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Atmospheric pollutants

Akmaljon Palvanov, Young Im Cho
Visibility is a complex phenomenon inspired by emissions and air pollutants or by factors, including sunlight, humidity, temperature, and time, which decrease the clarity of what is visible through the atmosphere. This paper provides a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art contributions in relation to visibility estimation under various foggy weather conditions. We propose VisNet, which is a new approach based on deep integrated convolutional neural networks for the estimation of visibility distances from camera imagery...
March 18, 2019: Sensors
Meihe Jiang, Yaoqiang Huo, Kai Huang, Min Li
Straw burning has become a hot topic in recent years as it poses a great risk not only to the lung health of residents in exposed areas but also to large-scale haze events. In order to have a more comprehensive understanding of straw burning research, based on the bibliometric analysis of Science Citation Index Expanded from Web of Science, the research progress of straw burning pollution from 1972 to 2016 and the future research trends were carried out in this paper. The research focuses on the document type, language, publication year, times cited and its output characteristics, subject category, journal, national and institutional distribution, author, etc...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J H Johansson, M E Salter, J C Acosta Navarro, C Leck, E D Nilsson, I T Cousins
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants found throughout the world's oceans. Previous research suggests that long-range atmospheric transport of these substances may be substantial. However, it remains unclear what the main sources of PFAAs to the atmosphere are. We have used a laboratory sea spray chamber to study water-to-air transfer of 11 PFAAs via sea spray aerosol (SSA). We observed significant enrichment of all PFAAs relative to sodium in the SSA generated. The highest enrichment was observed in aerosols with aerodynamic diameter < 1...
March 19, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Jianyu Chen, Xianyan Jiang, Chunli Shi, Ruicong Liu, Rong Lu, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The association between concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3 ), and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for asthma was explored in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China for the first time. METHODS: EADs for asthma were collected from the Chengdu First-Aid Command Center. Pollutant concentrations were collected from 24 municipal environmental monitoring centers and including SO2 , NO2 , CO, daily 8-h mean concentrations of O3 (O3 -8 h), and particulate matter less than 2...
March 18, 2019: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Yanyan Fang, Zhiqiang Nie, Jinzhong Yang, Qingqi Die, Jie He, Hongjin Yu, Qi Zhou, Qifei Huang
Secondary aluminum smelting industry, as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) in environment, has been concerned in recent years. To figure out the emission characteristics of PCNs and the potential influence on surrounding environment, two typical secondary aluminum smelting plants were selected and PCNs were determined in flue gas, fly ash, aluminum slag, soil, and air samples collected at and around the plants by GC-MS coupled with DFS. PCN emission factors from the flue gas of the two plants (mean 0...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Mushtaq Ahmad, Wei Ouyang
Water-soluble organic acids are widely involved in various atmospheric physicochemical processes and appear as an important fraction of atmospheric aerosols. Nineteen water-soluble organic acids in 12-h PM1 , PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected in urban Beijing during haze episodes in winter and spring of 2017 were identified to investigate their characteristics and secondary formation mechanism. The molecular distributions of water-soluble organic acids as well as the high ratio of phthalic acid (Ph)/azelaic acid (C9 ) indicated severe aromatic secondary organic aerosol pollution during the haze episodes, especially in winter...
March 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
David O'Connor, Deyi Hou, Yong Sik Ok, Jan Mulder, Lei Duan, Qingru Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Filip M G Tack, Jörg Rinklebe
Mercury (Hg) is a potentially harmful trace element in the environment and one of the World Health Organization's foremost chemicals of concern. The threat posed by Hg contaminated soils to humans is pervasive, with an estimated 86 Gg of anthropogenic Hg pollution accumulated in surface soils worldwide. This review critically examines both recent advances and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to cycling of mercury in the soil environment, to aid the assessment and management of risks caused by Hg contamination...
March 14, 2019: Environment International
Huan Zhang, Zhangwei Wang, Chunjie Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang
Measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury play a key role in identifying mercury behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, we measured speciated atmospheric mercury, including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate bound mercury (PBM) (<2.5 μm), in 2015 and 2016 at an urban site in Beijing, China. The mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and PBM were 4.70 ± 3.53 ng m-3 , 18.47 ± 22.27 pg m-3 , and 85.18 ± 95.34 pg m-3 , respectively...
February 28, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Geir Bjørklund, Alexey A Tinkov, Maryam Dadar, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Anatoly V Skalny, Margarita G Skalnaya, Boyd E Haley, Olga P Ajsuvakova, Jan Aaseth
Mercury (Hg), which is a non-essential element, is considered a highly toxic pollutant for biological systems even when present at trace levels. Elevated Hg exposure with the growing release of atmospheric pollutant Hg and rising accumulations of mono-methylmercury (highly neurotoxic) in seafood products have increased its toxic potential for humans. This review aims to highlight the potential relationship between Hg exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD), based on the existing literature in the field. Recent reports have hypothesized that Hg exposure could increase the potential risk of developing AD...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Regina Montero-Montoya, Rocío López-Vargas, Omar Arellano-Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Toxic volatile organic compounds (VOC), like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), are atmospheric pollutants representing a threat to human health. They are released into the environment from mobile sources in urban settings, but newly polluted areas are gaining importance in countries where accelerated industrialization is taking place in suburban or rural settings. METHODS: The review includes studies done in Mexico and Latin-America and countries considered to have emerging economies and are compared with similar studies in developed countries...
