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Nutrition AND Microbiome

P Comizzoli, W V Holt
Because of higher extinction rates due to human and natural factors, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required to preserve wild species and design proper strategies leading to sustainable populations. The objective of the review is to highlight recent, inspiring breakthroughs in wildlife reproduction science that will set directions for future research and lead to more successes in conservation biology. Despite new tools and approaches allowing a better and faster understanding of key mechanisms, we still know little about reproduction in endangered species...
February 17, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Maria Wiese
The increasing efforts to substitute antibiotics and improve animal health combined with the acknowledgement of the role of gut microbiota in health, have led to an elevated interest in the understanding on how fibre with prebiotic potential, such as pectin, can improve animal growth and health via direct or gut microbiota mediated effects. Various reports exist on the antiviral and antibacterial effects of pectin, as well as its potency as a modulator of the immune response and gut microbial community. Comprehensive insights into the potential of pectin to improve animal growth and health are currently still hampered by heterogeneity in the design of studies...
February 15, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Elham Karimi, Tina Keller-Costa, Beate M Slaby, Cymon J Cox, Ulisses N da Rocha, Ute Hentschel, Rodrigo Costa
Marine sponges are early-branching, filter-feeding metazoans that usually host complex microbiomes comprised of several, currently uncultivatable symbiotic lineages. Here, we use a low-carbon based strategy to cultivate low-abundance bacteria from Spongia officinalis. This approach favoured the growth of Alphaproteobacteria strains in the genera Anderseniella, Erythrobacter, Labrenzia, Loktanella, Ruegeria, Sphingorhabdus, Tateyamaria and Pseudovibrio, besides two likely new genera in the Rhodobacteraceae family...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Enza D'Auria, Mariette Abrahams, GianVincenzo Zuccotti, Carina Venter
The prevalence of food allergy appears to be steadily increasing in infants and young children. One of the major challenges of modern clinical nutrition is the implementation of individualized nutritional recommendations. The management of food allergy (FA) has seen major changes in recent years. While strict allergen avoidance is still the key treatment principle, it is increasingly clear that the avoidance diet should be tailored according to the patient FA phenotype. Furthermore, new insights into the gut microbiome and immune system explain the rising interest in tolerance induction and immunomodulation by microbiota-targeted dietary intervention...
February 9, 2019: Nutrients
Helena Mendes-Soares, Tali Raveh-Sadka, Shahar Azulay, Kim Edens, Yatir Ben-Shlomo, Yossi Cohen, Tal Ofek, Davidi Bachrach, Josh Stevens, Dorin Colibaseanu, Lihi Segal, Purna Kashyap, Heidi Nelson
Importance: Emerging evidence suggests that postprandial glycemic responses (PPGRs) to food may be influenced by and predicted according to characteristics unique to each individual, including anthropometric and microbiome variables. Interindividual diversity in PPGRs to food requires a personalized approach for the maintenance of healthy glycemic levels. Objectives: To describe and predict the glycemic responses of individuals to a diverse array of foods using a model that considers the physiology and microbiome of the individual in addition to the characteristics of the foods consumed...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Emer Fitzpatrick
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of paediatric liver disease, affecting 10% of school-aged children and 44-70% of obese children and young people (CYP) in the western world. Encompassing a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progressive fibrosis, the disease is rapidly becoming the most common indication for liver transplantation. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD remains only partially understood. Development and progression of NAFLD is influenced by genetic and nutritional factors, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism and lipid/glucose handling and is closely associated with overweight and obesity...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Maria Jose Sáez-Lara, Angel Gil
The consumption of sugar-free foods is growing because of their low-calorie content and the health concerns about products with high sugar content. Sweeteners that are frequently several hundred thousand times sweeter than sucrose are being consumed as sugar substitutes. Although nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) are considered safe and well tolerated, their effects on glucose intolerance, the activation of sweet taste receptors, and alterations to the composition of the intestinal microbiota are controversial...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Chen Yang, Qianchun Deng, Jiqu Xu, Xu Wang, Chao Hu, Hu Tang, Fenghong Huang
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption induces oxidative stress and microbial dysbiosis, the latter of which plays a vital role in the development of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that sinapic acid and resveratrol treatment might be a potential strategy to ameliorate the redox state and gut microbiota composition imbalance. In this study, rats were randomised into five groups and fed a high-fat diet supplemented with resveratrol (400 mg/kg), sinapic acid (200 mg/kg) or a combination of both polyphenols. Administration of resveratrol effectively reduced fasting blood glucose levels (p < 0...
