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Nutrition AND Immunology

Armando Ganoza, George V Mazariegos, Ajai Khanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, visceral transplantation has become the standard of care for patients with irreversible intestinal failure who suffer complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after solid organ transplantation is a rare but often fatal complication with high mortality. GVHD after intestinal transplantation, given the large lymphoid content of the graft, is more frequent compared with other solid organs. It is a complex condition that may have varied clinical presentations...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Nagatake Takahiro, Kunisawa Jun
The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to the external environment, which contains numerous non-self antigens, including food materials and commensal micro-organisms. For the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis, the intestinal epithelial layer and mucosal immune system simultaneously provide the first line of defense against pathogens and are tightly regulated to prevent their induction of inflammatory responses to non-pathogenic antigens. Defects in mucosal homeostasis lead to the development of inflammatory and associated intestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, food allergy and colorectal cancer...
February 5, 2019: International Immunology
Chikaodili N Ihudiebube-Splendor, Chinyelu B Okafor, Agnes N Anarado, Nonyelum N Jisieike-Onuigbo, Anthonia U Chinweuba, Ada C Nwaneri, Joyce C Arinze, Paulina C Chikeme
Breastfeeding is considered as the most complete nutritional source for infants because breast milk contains the essential carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and immunological factors needed for infants to thrive and resist infection in the formative first year of life. Knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among women is essential when promoting optimal breastfeeding practices. This cross-sectional descriptive survey assessed knowledge and intention to practice EBF and its associated factors during pregnancy among primiparous women in selected communities in Enugu State, Nigeria...
2019: Journal of Pregnancy
Jolanta Lis-Kuberka, Magdalena Orczyk-Pawiłowicz
Human milk not only has nutritional value, but also provides a wide range of biologically active molecules, which are adapted to meet the needs of newborns and infants. Mother's milk is a source of sialylated oligosaccharides and glycans that are attached to proteins and lipids, whose concentrations and composition are unique. Sialylated human milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides enrich the newborn immature immune system and are crucial for their proper development and well-being. Some of the milk sialylated oligosaccharide structures can locally exert biologically active effects in the newborn's and infant's gut...
February 1, 2019: Nutrients
Xiaoliang Xie, Yaqin He, Hai Li, Dong Yu, Li Na, Ting Sun, Dong Zhang, Xinrong Shi, Yuhan Xia, Tao Jiang, Shikuo Rong, Shaoqi Yang, Xiaoqiang Ma, Guangxian Xu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prebiotics (containing fructooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, polydextrose, and resistant dextrin) intake on immune function and intestinal microbiota structure in perioperative patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, no-treatment parallel control clinical trial involving 140 perioperative patients (90 men and 50 women, aged 40-75 y) with CRC was performed...
November 29, 2018: Nutrition
Jochen Seitz, Stefanie Trinh, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Growing interest exists in the association of gut bacteria with diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and psychiatric disorders. Gut microbiota influence the fermentation of nutrients, body-weight regulation, gut permeability, hormones, inflammation, immunology, and behavior (gut-brain axis). Regarding anorexia nervosa (AN), altered microbial diversity and taxa abundance were found and associated with depressive, anxious, and eating disorder symptoms. Potential mechanisms involve increased gut permeability, low-grade inflammation, autoantibodies, and reduced brain cell neogenesis and learning...
March 2019: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Helen M Roche
Dietary intake and nutritional status is an important environmental factor which can modulate metabolic-inflammation. In recent years, research has made significant advances in terms of understanding the impact of dietary components on metabolic-inflammation, within the context of obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D) and CVD risk. Our work demonstrated that different fatty acids differentially modulate metabolic-inflammation, initially focusing on Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing three protein (NLRP3) inflammasome mediated IL-1β biology and insulin signalling...
February 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Beatriz Espín Jaime, Juan J Díaz Martín, Luis Carlos Blesa Baviera, Ángela Claver Monzón, Anselmo Hernández Hernández, José Ignacio García Burriel, María José García Mérida, Celia Pinto Fernández, Cristóbal Coronel Rodríguez, Enriqueta Román Riechmann, Carmen Ribes Koninckx
Non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy is a frequent disorder in paediatrics. As patients might be seen by professionals from different specialties and levels of expertise, a great variability in diagnostic procedures and disease monitoring is commonly observed. Therefore, four scientific societies involved in its management have developed a consensus document providing specific recommendations related to its prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow up.
January 18, 2019: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Elizabeth A Pharo
Marsupials have a very different reproductive strategy to eutherians. An Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) has a very short pregnancy of about 26.5 days, with a comparatively long lactation of 300-350 days. The tammar mother gives birth to an altricial, approximately 400 mg young that spends the first 200 days postpartum (p.p.) in its mother's pouch, permanently (0-100 days p.p.; Phase 2A) and then intermittently (100-200 days p.p.; Phase 2B) attached to the teat. The beginning of Phase 3 marks the first exit from the pouch (akin to the birth of a precocious eutherian neonate) and the supplementation of milk with herbage...
January 15, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Danny A Milner, Mingyang Song, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative transdisciplinary field that addresses heterogeneous effects of exogenous and endogenous factors (collectively termed "exposures"), including microorganisms, on disease occurrence and consequence utilising molecular pathological signatures of the disease. In parallel with the paradigm of precision medicine, findings from MPE research can provide aetiological insights into tailored strategies of disease prevention and treatment. Due to the availability of molecular pathological tests on tumours, the MPE approach has been utilised predominantly in research on cancers including breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal carcinomas...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pathology
Atsuko Imai, Eka Fujimoto, Kaho Tamura, Masanori Utsuyama, Kazuto Sato
AIM: Maternal obesity and improper nutrition predispose offspring to chronic metabolic diseases. Although the frequency of these diseases increases with aging, the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on aged offspring remains elusive. MAIN METHODS: C57BL/6J female mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (CON) diet and then mated. All offspring remained with their birth dam until weaning at 3 weeks. After weaning, the offspring from the HF and CON diet-fed dams were given either the HF diet or CON diet, which resulted in four groups: CON/CON, CON/HF, HF/CON, and HF/HF...
