CD40 on B cells and triggers B cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Deficiency in CD40 L or CD40 in humans causes hyper IgM syndrome due to a defect in T-B interaction that is essential for Ig gene class switch recombination (CSR). CD40 L belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family and normally forms a homotrimer on the cell surface, which is important for its biological activity. To generate a multimeric CD40 L that can be used to stimulate both mouse and human B cells, we fused the extracellular domain of mouse CD40 L, which is known to also bind human CD40, with streptavidin (SA) that forms a stable tetramer under physiological conditions...
December 6, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Rodrigo G Ducati, Rajesh K Harijan, Scott A Cameron, Peter C Tyler, Gary B Evans, Vern L Schramm
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for food-borne gastroenteritis and associated with Guillain-Barré, Reiter, and irritable bowel syndromes. Antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni is common, creating a need for antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Menaquinone biosynthesis in C. jejuni uses the rare futalosine pathway, where 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase ( CjMTAN) is proposed to catalyze the essential hydrolysis of adenine from 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine to form dehypoxanthinylfutalosine, a menaquinone precursor...
October 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Hissei Imai, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyohito Okumiya, Kozo Matsubayashi
The conceptualization of psychiatric disorders changes continuously. This study examined 'amok', a culture-bound syndrome related to sudden mass homicide, to elucidate changing and varied concepts. A historical review of 88 English articles revealed that the meanings and assumed causes of amok have changed over time. These changes appear to have been affected by social events, medical discoveries, knowledge of descriptors and occasionally, the benefit to users. In other words, the concept of amok changes depending on the history of society and the knowledge and intention of people at the time...
September 25, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Brendan Antiochos, Mariusz Matyszewski, Jungsan Sohn, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Antony Rosen
IFN-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is an innate immune sensor that forms filamentous oligomers when activated by double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Anti-IFI16 autoantibodies occur in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and associate with severe phenotypic features. We undertook this study to determine whether the structural and functional properties of IFI16 play a role in its status as an SS autoantigen. IFI16 immunostaining in labial salivary glands (LSGs) yielded striking evidence of filamentous IFI16 structures in the cytoplasm of ductal epithelial cells, representing the first microscopic description of IFI16 oligomerization in human tissues, to our knowledge...
September 20, 2018: JCI Insight
Raquel Jimenez Fernandez, Inmaculada Corral Liria, Rocio Rodriguez Vázquez, Susana Cabrera Fernandez, Marta Elena Losa Iglesias, Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo
In 1994, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) included "culture-bound syndromes" in its classification of psychiatric disorders and associated them with disease processes that manifest in behavioural or thought disorders that develop within a given cultural context. This study examines the definitions, explanatory models, signs and symptoms, and healthcare-seeking behaviours common to Fang culture-bound syndromes (i.e., kong, eluma, witchcraft, mibili, mikug, and nsamadalu)...
2018: PloS One
Ivan Crozier
PM Yap's most significant intellectual achievement was his development of the concept of the culture-bound syndrome, which synthesized years of research into transcultural psychiatry, and situated this work within this field by drawing on elaborated nosological schema that challenged some of the ethnocentric assumptions made by previous psychiatrists who had tried to understand mental illnesses that presented in non-western cultures. This introduction to Yap's 1951 paper emphasizes that Yap needs to be understood as working within the western tradition of transcultural psychiatry, and argues that his English training and his continual engagement with western psychiatric and philosophical frameworks is the best way to conceive of his contributions to this field...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
Lili Wei, Haofei Xiong, Wei Li, Bo Li, Yong Cheng
BACKGROUND: The human salivary gland (HSG) cell line has so far been used as in vitro models for study of the influence of cytokines and pharmacologic agents on salivary glands, as well as a model system for inflammation in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). This study aimed to determine the effect of IL-17 on IL-6 production and the underlying molecular mechanism regulated by the HSG cell line. METHODS: Immunofluorescence analyses, RT-PCR, and Western blot were conducted to evaluate the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) expression in cultured HSG cells...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Erge Zhang, Yuejuan Xu, Yongguo Yu, Sun Chen, Yu Yu, Kun Sun
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is primarily caused by jagged1 (JAG1) mutations, 70% of which are protein‑truncating mutations. However, no mutation hotspots have been discovered, and the pathogenic mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protein‑truncating JAG1 mutations detected in three Chinese ALGS patients. Mutation c.1261delT (p.Cys421Valfs) was identified in one patient with hepatic damage, xanthomas, facial abnormalities and cardiovascular defects, which was inherited from his father...
August 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Michel Botbol, Adeline Gourbil
France is known as one of the countries where psychoanalysis still holds an important position in various fields, and specially in psychiatry. Is it a 'culture bound syndrome' of French society, or, more seriously, a particularity that could be useful in other contexts as well? Through consideration of the role psychoanalysis is playing in French psychiatry, this paper will try to review this particularity and its interactions with the organisation and values of psychiatry in France, both in the public services and in private practice...
February 2018: BJPsych International
Sathya Prakash, Pratap Sharan, Mamta Sood
BACKGROUND: Dhat syndrome is regarded by many as a culture bound syndrome of the Indian sub-continent. However the nosological status, conceptual understanding of the condition as well as the diagnostic guidelines are all mired in controversy. AIMS: The current study aims to study the psychopathology of Dhat syndrome in men by using a qualitative approach and to arrive at an operational definition for diagnosing Dhat syndrome. METHOD: The qualitative approach consisted of five Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and five Key Individual Interviews (KII) with participants, consisting of patients as well as doctors - both allopathic as well as traditional...
