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Xiaoli Li, Yunfei Hao, Rong Xue, Xueting Qi, Zhigang Ma
RATIONALE: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease are both rare autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is one of the most common causes of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD). The three entities can cause renal lesions via different mechanisms and, however, they have not been reported in a single patient with renal lesion. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we describe a patient with half-year fatigue and 40-day nausea and vomiting...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elise Cornelis, Ellen Gorus, Nele Van Schelvergem, Patricia De Vriendt
OBJECTIVE: Although many studies explored the relationship between executive functions (EF) and activities of daily living (ADLs) in cognitive disorders, previous studies used measurements without well-defined levels of ADLs. This study explored the relationship between EF and the threefold classification of everyday functioning; basic or b-, instrumental or i-, and advanced or a-ADLs, and examined how EF account for the variance in this triad of everyday functioning. METHODS: A sample of 44 cognitively healthy persons, 41 persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and 35 persons with Alzheimer's Disease were assessed with comprehensive measures of EF and the b-, i- and a-ADL tools...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Marisol Tellez, Shannon Myers Virtue, Sheryl Neckritz, Vinodh Bhoopathi, Matilde Hernández, Barbara Shearer
BACKGROUND: Health education has a focus on knowledge dissemination and advice giving, which seldom translates into behavioral changes. Motivational interviewing (MI) has potential for helping elderly patients. However, most oral health studies conducted to date have excluded older individuals, and the outcomes examined have been exclusively clinical. This study examines the treatment fidelity of an individual-based MI intervention and assesses baseline characteristics related to older adults' self-efficacy (SE), oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), oral health knowledge, and facilitators, barriers, and confidence on achieving MI goals...
February 14, 2019: Special Care in Dentistry
Alex Avendano, Marcos Cortes-Medina, Jonathan W Song
The physical remodeling associated with cancer progression results in barriers to mass transport in the tumor interstitial space. This hindrance ultimately affects the distribution of macromolecules that govern cell fate and potency of cancer therapies. Therefore, knowing how specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular components regulate transport in the tumor interstitium could lead to matrix normalizing strategies that improve patient outcome. Studies over the past decades have provided quantitative insights into interstitial transport in tumors by characterizing two governing parameters: (1) molecular diffusivity and (2) hydraulic conductivity...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Remi Kodera, Yuko Chiba, Yoshiaki Tamura, Rieko Miyazawa, Ryoji Tanei, Seijiro Mori, Hideki Ito, Atsushi Araki
AIM: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune skin disorder characterized by the production of autoantibodies. Several recent reports have described the occurrence of BP in diabetic patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. However, the clinical features of BP in diabetic patients, particularly in those treated with DPP-4 inhibitors, have not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to clarify clinical characteristics of BP in elderly type 2 diabetic patients...
2019: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Alaa Eldin H Youssef, Abeer E Dief, Nesrine M El Azhary, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Ola S El-Fetiany
Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disabilities in young adults. Over the past decade, several therapeutic strategies have emerged as having potential neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. We investigated the effect of intranasal administration of LINGO-1-directed siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on demyelination and remyelination processes in a rat model of demyelination. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 6 groups (n = 10 each) and subjected to intrapontine stereotaxic injection of ethidium bromide (EB) to induce demyelination...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Alice Towler, Richard I Kemp, A Mike Burton, James D Dunn, Tanya Wayne, Reuben Moreton, David White
Facial image comparison practitioners compare images of unfamiliar faces and decide whether or not they show the same person. Given the importance of these decisions for national security and criminal investigations, practitioners attend training courses to improve their face identification ability. However, these courses have not been empirically validated so it is unknown if they improve accuracy. Here, we review the content of eleven professional training courses offered to staff at national security, police, intelligence, passport issuance, immigration and border control agencies around the world...
2019: PloS One
Charles J Gerardo, João R N Vissoci, C Scott Evans, David L Simel, Eric J Lavonas
Importance: Venomous snakebite severity ranges from an asymptomatic dry bite to severe envenomation and death. The clinical evaluation aids in prognosis and is essential to determine the risks and potential benefits of antivenom treatment. Objectives: To identify historical features, clinical examination findings, basic laboratory testing, and clinical grading scales that will risk-stratify patients with pit viper snake envenomation for severe systemic envenomation, severe tissue injury, and/or severe hematologic venom effects...
February 13, 2019: JAMA Surgery
C Reed, M Happich, J Raskin, A Tockhorn-Heidenreich, M Belger
BACKGROUND: Randomized placebo-controlled trials in the development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease are typically of short duration (12-18 months), and health economic modeling requires extrapolation of treatment effects beyond the trial period. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether observational data can be used to extrapolate data from open-label trials, we compared outcomes (cognition, function, behavior) over 36 months for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease dementia in the GERAS observational study (proxy for placebo control) with those of the mild Alzheimer's disease population on active treatment (solanezumab) in two 18-month randomized placebo-controlled trials (EXPEDITION and EXPEDITION2) and the additional 18-month open-label extension study (EXPEDITION-EXT)...
2019: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Stephan Gerling, Oliver Loose, Robert Zant, Holger Michel, Michael Melter, Christian Gündisch, Volker Krutsch, Werner Krutsch
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and adolescents is rare. Several studies have reported a higher risk of SCD during athletic competition. High risk congenital coronary artery abnormalities are the second leading cause of SCD in young athletes in the USA. Echocardiographic assessment of coronary arteries has not been routinely used in screening programmes for junior athletes so far. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in 1045 consecutive adolescent elite football players...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Violeta González-Salvado, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez, Carlos Peña-Gil, Carmen Neiro-Rey, Roberto Barcala-Furelos, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training method embedded in a cardiac rehabilitation program at enhancing patients' CPR and defibrillation skills. One hundred and fourteen participants with coronary heart disease enrolled on an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program were included. Two groups were randomly allocated to different training programs: CPR-retraining based on hands-on rolling refreshers during the 2-month program (G-CPR, n = 53) versus standard one-time training (G-Stan, n = 61)...
February 11, 2019: Health Education Research
John D Ehrhardt, J Patrick O'Leary, Don K Nakayama
President James A. Garfield suffered two gunshots on July 2, 1881, but did not die until 80 days later of complications from sepsis. He might have survived had his injuries not been contaminated, either by the gunshots themselves or the interventions that followed. "Yes, I shot the president," said Charles Guiteau, Garfield's assassin, "but his physicians killed him." The drama of Garfield's struggle to survive his injuries evoked enormous national interest, a harbinger of the medical dramas and documentaries of today...
November 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Jon H Kaas
This article is the second of two that addresses the development of the human brain. Last month's article, "The Evolution of Human Capabilities and Abilities," focused on neurons, the basic information-processing units of the nervous system. This month's article examines the evolution of the neocortex, a part of the cerebral cortex concerned with sight and hearing in mammals, regarded as the most developed part of the cortex .
May 2018: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Ji-Yong Li, Shan-Shan Pan, Jia-Yin Wang, Jiao Lu
The role of autophagy in the cardioprotection conferred by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been well described. This study aimed to investigate the changes in autophagy levels during the cardioprotective effects initiated by exercise preconditioning (EP).Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), group EP, group EE (exhaustive exercise), and group EP + EE (EP pretreatment at 0.5 hours before EE). The EP protocol included 4 periods of 10 minutes of treadmill running each at 30 m/minute with intervening 10 minute periods of rest...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Hikari Yaginuma, Natsumi Funeshima, Nao Tanikawa, Motoharu Miyamura, Hideki Tsuchiya, Tatsuo Noguchi, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna, Seizo Hamano
Repeat breeder cattle do not become pregnant until after three or more breeding attempts; this represents a critical reproductive disorder. Embryo transfer (ET) following artificial insemination (AI) in repeat breeder cattle reportedly improves pregnancy rate, leading to speculation that interferon tau (IFNT) is associated with this phenomenon. However, the reason why the conception rate improves remains unknown. We investigated the effect of ET following AI on repeat breeder cattle in field tests, and determined whether adding an embryo affects the maternal immune cells detected by interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), marker genes of IFN response...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Robert Klitzman, Ekaterina Pivovarova, Alexandra Murray, Paul S Appelbaum, Deborah F Stiles, Charles W Lidz
New federal policies require single IRB review for multisite studies, but many questions remain about how these IRBs will use local knowledge. The findings from our study, the first to examine how single IRBs perceive needs for local knowledge, reveal several challenges. Study respondents identified four potentially relevant types of local knowledge: about culture and linguistics, about geography and socioeconomics, about the researchers, and about the institutions. Such knowledge can potentially be obtained through local sites, but single IRBs may be unaware of potentially relevant local information, and lack of informal relationships may impede single IRBs' reviews and interactions with researchers...
January 2019: Ethics & human research
J Dong, H Fan, X Y Zhao, S Y Chang, J Mi
Objective: To estimate the dietary salt and potassium intake by two 24 hour urine salt and potassium excretion in primary and secondary school students. Methods: The boarders from Grade 5 to 6 in a rural primary school and Grade 1 to 3 in a rural middle school in Changde City, Hunan Province were recruited from October to December in 2017. Subjects who had 2 and more urinary incontinence episodes or a history of kidney disease or diarrhea and girls in menstruation were excluded. The final analysis included 284 subjects...
February 6, 2019: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Liset Menendez de la Prida, Gilles Huberfeld
Oscillations represent basic operational modes of the human brain. They reflect local field potential activity generated by the laminar arrangement of cell-type specific microcircuits interacting brain-wide under the influence of neuromodulators, endogenous processes and cognitive demands. Under neuropathological conditions, the spatiotemporal structure of physiological brain oscillations is disrupted as recorded by electroencephalography and event-relate potentials. Such rhythmopathies can be used to track microcircuit alterations leading not only to transient pathological activities such as interictal discharges and seizures but also to a range of cognitive co-morbidities...
February 8, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
T V Kulishova, A I Neimark, A A Kryanga, A V Gazamatov
The aim of the study was to increase the efficiency of complex treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) with the combined effect of magnetolaser therapy (MLT) and red light. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined and included in the study 120 men with a verified diagnosis of CP/CPPS (III B), at the stage of exacerbation. By envelope method, patients were divided into two randomized groups. The main group consisted of 60 patients who received a basic treatment complex, including medicamentous therapy, prostate massage, diet therapy, a complex of therapeutic gymnastics, and the combined effect of MLT and red light of 10 procedures per course...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Nira Cedres, Alejandra Machado, Yaiza Molina, Patricia Diaz-Galvan, Juan Andres Hernández-Cabrera, Jose Barroso, Eric Westman, Daniel Ferreira
Subjective cognitive complaints in cognitively normal individuals are a relevant predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebrovascular disease, and age-related tauopathy. Complaints starting after the age of 60 increase the likelihood of preclinical AD. However, this criterion is arbitrary and current data show that neurodegenerative disorders likely start before that age. Further, data on the role of subjective complaints below the age of 60 in individuals qualifying for subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are lacking...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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