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Morphology nerve

Can Kocasarac, Yavuz Yigit, Lynn Marie Trotti, Sehnaz Basaran
BACKGROUND: Two leading hypotheses for restless legs syndrome (RLS) pathophysiology are dopaminergic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity. Ocular changes occur with both dopaminergic and sympathetic pathologies, and thus may provide unique insights into the pathophysiology of RLS. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with RLS and 35 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular, and choroidal thicknesses were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
January 29, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Paolo Florent Felisaz, Andrea Poli, Raimondo Vitale, Giovanni Vitale, Carlo Asteggiano, Niels Bergsland, Ilaria Callegari, Elisa Vegezzi, Laura Piccolo, Andrea Cortese, Anna Pichiecchio, Stefano Bastianello
OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) micro-neurography to detect morphological and relaxometric changes in distal tibial nerves in patients affected with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and their associations with clinical and electrophysiological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 subjects affected with CIDP and 10 healthy subjects were examined. Multiple MR parameters, including the number of fascicles (N), fascicles diameter (FD), total fascicles area (FA), epineurium area (EA), total nerve area (NA), fascicles to nerve ratio (FNR) and quantitative T2 and proton density (PD) were investigated on high resolution MR images of the distal tibial nerve...
March 11, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Anahita Nourmahnad, Fouzi Benboujja, Christopher J Hartnick
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) impairs communication and reduces academic performance and social interactions in children. Deciding between temporary, permanent, or potentially destructive surgical interventions can be challenging, as there currently exists no reliable means of predicting vocal fold recovery or assessing the presence of vocal fold atrophy. Regarding vocal fold atrophy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be an appealing non-invasive alternative for accessing vocal fold structures...
February 26, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Sabrina Croce, Isabelle Hostein, Teri A Longacre, Anne M Mills, Gaëlle Pérot, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Valérie Velasco, Anne Floquet, Frédéric Guyon, Camille Chakiba, Denis Querleu, Emmanuel Khalifa, Laetitia Mayeur, Flora Rebier, Sophie Leguellec, Isabelle Soubeyran, W Glenn McCluggage
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the uterus (corpus and cervix) encompass a heterogeneous group of tumors with differing morphologies, immunophenotypes and molecular alterations. With the advent of modern molecular techniques, such as next generation sequencing, newly defined genetic abnormalities are being reported in this group of neoplasms. Herein we report the clinicopathological and molecular features of a series of 13 spindle cell sarcomas of the uterus and vagina (10 cervix, 2 uterine corpus, 1 vagina) with morphology resembling fibrosarcoma...
March 16, 2019: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Hoda Gad, Adnan Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Saadat Kamran, Ahmed El-Sotouhy, Soha R Dargham, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Georgios Ponirakis, Ashfaq Shuaib, Leopold J Streletz, Rayaz A Malik
OBJECTIVE: To determine if corneal confocal microscopy can identify corneal nerve and endothelial cell abnormalities and may be useful in the prognostication of patients with transient ischemic attack [1] or minor ischemic stroke (IS). METHODS: Thirty-six patients admitted with TIA (n = 14) or minor IS (n = 22) underwent transcranial Doppler evaluation and corneal confocal microscopy and were compared with 18 healthy controls. RESULTS: Corneal nerve fiber density (P = 0...
2019: PloS One
Juyeong Oh, Yu Jeong Kim, Youngho Cho, Subeen Park, Hyung Min Kim, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Seong Chan Jun, Ki Ho Park, Dae Yu Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Seok Hwan Kim
Purpose Apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is involved in various optic neuropathies, and its extent is closely related to visual impairment. Direct imaging and counting of RGCs is beneficial to the evaluation of RGC loss, but these processes are challenging with the conventional techniques, due to the transparency and hypo-reflectivity of RGCs as light-transmitting structures of the retina. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, which can provide real-time images of transparent specimens, is utilized to image neuronal cells including RGCs in the ganglion cell layer (GCL)...
March 14, 2019: Current Eye Research
Zhen-Yu Liu, Jiang-Hai Chen, Zhen-Bing Chen
Chronic nerve compression (CNC) neuropathy is a common disease in the clinic and provokes paraesthesia, or numbness at early stage. The changes in muscle fiber composition and motor nerve terminal morphology in distal muscles were studied in this study. A well-established CNC model was used to assess the changes in the muscles. Behaviors were measured by von Frey filament test. The myosin heavy chain isoforms and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and motor nerve terminals morphologic changes in the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and lumbrical muscle...
