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Cancer AND Immune System

Cheryl Lans
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: There are insufficient safe and effective treatments for chronic pain in pets. In cases such as osteoarthritis there is no commercially available cure and veterinarians use NSAIDs to manage pain. Pet owners may have to plan for a lifetime of plant-based treatment for the conditions that lead to chronic pain in pets. Phytopharmacotherapies have the advantage of being less toxic, cheap or free, readily available, are more likely to be safe for long-term use and have the potential to reset the immune system to normal functioning...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Karen Bitton, Jean-Marie Michot, Emmanuel Barreau, Olivier Lambotte, Oscar Haigh, Aurélien Marabelle, Anne-Laure Voisin, Christine Mateus, Anne-Laure Rémond, Chloé Couret, Stéphane Champiat, Marc Labetoulle, Antoine Rousseau
PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), or its ligand PD-L1, are the mainstay of metastatic cancer treatment. Patients receiving these treatments may develop immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and describe the clinical patterns of moderate to severe ocular irAEs-associated with anti-PD-(L)1 treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: This study included patients recruited via i) a single-center prospective cohort and ii) a national pharmacovigilance registry between June 2014 and March 2018, and focused on patients with moderate to severe ocular irAEs following anti-PD-(L)1...
February 14, 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology
David G Leach, Simon Young, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Macroscale biomaterials, such as preformed implantable scaffolds and injectable soft materials, possess powerful synergies with anti-cancer immunotherapies. Immunotherapies on their own typically have poor delivery properties, and often require repeated high-dose injections that result in serious off-tumor effects and/or limited efficacy. Rationally designed biomaterials allow for discrete localization and controlled release of immunotherapeutic agents, and have been shown in a large number of applications to improve outcomes in the treatment of cancers via immunotherapy...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Anastasio Salazar-Bañuelos
Ageing is the leading risk factor for the emergence of cancer in humans. Accumulation of pro-carcinogenic events throughout life is believed to explain this observation; however, the lack of direct correlation between the number of cells in an organism and cancer incidence, known as Peto's Paradox, is at odds with this assumption. Finding the events responsible for this discrepancy can unveil mechanisms with potential uses in prevention and treatment of cancer in humans. On the other hand, the immune system is important in preventing the development of clinically relevant tumours by maintaining a fine equilibrium between reactive and suppressive lymphocyte clones...
February 15, 2019: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Cecilia Roux, Soode Moghadas Jafari, Rahul Shinde, Gordon Duncan, David W Cescon, Jennifer Silvester, Mandy F Chu, Kelsey Hodgson, Thorsten Berger, Andrew Wakeham, Luis Palomero, Mar Garcia-Valero, Miguel A Pujana, Tak W Mak, Tracy L McGaha, Paola Cappello, Chiara Gorrini
The combination of immune checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy is currently under investigation as a promising strategy for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most prominent component of the breast cancer microenvironment because they influence tumor progression and the response to therapies. Here we show that macrophages acquire an immunosuppressive phenotype and increase the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) when treated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducers such as the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), and paclitaxel...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Batoul Farran, Eluri Pavitra, Prameswari Kasa, Sujatha Peela, Ganji Seeta Rama Raju, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
The glycoprotein FRα is a membrane-attached transport protein that is shielded from the immune system in healthy cells. However, it is upregulated in various malignancies, involved in cancer development and is also immunogenic. Furthermore, FRα is a tumor-associated antigen endowed with unique properties, thus rendering it a suitable target for immunotherapeutic development in cancer. Various anti- FRα immunotherapeutic strategies are thus currently being developed and clinically assessed for the treatment of various solid tumors...
February 7, 2019: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Carmen Criscitiello, Giulia Viale, Giuseppe Curigliano
The immune system plays a dual role of host-protecting and tumor-promoting, as elegantly expressed by the 'cancer immunoediting' hypothesis. Although breast cancer has not been traditionally considered to be immunogenic, recently there is accumulating and solid evidence on the association between immune system and breast cancer. To mount an effective anti-tumor response, host immunosurveillance must recognize tumor-specific epitopes, thus defining the antigenicity of a tumor. Neoantigens are mutant cancer peptides that arise as terminal products of the expression of somatic cancer mutations...