January 7, 2019: Life Sciences
Anders D Andersen, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Louise Langhorn, Ingrid B Renes, Ruurd M van Elburg, Anita Hartog, Sebastian Tims, Yohan van de Looij, Per T Sangild, Thomas Thymann
Background: Preterm infants are born with an immature gut, brain, and immune system, predisposing them to short- and long-term complications. Objective: We hypothesized that a milk diet supplemented with pre- and probiotics (i.e. synbiotics) and glutamine would improve gut, brain, and immune maturation in preterm neonates, using preterm pigs as a model. Methods: Preterm pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc, n = 40, delivered by c-section at 90% of gestation) were reared individually until day 23 after birth under highly standardized conditions...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Hamada A M Elwan, Shaaban Saad Elnesr, Mohamed Mohany, Salim S Al-Rejaie
Using nutritional antioxidants in livestock systems is considered the key in improving animal production. The current study assumes that dietary tomato powder (TP) supplementation positively affects haemato-immunological, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters for New Zealand rabbits. A total of 30 rabbits (45 days old) were assigned to three groups, including a diet with no additives (control), and two dietary treatments with the providing of 1% or 2% TP. Mass spectrometric study for TP methanolic extract showed some phenolic compounds...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Alberto A Leguina-Ruzzi, Rina Ortiz
There are strong data showing that malnutrition is highly prevalent in intensive care unit patients (20-50% in the worldwide), presenting a negative accumulated body energy balance. This results in an increased mortality, infections, and hospital length stay with high costs associated with the total treatment. Parenteral nutrition is the first option when the patient's physical condition is not suitable for oral nutrient intake. It is composed essentially by lipids as an energy source, metabolic, and structural function...
2018: Critical Care Research and Practice
S A Apryatin, N A Beketova, O A Vrzhesinskaya, N A Riger, V S Evstratova, N V Trusov, J S Soto, K V Mzhelskaya, A A Shumakova, V M Kodentsova, I V Gmoshinsky
Biochemical, vitamin, trace element and immunological changes were searched for the combined nutritional deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6 on in vivo models in rats and mice. Female rats of Wistar (W) strain and hybrids of the 1st generation of Dark Aguti and Wistar (DA x W) strains, female mice of BALB/c strain and DBCB tetrahybrids were used in experiment. Animals received for 35 days a balanced diet (control) according to AIN-93 or a similar diet with the exception of vitamins B1, B2, B6 (experimental groups)...
2018: Voprosy Pitaniia
J A Scare, A E Steuer, C L Shaffer, P Slusarewicz, A Mousley, M K Nielsen
In vitro maintenance of helminth parasites enables a variety of molecular, pharmaceutical and immunological analyses. Currently, the nutritional and environmental in vitro requirements of the equine ascarid parasite, Parascaris spp., have not been determined. Additionally, an objective method for assessing viability of Parascaris spp. intestinal stages does not exist. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the in vitro requirements of intestinal stages of Parascaris spp., and to develop a viability assessment method...
December 18, 2018: Parasitology
B Faehnrich, A Pastor, C Heide, S Kröger, J Zentek
The aim of the study was to investigate nutritional, physiological and immunological effects of a plant-derived blend of isoquinoline alkaloids (Sangrovit® Extra) in healthy dogs. Two groups of healthy, adult beagles (N = 10) were tested in a cross-over experiment, lasting two consecutive three-week periods. The experimental group received 1.2 g additive/kg feed, according to the recommendation of 10-20 mg/kg live weight per day. The control group received the same feed without additive. Complete blood count, immunological parameters and amino acid concentrations in serum were assessed...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Geir Bjørklund, Maryam Dadar, Joeri J Pen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Jan Aaseth
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is known as a multi-systemic and complex illness, which induces fatigue and long-term disability in educational, occupational, social, or personal activities. The diagnosis of this disease is difficult, due to lacking a proper and suited diagnostic laboratory test, besides to its multifaceted symptoms. Numerous factors, including environmental and immunological issues, and a large spectrum of CFS symptoms, have recently been reported. In this review, we focus on the nutritional intervention in CFS, discussing the many immunological, environmental, and nutritional aspects currently investigated about this disease...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
H L Haro-Gómez, E Merida-Herrera, B J Torres-Fernández, E Pérez-Hernández, R Torres-González, J M Pérez-Atanasio
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by polyarthritis with progressive articular wear, immunologic abnormalities and increasing physical limitation. Surgical correction with hip replacement comes as a successful solution for patients with advanced articular destruction. Following intervention, surgical site infection (SSI), venous thromboembolism, sepsis, renal and major cardiovascular complications are among the most cited in the literature...
July 2018: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Yanbo Sun, Weiming Li, Dali Sun, Shumin Li, Qingwen Xu, Yijun Li, Yueying Lin, Yuxing Qi, Ting Yang, Kun Su, Yunyun Cen, Xiongzhi Chen, Pengyuan Xu
Purpose: To investigate the role of percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) combined with percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) in maintaining the nutrition state in patients with advanced ampullary neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients who suffered from advanced ampullary neoplasms and could not tolerate internal drainage operation or biliary stent placement were enrolled. After PTCD, PEJ was implemented, and then the enteral nutrient solution + bile were instilled through PEJ tube for enteral nutrition support...
December 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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