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David W Frank, Dean Sabatinelli
Emotional scene perception is characterized by enhanced neural activity across broad regions of visual cortex, the frontoparietal network, and anterior corticolimbic structures. In human fMRI and electrocortical experiments, activation enhancement is strongly related to self-reported emotional arousal evoked by scene stimuli. However, an additional bias in reaction to pleasant scenes has been reported in a subset of emotion-enhanced brain regions. Human fMRI and primate electrophysiological studies show biased frontoparietal network activity in response to rewarding cues...
February 18, 2019: Psychophysiology
Niels Müller, Michael Vogel
We perform molecular dynamics simulations of binary glass-forming liquids with high dynamical contrast. In detail, we mix water-like molecules with various polarities, which exhibit strongly different dynamics but very similar structures as neat liquids. It is found that these mixtures show concentration fluctuations, which strongly grow upon cooling towards an expected mixing-demixing phase transition. Because of the developing microphase segregation, the composition and temperature ranges accessible to our approach are limited, but the studied mixtures are ideal models to ascertain the relation between concentration fluctuations and molecular dynamics, in particular, the glassy slowdown of binary liquids, including aqueous solutions...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Andrew E Blum, Srividya Venkitachalam, Durgadevi Ravillah, Aruna K Chelluboyina, Ann Marie Kieber-Emmons, Lakshmeswari Ravi, Adam Kresak, Apoorva K Chandar, Sanford D Markowitz, Marcia I Canto, Jean S Wang, Nicholas J Shaheen, Yan Guo, Yu Shyr, Joseph E Willis, Amitabh Chak, Vinay Varadan, Kishore Guda
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is resistant to standard chemoradiation treatments and few targeted therapies are available. We used large-scale tissue profiling and pharmacogenetic analyses to identify deregulated signaling pathways in EAC tissues that might be targeted to slow tumor growth or progression. METHODS: We collected 397 biopsy specimens from patients with EAC and non-malignant Barrett's esophagus (BE), with or without dysplasia...
February 12, 2019: Gastroenterology
Wenji Deng, Huan Wang, Baojian Wu, Xingwang Zhang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a great challenge in treatment due to pathological complexity. It has been proven that phytomedicines and natural medicines have prominent antidiabetic effects. This work aimed to develop selenium-layered nanoparticles (SeNPs) for oral delivery of mulberry leaf and Pueraria Lobata extracts (MPE), a group of phytomedicines with significant hypoglycemic activities, to achieve a synergic antidiabetic effect. MPE-loaded SeNPs (MPE-SeNPs) were prepared through a solvent diffusion/ in situ reduction technique and characterized by particle size, ζ potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL)...
January 2019: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Hua Tong, Zhuliang Wei, Jing Yin, Bo Zhang, Tianxiao Zhang, Chunni Deng, Yali Huang, Nan Zhang
Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a common oral disease characterized by the slow progression of alveolar attachment loss and bone destruction. Genetic components have been reported to play an important role in the onset and development of CP. In the present study, we aimed to replicate the association signals of NIN and SIGLEC5 identified in previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of samples from Chinese Han individuals. Association signals between clinical severity indicators of CP and relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also examined...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Aishwarya Satish, Purna Sai Korrapati
Angiogenesis is a vital component of the orchestrated wound healing cascade and tissue regeneration process, which has a therapeutic prominence in treatment of ischemic vascular diseases and certain cardiac conditions. Based on its eminence, several strategies using growth factors have been studied to initiate angiogenesis. However, growth factors are expensive and have short half-life. In this work, sustained release of triiodothyronine, which plays a crucial role in stimulating growth factors and other signaling pathways that are instrumental in initiating angiogenesis, has been attempted through electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers...
February 12, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Brenda Ahoya, Justine A Kavle, Sarah Straubinger, Constance M Gathi
Optimal complementary feeding practices, a critical component of infant and young child feeding, has been demonstrated to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, stunting, overweight, and obesity. In Kenya, while impressive gains have been made in exclusive breastfeeding, progress in complementary feeding has been slow, and the country has failed to meet targets. Recent 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey reveal that only 22% of Kenyan children, 6-23 months, met criteria for a minimum acceptable diet. This case study describes key actions for complementary feeding put in place by the Kenya Ministry of Health as well as approaches for improving and monitoring complementary feeding within existing health platforms...
January 2019: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Annerieke C van Groenestijn, Carin D Schröder, Ruben P A van Eijk, Jan H Veldink, Esther T Kruitwagen-van Reenen, Jan T Groothuis, Hepke F Grupstra, Marga Tepper, Reinout O van Vliet, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Leonard H van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Weakness caused by motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may result in avoidance of physical activity, resulting in deconditioning and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of aerobic exercise therapy (AET) on disease-specific and generic HRQoL in ambulatory patients with ALS. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial...
February 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Maryam Haddad, Celso Oie, Sung Vo Duy, Sébastien Sauvé, Benoit Barbeau
The occurrence of micropollutants in water resources is raising substantial concerns, worldwide. These pollutants may have adverse impacts on the aquatic ecosystem and human health. Even though activated carbon is commonly used as an adsorbent to remove micropollutants from water, its low removal of hydrophilic components, energy-intensive regeneration procedure and slow adsorption can impair its applicability. Polymeric resins have been suggested as an effective alternative adsorbent due to their high porosity and accessible adsorption sites, significant adsorption concentration and stable chemical properties...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Avelino C Verceles, Kelly P Westlake
Sleep is an important component of motor memory consolidation and learning, providing a critical tool to enhance training and rehabilitation. Following initial skill acquisition, memory consolidation is largely a result of non-rapid eye movement sleep over either a full night or a nap. Targeted memory reactivation is one method used to enhance this critical process, which involves the pairing of an external cue with task performance at the time of initial motor skill acquisition, followed by replay of the same cue during sleep...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Sleep Research
M V Swain, V Mercurio, J E Tibballs, M Tholey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the thermal expansion of a porcelain (VM9) and tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) as well as the deflection upon re-heating and cooling of a bilayer fabricated from these two materials after slow and rapid cooling during initial fabrication. METHODS: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of bulk porcelain and Y-TZP as well as bilayer beam deflection was measured with a novel non-contact optical dilatometer. The influence of cooling rate during initial fabrication of the porcelain-zirconia bilayer and the bulk porcelain during subsequent heating and cooling is investigated...
February 6, 2019: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Sanish Sathyan, Tao Wang, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
OBJECTIVE: To examine polygenic inheritance of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a predementia syndrome characterized by the presence of subjective cognitive complaints and slow gait. METHODS: We analyzed 4,915 individuals, age 65 years and above, with European ancestry (mean age 75.0 ± 6.8 years, 56.6% women) in the Health and Retirement Study. Polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated as weighted sums of the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms, with effect sizes derived from genome-wide association studies...
February 8, 2019: Neurology
Giulio Bernardi, Monica Betta, Emiliano Ricciardi, Pietro Pietrini, Giulio Tononi, Francesca Siclari
Although the EEG slow wave of sleep is typically considered to be a hallmark of Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, recent work in mice has shown that slow waves can also occur in REM sleep. Here we investigated the presence and cortical distribution of negative delta (1-4 Hz) waves in human REM sleep by analyzing high-density EEG sleep recordings obtained in 28 healthy subjects. We identified two clusters of delta waves with distinctive properties: 1) a fronto-central cluster characterized by ∼2.5-3.0 Hz, relatively large, notched delta waves (so-called 'sawtooth waves') that tended to occur in bursts, were associated with increased gamma activity and rapid eye movements, and upon source modeling, displayed an occipito-temporal and a fronto-central component; and 2) a medial-occipital cluster characterized by more isolated, slower (<2 Hz) and smaller waves that were not associated with rapid eye movements, displayed a negative correlation with gamma activity and were also found in NREM sleep...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
L Ma, Z Tang, P Chan, J D Walston
BACKGROUND: Although frailty status greatly impacts health care in countries with rapidly aging populations, little is known about the frailty status in Chinese older adults. OBJECTIVES: Given the increased health care needs associated with frailty, we sought to develop an easily applied self-report screening tool based on four of the syndromic frailty components and sought to validate it in a population of older adults in China. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological cohort study...