June 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
F Elghazouani, M Barrimi
Koro syndrome is a psychiatric disorder specific to certain Asian cultures. It is characterized by acute and intense anxiety with fear of a retraction of the penis into the body and resultant death. We report the case of a 43-year-old Moroccan male presenting with persistent anxiety associated with avoidance behaviors and a chronic belief that his genitalia may shrink or disappear and lead to his death. This impacted his professional and family functioning. The diagnosis of culture-bound syndrome was considered although the presenting syndrome was chronic and sporadic...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Rodrick Wallace
Cognition in living entities-and their social groupings or institutional artifacts-is necessarily as complicated as their embedding environments, which, for humans, includes a particularly rich cultural milieu. The asymptotic limit theorems of information and control theories permit construction of a new class of empirical 'regression-like' statistical models for cognitive developmental processes, their dynamics, and modes of dysfunction. Such models may, as have their simpler analogs, prove useful in the study and re-mediation of cognitive failure at and across the scales and levels of organization that constitute and drive the phenomena of life...
June 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Nicoletta Zoppi, Nicola Chiarelli, Marco Ritelli, Marina Colombi
The αvβ3 integrin, an endothelial cells' receptor-binding fibronectin (FN) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood vessels, regulates ECM remodeling during migration, invasion, angiogenesis, wound healing and inflammation, and is also involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition. In vitro-grown human control fibroblasts organize a fibrillar network of FN, which is preferentially bound on the entire cell surface to its canonical α5β1 integrin receptor, whereas the αvβ3 integrin is present only in rare patches in focal contacts...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alfonso Rubio-Navarro, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Melania Guerrero-Hue, Cristina García-Caballero, Eduardo Gutiérrez, Claudia Yuste, Ángel Sevillano, Manuel Praga, Javier Egea, Elena Román, Pablo Cannata, Rosa Ortega, Isabel Cortegano, Belén de Andrés, María Luisa Gaspar, Susana Cadenas, Alberto Ortiz, Jesús Egido, Juan Antonio Moreno
Recurrent and massive intravascular haemolysis induces proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and progressive impairment of renal function, suggesting podocyte injury. However, the effects of haemoglobin (Hb) on podocytes remain unexplored. Our results show that cultured human podocytes or podocytes isolated from murine glomeruli bound and endocytosed Hb through the megalin-cubilin receptor system, thus resulting in increased intracellular Hb catabolism, oxidative stress, activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, and altered podocyte morphology, with decreased expression of the slit diaphragm proteins nephrin and synaptopodin...
March 2018: Journal of Pathology
Emma R Andersson, Indira V Chivukula, Simona Hankeova, Marika Sjöqvist, Yat Long Tsoi, Daniel Ramsköld, Jan Masek, Aiman Elmansuri, Anita Hoogendoorn, Elenae Vazquez, Helena Storvall, Julie Netušilová, Meritxell Huch, Björn Fischler, Ewa Ellis, Adriana Contreras, Antal Nemeth, Kenneth C Chien, Hans Clevers, Rickard Sandberg, Vitezslav Bryja, Urban Lendahl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by cholestasis, ocular abnormalities, characteristic facial features, heart defects, and vertebral malformations. Most cases are associated with mutations in JAGGED1 (JAG1), which encodes a Notch ligand, although it is not clear how these contribute to disease development. We aimed to develop a mouse model of Alagille syndrome to elucidate these mechanisms. METHODS: Mice with a missense mutation (H268Q) in Jag1 (Jag1+/Ndr mice) were outbred to a C3H/C57bl6 background to generate a mouse model for Alagille syndrome (Jag1Ndr/Ndr mice)...
March 2018: Gastroenterology
Milica Jovanović Krivokuća, Tamara Abu Rabi, Ivana Stefanoska, Svetlana Vrzić-Petronijević, Miloš Petronijević, Ljiljana Vićovac
Immunoglobulins from sera of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) decrease trophoblast cell invasion in vitro. This study aimed to extend understanding of cellular effects of immunoglobulins from APS (aPL+) in HTR-8/SVneo cells. aPL+ IgG induced change in effector molecules important for cell invasion was investigated further. After 1h of culture 21% cells bound aPL+ IgG, as opposed to 6% in control (aPL-). This was accompanied by increase in phospho-p38 at 30min. After 24h treatment aPL+IgG decreased protein levels of integrin subunits α1 (78% of control; p<0...
December 2017: Reproductive Biology
Emmanuel Aniekan Essien, Chidi John Okafor, Joseph Okegbe, Owoidoho Udofia
CONTEXT: Brain Fag syndrome (BFS) is a culture-bound disorder that is quite common among Nigerian students. It is known to be associated with study difficulty, and in severe cases, discontinuation of education. Little is known about its pattern and predictors among secondary school (SS) students in Calabar. AIMS: This study aims to determine the pattern and sociodemographic predictors of BFS among SS students in Calabar. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Stratified sampling was used in this cross-sectional study to recruit 1091 students from ten SSs in Calabar metropolis...
July 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Marion Vu-Augier de Montgremier, Liangliang Chen, Jue Chen, Marie Rose Moro
For a long time, eating disorders were considered as culture-bound syndromes, specific to Western countries. This theory has been refuted for anorexia, but few transcultural studies have been carried out on bulimia nervosa. As a result, knowledge concerning this disorder is limited. On the basis of a clinical case involving a bulimic Chinese girl, we attempt to demonstrate the impact of cultural factors on the disorder. We discuss the atypical characteristics of her symptom profile, in particular the absence of preoccupations concerning her appearance and the psycho-pathological impact of the secrecy surrounding her adoption...
August 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
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