February 2019: Food Research International
René Rizzoli
Gut microbiota (GM) located within the intestinal tract lumen comprises the largest number of cells (10E 14) in the human body. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of genomes and genes present in gut microbiota. GM can vary according to age, sex, genetic background, immune status, geography, diet, prebiotics, which are non-digestible fibers metabolized in the distal part of the gastrointestinal tract, probiotics, which are micro-organisms conferring a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts, living conditions, diseases and drugs...
February 1, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Jochen Seitz, Stefanie Trinh, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Growing interest exists in the association of gut bacteria with diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and psychiatric disorders. Gut microbiota influence the fermentation of nutrients, body-weight regulation, gut permeability, hormones, inflammation, immunology, and behavior (gut-brain axis). Regarding anorexia nervosa (AN), altered microbial diversity and taxa abundance were found and associated with depressive, anxious, and eating disorder symptoms. Potential mechanisms involve increased gut permeability, low-grade inflammation, autoantibodies, and reduced brain cell neogenesis and learning...
March 2019: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Lucy M McCully, Adam S Bitzer, Sarah C Seaton, Leah M Smith, Mark W Silby
Bacteria often live in complex communities in which they interact with other organisms. Consideration of the social environment of bacteria can reveal emergent traits and behaviors that would be overlooked by studying bacteria in isolation. Here we characterize a social trait which emerges upon interaction between the distantly related soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and Pedobacter sp. strain V48. On hard agar, which is not permissive for motility of the monoculture of either species, coculture reveals an emergent phenotype that we term "interspecies social spreading," where the mixed colony spreads across the hard surface...
January 30, 2019: MSphere
Amanda L Thompson, Kelly M Houck, Johanna R Jahnke
OBJECTIVES: Global increases in caesarean deliveries are exposing more infants to perinatal environments that are evolutionarily novel and potentially increasing their risks for inflammatory conditions. Yet, the pathways linking caesareans to later health outcomes are not well understood, particularly in dual burden contexts. We test two of the hypothesized pathways, altered immune function and gut microbiota, which may link delivery mode to later health outcomes and test whether these associations persist when controlling for postnatal nutritional and pathogenic exposures...
January 28, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Wenli Li, Andrea Edwards, Christina Riehle, Madison Cox, Sarah Raabis, Joseph Skarlupka, Andrew Steinberger, Jason Walling, Derek Bickhart, Garret Suen
In mammals, microbial colonization of the digestive tract (GIT) occurs right after birth by several bacterial phyla. Numerous human and mouse studies have reported the importance of early gut microbial inhabitants on host health. However, few attempts have been undertaken to directly interrogate the role of early gut/rumen microbial colonization on GIT development or host health in neonatal ruminants through artificial manipulation of the rumen microbiome. Thus, the molecular changes associated with bacterial colonization are largely unknown in cattle...
January 28, 2019: Scientific Reports
Olivia Hillson, Suam Gonzalez, Charalampos Rallis
Intense research in the areas of cellular and organismal aging using diverse laboratory model systems has enriched our knowledge in the processes and the signalling pathways involved in normal and pathological conditions. The field finds itself in a position to take decisive steps towards clinical applications and interventions not only for targeted age-related diseases such as cardiovascular conditions and neurodegeneration but also for the modulation of health span and lifespan of a whole organism. Beyond nutritional interventions such as dietary restriction without malnutrition and various regimes of intermittent fasting, accumulating evidence provides promise for pharmacological interventions...