2019: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Pamela Dakik, Mélissa McAuley, Marisa Chancharoen, Darya Mitrofanova, Monica Enith Lozano Rodriguez, Jennifer Anne Baratang Junio, Vicky Lutchman, Berly Cortes, Éric Simard, Vladimir I Titorenko
We have recently discovered six plant extracts that delay yeast chronological aging. Most of them affect different nodes, edges and modules of an evolutionarily conserved network of longevity regulation that integrates certain signaling pathways and protein kinases; this network is also under control of such aging-delaying chemical compounds as spermidine and resveratrol. We have previously shown that, if a strain carrying an aging-delaying single-gene mutation affecting a certain node, edge or module of the network is exposed to some of the six plant extracts, the mutation and the plant extract enhance aging-delaying efficiencies of each other so that their combination has a synergistic effect on the extent of aging delay...
January 8, 2019: Oncotarget
Johannes Hunger, Soham Roy, Maksim Grechko, Mischa Bonn
The dynamics of probe molecules are commonly used to interrogate the structural dynamics of room temperature ionic liquids, however, the extent to which these dynamics reflect the dynamics of the ionic liquids or are probe-specific has remained debated. Here, we explore to what extent the vibrational and rotational dynamics of the dicyanamide anion - a common ionic liquid anion - correlate to the structural relaxation of ionic liquids. We use polarization-resolved ultrafast infrared spectroscopy to probe the temperature- and probe concentration-dependent dynamics of samples with small amounts of 1-ethyl-3 methyl-imidazolium ([emim]+ ) dicyanamide ([DCA]- ) dissolved in four [emim]+ based ionic liquids with tetrafluoroborate ([BF4 ]- ), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf2 ]- ), ethylsufate ([EtSO4 ]- ), and triflate ([OTf]- ) as anion...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Florie Monier, Sylvie Droit-Volet
The aim of the present study was to examine both the development of sensorimotor synchronization in children in the age range from 5 to 8 years and the involvement of motor and cognitive capacities. Children performed a spontaneous motor tempo task and a synchronization-continuation task using an external auditory stimulus presented at three different inter-stimulus intervals: 500, 700, and 900 ms. Their motor and cognitive abilities (short-term memory, working memory, and attention) were also assessed with various neuropsychological tests...
February 4, 2019: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Yuyi You, Ling Zhu, Ting Zhang, Ting Shen, Ariadna Fontes, Con Yiannikas, John Parratt, Joshua Barton, Angela Schulz, Vivek Gupta, Michael H Barnett, Clare L Fraser, Mark Gillies, Stuart L Graham, Alexander Klistorner
PURPOSE: To compare functional and structural changes in the retina in patients with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; biochemical study of human retinas. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 181 participants, including 22 consecutive patients (44 eyes) with NMOSD, 131 patients (262 eyes) with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 28 normal subjects (56 eyes)...
January 31, 2019: Ophthalmology
Ana Balseiro, Valentin Perez, Ramon A Juste
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in humans and paratuberculosis in domestic and wild ruminants can be defined as chronic regional intestinal inflammatory diseases (CRIID). This review is a literature overview on these diseases in humans, non-human primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, equids and ruminants with a focus on pathological and microbiological features aimed identifying common characteristics that could lead to a unified pathological classification for a better understanding of their mechanisms and causes...
February 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Maryam Rouhani
Modeling a biological process equips us with more comprehensive insight into the process and a more advantageous experimental design. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that occurs throughout the cell cycle. The objective of the current work is to model the fast and slow phases of NHEJ in G1 phase of the cell cycle following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The fast phase contains the major components of NHEJ; Ku70/80 complex, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and XLF/XRCC4/ligase IV complex (XXL)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Biological Physics
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