February 7, 2019: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Jihoon Kim, Margaret P Manspeaker, Susan N Thomas
Despite the recent approvals of multiple cancer immunotherapies, low tumor immunogenicity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments prevent a large portion of patients from responding to these treatment modalities. Given the immunomodulatory and adjuvant effects of conventional chemotherapy as well as its widespread clinical use, the use of chemotherapy in combination with immunotherapy (so-called chemoimmunotherapy) is an attractive approach to potentiate the effects of immunotherapy in more patient populations...
February 12, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Vrishketan Sethi, Gerardo A Vitiello, Deepak Saxena, George Miller, Vikas Dudeja
Our understanding of the microbiome and its role in immunity, cancer initiation, and cancer progression has evolved significantly over the past century. The "germ theory of cancer" was first proposed in the early 20th century, and shortly thereafter the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and later, Fusobacterium nucleatum were implicated in the development of gastric and colorectal cancers respectively. However, with the development of reliable mouse models and affordable sequencing technologies, the most fascinating aspect of the microbiome-cancer relationship, where microbes undermine cancer immune surveillance and indirectly promote oncogenesis, has only recently been described...
February 12, 2019: Gastroenterology
Yada Kanjanapan, Daphne Day, Lisa Wang, Hamad Al-Sawaihey, Engy Abbas, Amirali Namini, Lillian L Siu, Aaron Hansen, Albiruni Abdul Razak, Anna Spreafico, Natasha Leighl, Anthony M Joshua, Marcus O Butler, David Hogg, Mary Anne Chappell, Ludmilla Soultani, Kayla Chow, Samantha Boujos, Philippe L Bedard
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors experience an accelerated tumor growth rate (TGR) in comparison with pretreatment kinetics; this is known as hyperprogression. This study assessed the relation between hyperprogressive disease (HPD) and treatment-related toxicity and clinical factors. METHODS: This study reviewed patients with solid tumors who were enrolled in early-phase immunotherapy trials at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre between August 2012 and September 2016 and had computed tomography scans in the pre-immunotherapy (reference) and on-immunotherapy (experimental) periods...
February 15, 2019: Cancer
Jasmine Kaur, Abdelkader Daoud, Scott T Eblen
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations comprise key regulatory events that dynamically alter gene expression and their deregulation is commonly linked to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. Unlike DNA mutations, epigenetic alterations involve modifications to proteins and nucleic acids that regulate chromatin structure without affecting the underlying DNA sequence, altering the accessibility of the transcriptional machinery to the DNA, thus modulating gene expression. In cancer cells, this often involves the silencing of tumor suppressor genes or the increased expression of genes involved in oncogenesis...