February 2019: Current Medical Science
Georgi P Georgiev, Alexandar Iliev, Georgi Kotov, Violeta K Nedialkova, Vidin Kirkov, Boycho Landzhov
Introduction Recent studies stressed the importance of the epiligament in ligament nutrition and healing. While ligaments of the knee joint have been the subject of extensive research, the epiligament of the medial collateral ligament has received only limited attention. The aim of our study was to present the ultrastructural morphological features of the epiligament of the medial collateral ligament in a rat knee joint. Materials and methods For the present study, we used eight eight-month-old male Wistar rats...
January 2, 2019: Curēus
Xiaojun Wang, Jason Tucciarone, Siqi Jiang, Fangfang Yin, Bor-Shuen Wang, Dingkang Wang, Yao Jia, Xueyan Jia, Yuxin Li, Tao Yang, Zhengchao Xu, Masood A Akram, Yusu Wang, Shaoqun Zeng, Giorgio A Ascoli, Partha Mitra, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Z Josh Huang
Parsing diverse nerve cells into biological types is necessary for understanding neural circuit organization. Morphology is an intuitive criterion for neuronal classification and a proxy of connectivity, but morphological diversity and variability often preclude resolving the granularity of neuron types. Combining genetic labeling with high-resolution, large-volume light microscopy, we established a single neuron anatomy platform that resolves, registers, and quantifies complete neuron morphologies in the mouse brain...
March 12, 2019: Cell Reports
Nan Miao, Yuanbo Zhan, Yingying Xu, Haoze Yuan, Chunlin Qin, Feng Lin, Xiaohua Xie, Sen Mu, Mengtong Yuan, Haibin Mu, Shouli Guo, Ying Li, Bin Zhang
Family with sequence similarity 20‑member C (FAM20C), a recently characterized Golgi kinase, performs numerous biological functions by phosphorylating more than 100 secreted proteins. However, the role of FAM20C in the salivary glands remains undefined. The present study demonstrated that FAM20C is mainly located in the cytoplasm of duct epithelial cells in the salivary glands. Fam20cf/f; Mmtv‑Cre mice were created in which Fam20c was inactivated in the salivary gland cells and observed that the number of ducts and the ductal cross‑sectional area increased significantly, while the number of acinar cells was reduced...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Abhijeet R Joshi, Ines Muke, Ilja Bobylev, Helmar C Lehmann
Alteration of the RhoA/ROCK (Rho kinase) pathway has been shown to be neuroprotective in SOD1G93A mice, the most commonly used animal model of ALS. Since previous studies indicate that, apart from neuroprotection, ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 can also accelerate regeneration of motor axons, we here assessed the regenerative capability of axons in SOD1G93A mice with and without treatment with Y-27632. Regeneration of axons was examined after sciatic nerve crush in pre- and symptomatic SOD1G93A mice. Proregenerative effects of Y-27632 were studied during the disease course in the SOD1G93A mouse model...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Koji Ando, Tomoki Yokochi, Akira Mukai, Gao Wei, Yuanyuan Li, Sonja Kramer, Toshinori Ozaki, Yoshihiko Maehara, Akira Nakagawara
KIF1Bβ, a member of the kinesin superfamily of motor proteins, is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor mapped to chromosome 1p36.2, which is frequently deleted in neural crest-derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma. While KIF1Bβ acts downstream of the nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway to induce apoptosis, further molecular functions of this gene product have largely been unexplored. In this study, we report that KIF1Bβ destabilizes the morphological structure of mitochondria, which is critical for cell survival and apoptosis...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Maria De Los Angeles Sanchez Roldan, Maria J Téllez, Sedat Ulkatan, Catherine F Sinclair
OBJECTIVE: The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is an airway-protective response triggered by sensory laryngeal receptors and resulting in bilateral vocal fold adduction. The normal morphology of the early R1 response resembles that of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP). However, in a small subset of patients, the morphology is dyssynchronous with multiple peaks. This study investigates whether preoperative LAR dyssynchrony predicts intraoperative nerve behavior during thyroid surgeries...
