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butyrate AND barrier

Ying Cao, Guowang Yao, Yuanyuan Sheng, Li Yang, Zixuan Wang, Zhen Yang, Pengwei Zhuang, Yanjun Zhang
Background: Gut microbiota modulates the barrier function and host inflammatory state in metabolic disease. JinQi Jiangtang (JQJT) tablets are a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. However, the low bioavailability of its chemical compositions makes it hard to explain the pharmacological mechanisms. Method: Diabetic mice were orally treated with JQJT tablets for 5 weeks. Fasting blood glucose and the level of HbA1c were measured, and ITT were conducted to determine the insulin improvement effect of JQJT tablets...
2019: Journal of Diabetes Research
Thao Duy Nguyen, Olena Prykhodko, Frida F Hållenius, Margareta Nyman
Butyric acid has been shown to reduce high-fat diet-related metabolic disturbances and to improve intestinal barrier function due to its potent anti-inflammatory capacity. This study investigates whether a butyric acid ester, monobutyrin (MB) affects lipid profiles and gut barrier function in a dose-response manner in rats fed butter- or lard-based high-fat diets. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were fed butter-based diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.75 and 1.5 MB g/100 g (dry weight basis) or 0.5 glycerol g/100 g, and diets with lard (La) containing 0 and 0...
February 1, 2019: Nutrients
Xin Yang, Yanli Liu, Fang Yan, Chengbo Yang, Xiaojun Yang
The aim of this study was to evaluate a combination diet of organic acids and essential oils on epithelial restitution, intestinal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens. A total of 144 1-day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were allotted to 3 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates with 8 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments were as follows: control group (CON, basal diet), antibiotics group (ANT, control + 0.15 g/kg enramycin), and addition group (EOA, control + 0.30 g/kg encapsulated organic acids and essential oils)...
January 31, 2019: Poultry Science
Amandeep Kaur, Tingting Chen, Stefan J Green, Ece Mutlu, Berdine R Martin, Pinthip Rumpagaporn, John A Patterson, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
SCOPE: Resistant starch (RS) is utilized by Gram-negative Bacteroidetes through a starch utilization system (Sus), which requires physical attachment of the bacteria to the substrate. Gram-positive Firmicutes, which include butyrate producers, utilize RS by other mechanisms, such as amylosomes and secreted amylases/glucoamylases. It has been previously shown that fabricated RS [alginate-based starch-entrapped microspheres (SM)] increases butyrate in in vitro human fecal fermentation and was slow fermenting...
January 19, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xiuying Wang, Wenjun Wang, Longmei Wang, Cheng Yu, Guolong Zhang, Huiling Zhu, Chunwei Wang, Shengjun Zhao, Chien-An Andy Hu, Yulan Liu
The intestinal microbiota plays a vital role in metabolism, pathogen resistance, and immune development in host cells, and is modifiable by dietary change. Lentinan (LNT), a type of mushroom polysaccharide, is known to ameliorate intestinal inflammation with the potential of therapeutic effect on digestive diseases. We hypothesized that LNT could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury via regulating the composition and metabolites of intestinal microbiota in a piglet model...
January 14, 2019: Food & Function
Jörg R Aschenbach, Qendrim Zebeli, Amlan K Patra, Gabriele Greco, Salah Amasheh, Gregory B Penner
The stratified squamous ruminal epithelium is the main site for absorption of key nutrients (e.g., short-chain fatty acids; SCFA) and electrolytes (e.g., sodium and magnesium). The absorptive function has to be highly selective to prevent simultaneous entry of microbes and toxins from the rumen into the blood. As such, epithelial absorption is primarily transcellular, whereas the paracellular pathway appears rather tightly sealed. A network of tight junction (claudin-1, claudin-4, and occludin) and tight junction-associated proteins (e...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xiaodan Fu, Zhemin Liu, Changliang Zhu, Haijin Mou, Qing Kong
Nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs) are fermentation substrates in the colon after escaping digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among NDCs, resistant starch is not hydrolyzed by pancreatic amylases but can be degraded by enzymes produced by large intestinal bacteria, including clostridia, bacteroides, and bifidobacteria. Nonstarch polysaccharides, such as pectin, guar gum, alginate, arabinoxylan, and inulin fructans, and nondigestible oligosaccharides and their derivatives, can also be fermented by beneficial bacteria in the large intestine...
December 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yue Zhang, Boyan Zhang, Lihua Dong, Pengyu Chang
Chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related intestinal microbial dysbiosis is one of the main causes of intestinal mucositis. Cases of bacterial translocation into peripheral blood and subsequent sepsis occur as a result of dysfunction in the intestinal barrier. Evidence from recent studies depicts the characteristics of chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-related intestinal microbial dysbiosis, which creates an imbalance between beneficial and harmful bacteria in the gut. Decreases in beneficial bacteria can lead to a weakening of the resistance of the gut to harmful bacteria, resulting in robust activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Wanxiu Cao, Chengcheng Wang, Yaoxian Chin, Xin Chen, Yuan Gao, Shihan Yuan, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang, Qingjuan Tang
Stress exposure can increase the appearance of intestinal dysfunction. DHA and EPA have been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory and immuno-enhancement bioactivities. The aim of the study was to investigate whether different forms of DHA or EPA would affect intestinal barriers (including intestinal epithelium integrity and immunity responses, gut microbiota and its metabolites) in mice under chronic stress, and might therefore prevent stress induced intestinal dysfunction. Chronic stress caused a series of anomalies in the intestine, including decreased faecal water content, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), reduced expression levels of ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin, and aberrant microbiota composition (especially Roseburia spp...
December 19, 2018: Food & Function
Irida Palamidi, Konstantinos C Mountzouris
This study was designed to study the effect of diet supplementation with an organic acids-based formulation (OABF) on luminal- and mucosa-associated bacteria, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial glycolytic enzyme activity and expression of mucin 2 ( MUC2 ), immunoglobulin A ( IgA ) and tight junction protein, i.e., zonula occludens-1 ( ZO1 ), zonula occludens-2 ( ZO2 ), claudin-1 ( CLDN1 ), claudin-5 ( CLDN5 ) and occludin ( OCLN ), genes at the ileal and cecal level. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used having OABF inclusion and avilamycin as main factors...
December 2018: Animal nutrition
F Fava, L Rizzetto, K M Tuohy
Overweight-related metabolic diseases are an important threat to health in the Western world. Dietary habits are one of the main causative factors for metabolic syndrome, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The human gut microbiota is emerging as an important player in the interaction between diet and metabolic health. Gut microbial communities contribute to human metabolism through fermentation of dietary fibre and the result of intestinal saccharolytic fermentation is production of SCFA. Acetate, propionate and butyrate positively influence satiety, endocrine system, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, lipid oxidation, thermoregulation, hepatic gluconeogenesis, endothelial function and gut barrier integrity, and these mechanisms have all been linked to protection from type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular health...
December 18, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Reena Kumari, Senthilnathan Palaniyandi, Gerhard Carl Hildebrandt
Hematopoietic cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to treat high-risk hematological malignant disorders and other life-threatening hematological and genetic diseases. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) presents a barrier to its wider application. A conditioning regimen and medications given to patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are capable of disturbing the homeostatic crosstalk between the microbiome and the host immune system and of leading to dysbiosis...
December 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Marja Vilkman, Kaisa-Leena Väisänen, Pälvi Apilo, Riccardo Po, Marja Välimäki, Mari Ylikunnari, Andrea Bernardi, Tapio Pernu, Gianni Corso, Jani Seitsonen, