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microbiota AND ("intensive care unit" OR ICU)

D N Pisanenko, V E Gasrataliev, T N Gorshkova, M V Ivaneeva, D V Abramov, A A Danilov, T V Galitsky, O V Ruina, A B Stroganov, V A Atduev
AIM: to study the features of microbiota in patients of urological departments and to optimize the schemes of antibiotic therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of microbiological studies in patients of urological departments in 2017 years were analyzed. Isolation of pathogens was carried out using standard techniques. A disk diffusion test using Mueller-Hinton agar with BioRad disks was used to determine the sensitivity. The statistical analysis was performed using the WHONET 5...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Doaa M Ghaith, Zeinat K Mohamed, Mohamed G Farahat, Walaa Aboulkasem Shahin, Hadeel O Mohamed
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Colonized patients with carbapenamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are vulnerable to invasive infections from their endogenous flora. We aimed to assess faecal colonization with (CPE) among children admitted to Cairo University paediatric intensive care units (ICUs). The phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were also studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 413 Enterobacteriaceae isolates have been isolated from cultured rectal swabs of 100 children...
February 4, 2019: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Jillian R Baranowski, Erika C Claud
Bacterial colonization patterns in preterm infants differ from those of their term counterparts due to maternal microbial diversity, delivery mode, feeding methods, antibiotic use, and exposure to commensal microbiota and pathogens in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Early gut microbiome dysbiosis predisposes neonates to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating intestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality. Though mechanisms of NEC pathogenesis are not fully understood, the microbiome is a promising therapy target for prevention and treatment...
January 26, 2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lufang Chen, Hanyu Li, Jinyou Li, Yue Chen, Yunmei Yang
Decrease of 'health‑benefiting' microbes and increase of pathogenic bacteria (a condition termed dysbiosis) in intensive care unit patients is considered to induce or aggravate sepsis (gut‑origin sepsis). Orally administered probiotics have been effective in the prevention of nosocomial infections. However, the mechanisms of probiotic‑induced anti‑infection and anti‑sepsis remain to be explored. In the present study, 4‑week‑old C57BL6 mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or normal saline (control) 4 weeks prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
March 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Berkeley N Limketkai, Steven Hendler, Peng-Sheng Ting, Alyssa M Parian
The gut microbiome has been implicated in a diversity of diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and anxiety. Current research also suggests the presence of a bidirectional relationship between the composition of the gut microbiome and critical illness. In the critical care setting, multiple factors (eg, use of antibiotics, aberrant nutrition, bloodstream infections, bowel ischemia, and abnormal bowel motility) strongly contribute to intestinal dysbiosis...
December 18, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Ipek Guney Varal, Nilgun Koksal, Hilal Ozkan, Onur Bagci, Pelin Dogan
Background & Objective: Preterm infants need nutritional and medical requirements in accordance with the physiologic maturity at birth and maintaining optimal postnatal corporal and cerebral growth is one of the main targets of medical caregivers. However, only a few strategies exist to improve the outcomes of infants in a pathogen-rich and nutrient-poor neonatal intensive care unit environment. In this pilot study, we hypothesize that synbiotics may enhance brain growth, which is reflected indirectly by an increase in head circumference through several signalling molecules...
November 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Stephen A McClave, Robert G Martindale
Strategies for providing optimal nutritional therapy have evolved over time, with the emphasis on specific directives (such as route, use of immunonutrition, high protein, organ-specific formulas, etc.), achieving variable degrees of success for improving outcomes in the intensive care unit. As the largest immune organ in the body comprising the largest interface between the host and the external environment, the gut can have an amplifying effect on a pattern of dysbiosis, immune dysregulation, and multiple organ failure seen in the critically ill patient...
October 5, 2018: Nutrition
Daphnée Lamarche, Jennie Johnstone, Nicole Zytaruk, France Clarke, Lori Hand, Dessi Loukov, Jake C Szamosi, Laura Rossi, Louis P Schenck, Chris P Verschoor, Ellen McDonald, Maureen O Meade, John C Marshall, Dawn M E Bowdish, Tim Karachi, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Deborah J Cook, Michael G Surette
BACKGROUND: Host-associated microbial communities have important roles in tissue homeostasis and overall health. Severe perturbations can occur within these microbial communities during critical illness due to underlying diseases and clinical interventions, potentially influencing patient outcomes. We sought to profile the microbial composition of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, and to determine whether microbial diversity is associated with illness severity and mortality...
December 7, 2018: Respiratory Research
David D Leedahl, Heather A Personett, Avish Nagpal, Erin F Barreto
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remain high across intensive care units in the United States despite national efforts to decrease this escalating health care burden. Most published literature and guidelines address treatment rather than prevention, yet this approach may be too downstream to limit morbidity and mortality from the disease and its complications. Mechanisms to successfully prevent CDI include reducing modifiable risk factors and minimizing horizontal transmission of C...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Shenhai Gong, Zhengzheng Yan, Zhanguo Liu, Mengwei Niu, Heng Fang, Na Li, Chenyang Huang, Lei Li, Guiming Chen, Haihua Luo, Xiaojiao Chen, Hongwei Zhou, Jingjuan Hu, Wei Yang, Qiaobing Huang, Bernd Schnabl, Ping Chang, Timothy R Billiar, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
Sepsis-induced liver injury is recognized as a key problem in intensive care units (ICUs). The gut microbiota has been touted as an important mediator of liver disease development; however, the precise roles of gut microbiota in regulating sepsis-induced liver injury are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in sepsis-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanism. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was employed to induce polymicrobial sepsis and related liver injury. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to validate the roles of gut microbiota in these pathologies...
December 1, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
You-Dong Wan, Rui-Xue Zhu, Zi-Qian Wu, Shao-Yan Lyu, Lian-Xing Zhao, Zhong-Jun Du, Xin-Ting Pan
BACKGROUND The composition of the intestinal microbiota and its effect on septic shock patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unknown. In the present study we explored the hypothesis that bacterial diversity is decreased in septic shock patients and that this diversity may be improved by use of probiotics or enteral nutrition. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 15 stool samples were collected prospectively from septic shock patients in the ICU, while 15 samples from healthy subjects served as controls. Bacterial DNA was submitted for 16S rDNA gene sequencing...
November 29, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Leónides Fernández, Lorena Ruiz, Josué Jara, Belén Orgaz, Juan M Rodríguez
Studies carried in the last years have revealed that human milk contains a site-specific microbiota and constitutes a source of potentially beneficial bacteria to the infant gut. Once in the infant gut, these bacteria contribute to the assembly of a physiological gut microbiota and may play several functions, contributing to infant metabolism, protection against infections, immunomodulation or neuromodulation. Many preterm neonates are fed with pasteurized donor's human milk (DHM) or formula and, therefore, are devoid of contact with human milk microbes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jing Lu, Erika C Claud
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in preterm infants predisposes the neonate to various major morbidities including neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit, and adverse neurological outcomes later in life. There are parallel early developmental windows for the gut microbiota and the nervous system during prenatal to postnatal of life. Therefore, preterm infants represent a unique population in which optimization of initial colonization and microbiota development can affect brain development and enhance neurological outcomes...
November 20, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Melinda M Pettigrew, Janneane F Gent, Yong Kong, Alison Laufer Halpin, Lisa Pineles, Anthony D Harris, J Kristie Johnson
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) can colonize the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and CRPA colonization puts patients at increased risk of CRPA infection. Prior studies have not examined relationships between the microbiota, medications, and CRPA colonization-acquisition. Methods: Data and peri-rectal swabs were obtained from a cohort of ICU patients at the University of Maryland Medical Center. Patients (N=109) were classified into three groups by CRPA colonization-acquisition status and antimicrobial exposure...
November 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Birte Staude, Frank Oehmke, Tina Lauer, Judith Behnke, Wolfgang Göpel, Michael Schloter, Holger Schulz, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Harald Ehrhardt
Preterm birth poses a global challenge with a continuously increasing disease burden during the last decades. Advances in understanding the etiopathogenesis did not lead to a reduction of prematurely born infants so far. A balanced development of the host microbiome in early life is key for the maturation of the immune system and many other physiological functions. With the tremendous progress in new diagnostic possibilities, the contribution of microbiota changes to preterm birth and the acute and long-term sequelae of prematurity have come into the research focus...
2018: BioMed Research International
Audrey Machado Dos Reis, Ana Valéria Fruchtenicht, Sérgio Henrique Loss, Luis Fernando Moreira
To meet the nutritional requirements of patients admitted to intensive care units, it is necessary to establish a diet schedule. Complications associated with enteral nutrition by tube feeding are not uncommon and may reduce the delivery of required nutrient to patients in intensive care units. Research on the osmolality, fat content, caloric intensity and fiber content of formulas are under way, and a substantial number of studies have focused on fiber content tolerability or symptom reduction. We conducted a systematic review of dietary fiber use and safety in critically ill patients in 8 studies based on diarrhea, other gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal distension, gastric residual volume, vomiting and constipation), intestinal microbiota, length of stay in the intensive care unit and death...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Kentaro Shimizu, Tomoki Yamada, Hiroshi Ogura, Tomoyoshi Mohri, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Satoshi Fujimi, Takashi Asahara, Tomomi Yamada, Masahiro Ojima, Mitsunori Ikeda, Takeshi Shimazu
BACKGROUND: Commensal microbiota deteriorate in critically ill patients. The preventive effects of probiotic/synbiotic therapy on microbiota and septic complications have not been thoroughly clarified in patients with sepsis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether synbiotics have effects on gut microbiota and reduce complications in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis patients who were mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this randomized controlled study...
September 27, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Hadi Hamishehkar, Roghaieh Asghari, Ramin Abri, Kamran Shadvar, Sarvin Sanaie
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs as a life-threatening complication in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Probiotic administration may modify the gut microbiota; however, whether this modification could decrease VAP occurrence is not known. METHODS: In this study, 100 adult critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for >48 hours were randomly assigned to either the probiotic or the control group. The patients in the probiotic group received 2 capsules of probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus spp...
August 8, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Maria Cristina Pintus, Milena Lussu, Angelica Dessì, Roberta Pintus, Antonio Noto, Valentina Masile, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Melania Puddu, Vassilios Fanos, Luigi Atzori
Despite the advancements in medical knowledge and technology, the etiopathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is not yet fully understood although oxidative stress seems to play a role, leading to a very demanding management of these patients by the neonatologist. In this context, metabolomics can be useful in understanding, diagnosing, and treating this illness since it is one of the newest omics science that analyzes the metabolome of an individual through the investigation of biological fluids such as urine and blood...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xiaoling Qi, Hongping Qu, Dandan Yang, Lian Zhou, Ya-Wen He, Yuetian Yu, Jieming Qu, Jialin Liu
BACKGROUND: Probiotics could prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in lower respiratory tract (LRT) and reduced P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate. Recent studies also suggested that probiotics could improve lung inflammation in mice infected with P. aeruginosa. It seems that microbiota regulation may be a potential therapy for P. aeruginosa VAP patients. However, we know less about the LRT microbial composition and its correlation with prognosis in P. aeruginosa VAP patients...
July 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
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