December 31, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
Marta Anna Szychlinska, Michelino Di Rosa, Alessandro Castorina, Ali Mobasheri, Giuseppe Musumeci
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage, resulting in pain and total joint disability. Recent studies focused on the role of the metabolic syndrome in inducing or worsening joint damage suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation may represent a possible linking factor. This finding supports the concept of a new phenotype of OA, a metabolic OA. The gut microbiome is fundamental for human physiology and immune system development, among the other important functions. Manipulation of the gut microbiome is considered an important topic for the individual health in different medical fields such as medical biology, nutrition, sports, preventive and rehabilitative medicine...
January 2019: Heliyon
Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Rob Knight, Martin J Blaser
The host-microbiome supraorganism appears to have coevolved and the unperturbed microbial component of the dyad renders host health sustainable. This coevolution has likely shaped evolving phenotypes in all life forms on this predominantly microbial planet. The microbiota seems to exert effects on the next generation from gestation, via maternal microbiota and immune responses. The microbiota ecosystems develop, restricted to their epithelial niches by the host immune system, concomitantly with the host chronological development, providing early modulation of physiological host development and functions for nutrition, immunity and resistance to pathogens at all ages...
January 22, 2019: Gut
Angela Sessitsch, Nikolaus Pfaffenbichler, Birgit Mitter
Plant microbiota are the subject of new product developments, primarily aimed at improving plant health, nutrition, and stress resilience. However, current application of microbials in the field faces multiple challenges and we propose that multiple aspects need to be considered, for example, understanding the complexity and ecological behaviour of natural microbiota.
January 19, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Antonio Derossi, Ahmad Husain, Rossella Caporizzi, Carla Severini
Personalized nutrition means that we are unique in the way to absorb and to metabolize nutrients as a consequence of our genetic profile and the microbiome that we host in the gut. With the terminology of Personalized Food Manufacturing we want not only to stress the idea of the capability to manufacture food meeting our unique nutritional needs but - based on the idea that eating is a global experience - also to broad this to meet additional personal requirements and expectations, i.e. taste, texture, color, aspect, etc...
January 22, 2019: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Rolf Teschke
Fifty years ago, in 1968, the pioneering scientists Charles S. Lieber and Leonore M. DeCarli discovered the capacity for liver microsomes to oxidize ethanol and named it the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), which revolutionized clinical and experimental alcohol research. The last 50 years of MEOS are now reviewed and highlighted. Since its discovery and as outlined in a plethora of studies, significant insight was gained regarding the fascinating nature of MEOS : (1) MEOS is distinct from alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase, representing a multi-enzyme complex with cytochrome P450 (CYP) and its preferred isoenzyme CYP 2E1, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and phospholipids; (2) it plays a significant role in alcohol metabolism at high alcohol concentrations and after induction due to prolonged alcohol use; (3) hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals promote microsomal ethanol oxidation, assisted by phospholipid peroxides; (4) new aspects focus on microsomal oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with intermediates like hydroxyethyl radical, ethoxy radical, acetyl radical, singlet radical, hydroxyl radical, alkoxyl radical, and peroxyl radical; (5) triggered by CYP 2E1, ROS are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of alcoholic liver injury, consequently shifting the previous nutrition-based concept to a clear molecular-based disease; (6) intestinal CYP 2E1 induction and ROS are involved in endotoxemia, leaky gut, and intestinal microbiome modifications, together with hepatic CYP 2E1 and liver injury; (7) circulating blood CYP 2E1 exosomes may be of diagnostic value; (8) circadian rhythms provide high MEOS activities associated with significant alcohol metabolism and potential toxicity risks as a largely neglected topic; and (9) a variety of genetic animal models are useful and have been applied elucidating mechanistic aspects of MEOS...
January 22, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
S S Kara, B Volkan, I Erten
Malnutrition affects virtually all organ systems, and malnourished children are more prone to infections. These children have dysbiosis, but probiotics can restore the disrupted gut microbiome. We investigated the protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in malnourished children in terms of incidence of infection, and anthropometric and metabolic parameters. 50 intervention and 50 control patients, aged 6 months to 5 years, with body weight and height below -2 SD, were randomly and prospectively recruited...
January 14, 2019: Beneficial Microbes
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