March 12, 2019: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Meredith Rocca, Chao Han, Mark Butt, Timothy P Coogan
Fulranumab, an anti-human nerve growth factor antibody, was evaluated in a series of nonclinical toxicology studies. No treatment effects were observed in adolescent cynomolgus monkeys in standard design, repeat-dose toxicology studies of up to 6 months. Adverse effects on the developing nervous system were observed in offspring of pregnant cynomolgus monkeys treated with fulranumab. Subsequent studies including detailed morphologic investigations of the nervous system did reveal fulranumab-related changes in adult cynomolgus monkeys; this article is focused on those findings...
March 10, 2019: International Journal of Toxicology
Macarena S Arrázola, Cristian Saquel, Romina J Catalán, Sebastián A Barrientos, Diego E Hernandez, Alejandra Catenaccio, Felipe A Court
Axonal degeneration contributes to functional impairment in several disorders of the nervous system, constituting an important target for neuroprotection. Several individual factors and subcellular events have been implicated in axonal degeneration, but the identification of an integrative signaling pathway activating this self-destructive process has remained elusive. Through pharmacological and genetic approaches, we tested whether necroptosis, a regulated cell death mechanism, implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, is involved in axonal degeneration...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
F D Farfán, C Soto-Sanchez, A G Pizá, A L Albarracín, J H Soletta, F A Lucianna, E Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Physiological studies of sensorial systems often require the acquisition and processing of data extracted from their multiple components to evaluate how the neural information changes in relation to the environment changes. In this work, a comparative study about methodological aspects of two electrophysiological approaches is described. NEW METHOD: Extracellular recordings from deep vibrissal nerves were obtained by using a customized microelectrode Utah array during passive mechanical stimulation of rat´s whiskers...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Xin Zheng, Kevin M Woeppel, Azante Y Griffith, Emily Chang, Michael J Looker, Lee E Fisher, Brady J Clapsaddle, Xinyan Tracy Cui
State-of-the-art intraneural electrodes made from silicon or polyimide substrates have shown promise in selectively modulating efferent and afferent activity in the peripheral nervous system. However, when chronically implanted, these devices trigger a multiphase foreign body response ending in device encapsulation. The presence of encapsulation increases the distance between the electrode and the excitable tissue, which not only reduces the recordable signal amplitude but also requires increased current to activate nearby axons...
March 6, 2019: Advanced Healthcare Materials
M L Rots, G J de Borst, A van der Toorn, F L Moll, C W A Pennekamp, R M Dijkhuizen, R L A W Bleys
We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cerebral hemodynamics and perivascular nerve density in a rat model. Bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) ligation (n=24) or sham-operation (n=24) was performed with a one-week interval. A subgroup (ligated n=6; sham-operated n=3) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before the procedures and two and four weeks after the second procedure. After termination, carotids were harvested for assessment of complete ligation and nerve density in cerebral arteries that were stained for the general neural marker PGP 9...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Steven D Bain, Philippe Huber, Brandon J Ausk, Ronald Y Kwon, Edith M Gardiner, Sundar Srinivasan, Ted S Gross
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the effects of neuromuscular dysfunction on hindlimb loading, muscle atrophy, and bone homeostasis. METHODS: We quantified changes to hindlimb loading, muscle atrophy, and bone morphology following either Botulinum toxin A (BTxA) induced muscle paralysis or peripheral nerve injury (PNI) in mice; two in vivo models that we anticipated would differently alter gait and mechanical loading patterns due to their distinct effects on neuromuscular signaling...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
A Ehrle, L Ressel, E Ricci, R Merle, E R Singer
The equine interspinous ligament (ISL) consists of an oblique crossing arrangement of collagenous bundles which are thought to counteract the tensile and rotational forces of distraction between the spinous processes (SPs) in the caudal thoracic and cranial lumbar spine. The aim of this controlled histological study was to assess the structural anatomy and innervation of the ISL in horses with clinically significant overriding (dorsal) SPs (ORSPs) and to compare the findings with the ISL of normal horses. Samples of the ISL were obtained from 10 horses that underwent subtotal ostectomy for treatment of ORSPs...
February 2019: Veterinary Journal
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