July 27, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Hirokazu Ozaki, Hiroshi Ichise, Emi Kitaura, Yuki Yaginuma, Masaaki Yoda, Katsuji Kuno, Izumi Watanabe
This study compared state of pollution around an intermediate treatment plant of industrial wastes before and after the change of its treatment procedure. Bulk atmospheric deposition, surface soil, suspended particulate matter and groundwater were collected after the plant changed main operation to waste crushing and volume reduction. Their heavy metals content were comparatively investigated with the previous results obtained when it was burning wastes. The bulk heavy metals deposition showed a clear distance-related attenuation both in burning and crushing periods, indicating that the plant was the main emissions source in either case...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Larissa Schneider, Kathryn Allen, Meg Walker, Christine Morgan, Simon Haberle
Historical records of mercury (Hg) deposition in lake sediments have commonly been used to monitor historic atmospheric concentrations. In the Australian environment, however, freshwater lakes are limited, restricting the region for which depositional archives of Hg can be derived. In this study we show that dendrochemistry can provide a record of atmospheric concentrations at the annual scale. We measured Hg concentrations in growth rings of two tree species in Tasmania-Huon Pine (Lagarostrobus franklinii) and Celery Top Pine (Phyllocladus aspleniifolius) at a site in western Tasmania, a region that has been heavily mined over the past 150 years...
March 14, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Andile B Maqhuzu, Kunio Yoshikawa, Fumitake Takahashi
The vast increase of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Zimbabwe coupled with a severe energy crisis have made waste-to-energy technology more attractive and necessary. Coal-alternative solid fuel production from MSW though hydrothermal carbonization can play a critical role to improve both waste management and energy supply. Moreover, MSW conversion to a carbon neutral solid fuel that can be burnt in existing coal-fired power stations might reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions despite GHG releases from waste collection, waste conversion to fuel, and fuel transportation processes...
March 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew A Peckham, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Peter Weisberg
This study investigated the methodology and utility of dendrochemistry for assessment of spatial and temporal concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury. Tree cores from Pinus species in California and Nevada, USA, were collected from previously sampled areas to test the stability of tree ring concentrations over time. Cores were collected from 2 new locations to assess spatial variability among trees within and between stands located at two elevations in the same watershed. Results indicated using 2-to-3 cores from ~10 or more trees provided the best framework for understanding tree ring concentrations within a population of trees located in uncontaminated areas...
March 13, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaodan Han, Huajiao Li, Qian Liu, Fuzhen Liu, Asma Arif
Regional haze pollution has frequently occurred in China over the past several years, and this haze has hindered the development of the economy and harmed the health of people in China. Currently, several studies have analyzed the impact of different influencing factors on haze. However, few studies have comprehensively analyzed the influential factors of haze from different perspectives. In this paper, we utilized global and local regression models to explore the main influential factors on air quality index (AQI) in China from global and local perspectives...
March 3, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Kazutoshi Sugita, Yuka Kin, Mayuko Yagishita, Fumikazu Ikemori, Kimiyo Kumagai, Toshihiko Ohara, Makoto Kinoshita, Kazuyuki Nishimura, Yukihiko Takagi, Daisuke Nakajima
Background: The harmful effects of fine particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on respiratory organs are emphasized in pollution studies because PM2.5 have high deposition rates in the respiratory organs and contain various hazardous compounds. In this study, a sampling method combining a high-volume air sampler (HV) with a PM2.5 impactor was developed for collecting large quantities of PM2.5. The concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in PM2...
2019: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Qingxin Wang, Qiaolin Zeng, Jinhua Tao, Lin Sun, Liang Zhang, Tianyu Gu, Zifeng Wang, Liangfu Chen
Accurately estimating fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is important to assess air quality and to support epidemiological studies. To analyze the spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 concentrations, previous studies used different methodologies, such as statistical models or neural networks, to estimate PM2.5 . However, there is little research on full-coverage PM2.5 estimation using a combination of ground-measured, satellite-estimated, and atmospheric chemical model data. In this study, the linear mixed effect (LME) model, which used the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), meteorological data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and elevation data as predictors, was fitted for 2017 over Beijing⁻Tianjin⁻Hebei (BTH)...
March 9, 2019: Sensors
Brij Mohan Sharma, Lisa Melymuk, Girija K Bharat, Petra Přibylová, Ondřej Sáňka, Jana Klánová, Luca Nizzetto
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous semi-volatile organic pollutants. Their environmental occurrence is of global concern as some of them are carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. In this study, concentrations and distributions of 16 priority PAHs (∑PAHs) were measured in air, atmospheric deposition, and surface water at various locations in Himalayan, Middle, and Lower Reaches of the Ganges River, covering a spatial transect of 2500km, during two seasons (pre-monsoon and monsoon). The concentration of ∑PAHs ranged between 2...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hongmei Tang, Haiyang Xian, Hongping He, Jingming Wei, Hongmei Liu, Jianxi Zhu, Runliang Zhu
Calcite dissolution, occurring in rocks, soils and sediments, is essential to indicate element cycles and local environments in the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Calcite dissolution strongly depends on metal ions in aqueous solutions. Previous studies showed that aquatic Cu2+ , a typical bio-toxic metal ion, can alter the calcite dissolution behavior. However, wide concentration ranges of Cu2+ coexisting with ubiquitous anions in local environments, such as waterways in the oxidation zones of copper deposits and soils near metal processing industry, was overlooked...
February 28, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Altaf Lone, G Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang
Snowpack and glacial melt samples were collected to understand the hydrochemical, isotopic characteristics and the source of Hg contamination in high altitude glacierized Himalayan catchment. Both the snow and glacial melt were acidic in nature with calcium and magnesium as the dominant cations and bicarbonate and chloride as the dominant anions. The major ion concentrations for cations were found to be Ca2+  > Mg2+  > Na+  > K+ and HCO3 -  > Cl-  > SO4 2-  > NO3 - for anions...
March 9, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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