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Arvind K Subbaraj, Jan Huege, Karl Fraser, Mingshu Cao, Susanne Rasmussen, Marty Faville, Scott J Harrison, Chris S Jones
Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) is integral to temperate pastoral agriculture, which contributes most of the milk and meat production worldwide. Chemical profiles and diversity of ryegrass offer several opportunities to harness specific traits and elucidate underlying biological mechanisms for forage improvement. We conducted a large-scale metabolomics study of perennial ryegrass comprising 715 genotypes, representing 118 populations from 21 countries. Liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based targeted and non-targeted techniques were used to analyse fructan oligosaccharides, lipids, fatty acid methyl esters, polar and semi-polar compounds...
2019: Communications Biology
Brian Picazo, Adriana C Flores-Gallegos, Anna Ilina, Rosa María Rodríguez-Jasso, Cristóbal N Aguilar
Aguamiel is a natural sap produced by some species of agave plants, such as Agave salmiana, A. atrovirens , or A. angustifolia . It is a product with a high concentration of fructose, glucose or sucrose, although its composition may vary depending on the season in which it is produced, and may also contain agave fructans (or agavins) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS). It has been reported that FOS can be produced by enzymes that act on sucrose or inulin, transfructosylating or hydrolyzing these materials, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Arnaud Bernard, Déborah Ancel, Audrey M Neyrinck, Aurélie Dastugue, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne, Philippe Besnard
Orosensory perception of sweet stimulus is blunted in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. Although this alteration might contribute to unhealthy food choices, its origin remains to be understood. Cumulative evidence indicates that prebiotic manipulations of the gut microbiota are associated with changes in food intake by modulating hedonic and motivational drive for food reward. In the present study, we explore whether a prebiotic supplementation can also restore the taste sensation in DIO mice. The preference and licking behavior in response to various sucrose concentrations were determined using respectively two-bottle choice tests and gustometer analysis in lean and obese mice supplemented or not with 10% inulin-type fructans prebiotic (P) in a preventive manner...
March 5, 2019: Nutrients
Xuedan Wang, Glenn R Gibson, Adele Costabile, Manuela Sailer, Stephan Theis, Robert A Rastall
Metabolism of protein by gut bacteria is potentially detrimental due to production of toxic metabolites, such as ammonia, amines, p -cresol, and indole. Consumption of prebiotic carbohydrates produces specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the microbiota that may confer benefits upon host wellbeing and health. Here, we have studied the impact of prebiotics on proteolysis within the gut in vitro Anaerobic stirred batch cultures were inoculated with omnivore (n=3) and vegetarian (n=3) faeces. Four protein sources (casein, meat, mycoprotein and soy protein) with and without supplementation by a oligofructose enriched-inulin...
March 1, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Łukasz Paweł Tarkowski, Bram Van de Poel, Monica Höfte, Wim Van den Ende
The concept of "Sweet Immunity" postulates that sugar metabolism and signaling influence plant immune networks. In this study, we tested the potential of commercially available inulin-type fructans to limit disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea in lettuce. Spraying mature lettuce leaves, with inulin-type fructans derived from burdock or chicory was as effective in reducing grey mold disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea as spraying with oligogalacturonides (OGs). OGs are well-known defense elicitors in several plant species...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Takumi Tochio, Yuki Ueno, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Mikako Shinohara, Yoshihiro Kadota, Kanako Minoda, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Toshihiko Osawa
Functional food ingredients, including prebiotics, have been increasingly developed for human health. The improvement of the human intestinal environment is one of their main targets. Fructooligosaccarides (FOS) are oligosaccharide fructans that are well studied and commercialized prebiotics. 1-Kestose, one of the components of FOS, is considered to be a key prebiotic component in FOS. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the physiological efficacy of 1-Kestose regarding its anti-oxidative activity...
February 13, 2019: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
S Soldi, S Vasileiadis, S Lohner, F Uggeri, E Puglisi, P Molinari, E Donner, C Sieland, T Decsi, M Sailer, S Theis
Supplementing kindergarten children during a cold season with a prebiotic inulin-type fructans product with shorter and longer fructan chains has been shown to reduce febrile episodes requiring medical attention and to lower the incidence of sinusitis. These beneficial effects may be connected to the specific modulation of children's gut microbiota. By applying quantitative and qualitative microbiota analysis this study aimed at characterising the gut microbiota composition and at exploring effects of prebiotic intervention on the gut microbiota during a 24-weeks intervention and during antibiotic treatment in healthy children...