February 14, 2019: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Martina Ferioli, Giorgio Zauli, Patrizia Maiorano, Daniela Milani, Prisco Mirandola, Luca M Neri
The genetic heritage for decades has been considered to respond only to gene promoters or suppressors, with specific roles for oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes. Epigenetics is progressively attracting increasing interest because it has demonstrated the capacity of these regulatory processes to regulate the gene expression without modifying gene sequence. Several factors may influence epigenetics, such as lifestyles including food selection. A role for physical exercise is emerging in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yi-Xin Jiang, Yan Chen, Yue Yang, Xiao-Xia Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) with M2 phenotype play an essential role in tumor microenvironment (TME) during the progression and development of numerous cancers and associated with poor prognosis. Thus, regulation of TAMs polarization emerged as a new strategy for tumor immune therapy. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, herbs with Qi-tonifying character are involved in improving the defense capacity of immune system. In this study, we screened extracts and ingredients from five Qi-tonifying herbs exhibiting an inhibitory effect on M2 polarization of murine macrophages RAW264...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Aysooda Hosseinzade, Omid Sadeghi, Akram Naghdipour Biregani, Sepideh Soukhtehzari, Gabriel S Brandt, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
The increasing rate of autoimmune disorders and cancer in recent years has been a controversial issue in all aspects of prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Among dietary factors, flavonoids have specific immunomodulatory effects that might be of importance to several cancers. Over different types of immune cells, T lymphocytes play a critical role in protecting the immune system as well as in the pathogenesis of specific autoimmune diseases. One of the important mediators of metabolism and immune system is mTOR, especially in T lymphocytes...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Vlad Mihai Voiculescu, Cristina Victoria Lisievici, Mihai Lupu, Cristina Vajaitu, Carmen Cristina Draghici, Alexandra Victoria Popa, Iulia Solomon, Teona Ioana Sebe, Maria Magdalena Constantin, Constantin Caruntu
Taking into consideration that the immune system plays a very important role in the development of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers, which have a high prevalence in immunosuppressed patients and after prolonged ultraviolet radiation, the interest in developing novel therapies, in particular targeting the inflammation in cancer, has increased in the past years. The latest data suggest that therapies such as imiquimod (IMQ), ingenol mebutate (IM), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), retinoids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used with success in the topical treatment of some cancers...
2019: Mediators of Inflammation
Ilio Vitale, Antonella Sistigu, Gwenola Manic, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Zlatko Trajanoski, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Evolving neoplasms accumulate non-synonymous mutations at a high rate, potentially enabling the expression of antigenic epitopes that can be recognized by the immune system. Since they are not covered by central tolerance, such tumor neoantigens (TNAs) should be under robust immune control as they surge. However, genetic defects that impair cancer cell eradication by the immune system coupled with the establishment of local immunosuppression can enable TNA accumulation, which is generally associated with improved clinical sensitivity to various immunotherapies...
February 11, 2019: Trends in Cell Biology
Manabu Kawai, Seiko Hirono, Ken-Ichi Okada, Motoki Miyazawa, Atsushi Shimizu, Yuji Kitahata, Ryohei Kobayashi, Masaki Ueno, Shinya Hayami, Kensuke Tanioka, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: The impact of systemic immune inflammatory markers to predict survival in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aims to evaluate whether systemic immune inflammatory markers after neoadjuvant therapy followed by pancreatectomy become preoperative prognostic factors to predict survival in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 67 borderline resectable pancreatic cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy and 58 borderline resectable pancreatic cancer patients undergoing upfront surgery between 2010 and 2016...
February 11, 2019: Surgery
Vahid Reza Askari, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Amin Assaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Inflammation is defined as a defensive response of the body against either the endogenous or exogenous triggers, while this process becomes chronic leading to various disorders such as asthma, cancers, and multiple sclerosis. Recently, pharmacological properties of different constituents of F. szowitsiana have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of F. szowitsiana root on human isolated lymphocytes. The effects of either F...
February 14, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Maud Plantinga, Colin G de Haar, Ester Dünnebach, Denise A M H van den Beemt, Kitty W M Bloemenkamp, Michal Mokry, Jaap Jan Boelens, Stefan Nierkens
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells which instruct both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Once mature, they have the capacity to activate and prime naïve T cells for recognition and eradication of pathogens and tumor cells. These characteristics make them excellent candidates for vaccination strategies. Most DC vaccines have been generated from ex vivo culture of monocytes (mo). The use of mo-DCs as vaccines to induce adaptive immunity against cancer has resulted in clinical responses but, overall, treatment success is limited...
February 5, 2019: Cancers
Andrea Padoan, Mario Plebani, Daniela Basso
Systemic and local chronic inflammation might enhance the risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and PDAC-associated inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment concurs in enhancing tumor growth and metastasis. Inflammation is closely correlated with immunity, the same immune cell populations contributing to both inflammation and immune response. In the PDAC microenvironment, the inflammatory cell infiltrate is unbalanced towards an immunosuppressive phenotype, with a prevalence of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), M2 polarized macrophages, and Treg , over M1 macrophages, dendritic cells, and effector CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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