February 19, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
Shipeng Yang, Xuemei Sun, Xiaoting Jiang, Lihui Wang, Jie Tian, Li Li, Mengliang Zhao, Qiwen Zhong
Background: Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a characteristic crop in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau which has rapidly developed and gained socioeconomic importance in recent years. Fructans are abundant in tubers and represent the foundation for their formation, processing and utilization of yield; and are also widely used in new sugar-based materials, bioenergy processing, ecological management, and functional feed. To identify key genes in the metabolic pathway of fructans in Jerusalem artichoke, high-throughput sequencing was performed using Illumina Hi Seq™ 2500 equipment to construct a transcriptome library...
2019: Hereditas
Fernanda Zaninette, Giulliana Aparecida Lopes de Melo Rocha, Rosemeire Aparecida Bom Pessoni, Marcia Regina Braga, Kelly Simões, Rita de Cassia Leone Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Mauricio Batista Fialho
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are fructose-based oligosaccharides employed as additives to improve the nutritional and technological properties of foods. The rhizosphere of inulin-accumulating plants from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) harbor fungi capable of synthesizing FOS from sucrose through the transfructosylating activity of β-fructosyltransferases and/or β-fructofuranosidases. Here, we investigated the ability of Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski CCIBt 3352, a fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of Chrysolaena obovata (Asteraceae), to produce FOS in medium supplemented with sucrose concentrations of 30, 100 or 150 g L-1 ...
February 13, 2019: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Chunyan Yan, Shaojie Zhang, Changsheng Wang, Qian Zhang
Achyranthes bidentata is used as a medicinal herb prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China. The anti-osteoporosis activity of the crude polysaccharide from A. bidentata, AB50, was evaluated by ovariectomized rats. The results indicated that AB50 has prominent osteoprotective effects, which was comparable to positive control. To further explore which ingredients are responsible for these effects, a novel fructan, ABW50-1 (1260 Da), was purified for the first time and characterized by chemical methods and nuclear magnetic resonance...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Erola Astó, Iago Méndez, Sergi Audivert, Andreu Farran-Codina, Jordi Espadaler
Studies of probiotics, fructan-type prebiotics, and synbiotics in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) show significant heterogeneity in methodology and results. Here, we study the efficacy of such interventions and the reasons for the heterogeneity of their results. Eligible random controlled trials were collected from the PUBMED and SCOPUS databases. A total of 18 placebo-controlled and active treatment-controlled (i.e., mesalazine) studies were selected with a Jadad score ≥ 3, including 1491 patients with UC...
January 30, 2019: Nutrients
Artur Szwengiel, Maciej Wiesner
Levan is a fructan whose backbone is composed of β-(2-6) linkages. It is synthetized by the enzyme levansucrase (EC The effect of Fe3+ , K+ , Mg2+ , Mn2+ , and Zn2+ in the range of 0-1 mM on parameters of levan was tested using design of response surface experiment. The bimodal distribution of levan was observed, however, the concentration of high molecular mass fraction (weight average molar mass, Mw  = 1.9 · 107  ± 3.4 · 104  g/mol and intrinsic viscosity, [η] = 0.206 ± 0...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya, Neera Agarwal, Sudhir P Singh
Levansucrase gene (LmLEVS) was cloned from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. The heterologous expression and purification of the truncated (TrLmLEVS) gene, lacking the N-terminal signal peptide, was performed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (TrLmLEVS) was physico-kinetically characterized using sucrose as substrate. TrLmLEVS exhibited the maximum activity at pH 6 and temperature 30 °C. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography analyses unveiled the biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides and levan by TrLmLEVS using sucrose as substrate...
January 16, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Qiao Shi, Yaxi Hou, Yan Xu, Kristian B R Mørkeberg Krogh, Maija Tenkanen
Levans and inulins are fructans with mainly β-(2→6) and β-(2→1) linkages, respectively. Levans are produced by many lactic acid bacteria, e.g. during sourdough fermentation. Levans have shown prebiotic properties and may also function as in situ-produced hydrocolloids. So far, levan contents have been measured by acid hydrolysis, which cannot distinguish levans from e.g. inulins. In order to develop a specific analysis for levan in food matrices, a Paenibacillus amylolyticus endolevanase was combined with exoinulinase for levan hydrolysis...
March 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Barry V McCleary, Lucie M J Charmier, Vincent A McKie, Ciara McLoughlin, Artur Rogowski
Traditional enzyme-based methods for measurement of fructan were designed to measure just inulin and branched-type (agave) fructans. The enzymes employed, namely exo-inulinase and endo-inulinase, give incompletely hydrolysis of levan. Levan hydrolysis requires a third enzyme, endo-levanase. This paper describes a method and commercial test kit (Megazyme Fructan Assay Kit) for the determination of all types of fructan (inulin, levan, and branched) in a variety of animal feeds and pet foods. The method has been validated in a single laboratory for analysis of pure inulin, agave fructan, levan, and a range of fructan containing samples...
January 15, 2019: Journal of AOAC International
Dawei Ni, Wei Xu, Yingying Zhu, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Cuie Guang, Wanmeng Mu
Inulin, a natural fructan, cannot be hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in the human body and plays a role as a dietary fiber and prebiotic. Due to its versatile physicochemical properties and physiological functions, inulin has been widely applied in food, pharmaceuticals, and many other fields. The microorganism-derived inulin-forming enzyme inulosucrase (ISase) (EC: can biosynthesize higher-molecular-weight inulin than plants using sucrose as the sole substrate, and the enzyme also shows transfructosylation activity toward other saccharide acceptors...
January 7, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Jan de Vries, Cindy Le Bourgot, Wim Calame, Frédérique Respondek
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of β-fructan supplementation on bowel function in healthy volunteers and patients. The search process was based on the selection of publications listed in the Pubmed and EUPMC database until December 2017, plus two unpublished studies, to identify studies evaluating the impact of β-fructans on bowel movement and stool parameters. Forty-seven publications were selected for inclusion. Primary parameter was frequency of bowel movements, evaluated by the number of defecations per day during the study period...
January 4, 2019: Nutrients
Wei Xu, Dawei Ni, Wenli Zhang, Cuie Guang, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu
Levan and inulin are two types of fructan. Levan is composed of β-(2, 6) fructosyl linkage and inulin is composed of β-(2, 1) linkage. Both levan and inulin have been accepted and applied in the food, medicinal and chemical industries for their outstanding physicochemical properties in recent years. Microbial levansucrase and inulosucrase are key enzymes responsible for the synthesis of fructan from sucrose. In this review, levansucrase and inulosucrase are discussed together for the first time regarding the evolutionary relationships, bacteria origin, crystal structure, product-forming mechanism and commercial applications...
December 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
A G Khramtsov, S A Ryabtsevа, R O Budkevich, V R Akhmedova, A B Rodnaya, E V Marugina
The purpose of this review is to analyze current concepts of prebiotics as one of the most promising groups of functional food ingredients, identify problems and trends in the investigations in this area. The background for the emergence and development stages of the concept of «prebiotics» as non-digestible food substances that selectively stimulate the growth and (or) the biological activity of one or a limited number of representatives of the protective microflora of the human intestine, contributing to the maintenance of its normal structure and biological activity is shown...
2018: Voprosy Pitaniia
Erika Alejandra Martínez-Ortega, José Sergio López-Briones, Gabriela Rodríguez-Hernández, Ricardo Ernesto Ramírez-Orozco, Elena Franco-Robles
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Agave fructans against the Salmonella Typhimurium in "in vitro" experiments. The result of the antimicrobial activity was 263.89 ± 0, 414.95 ± 12.83, 494.54 ± 13.88, 522.29 ± 0, 580.41 ± 14.92 AU for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of Agave fructans (AF) respectively. In addition, there is a significant effect on the growth of the bacteria with all the percentages of AF evaluated (p < 0.001, R2 = 0...
December 25, 2018: Natural Product Research
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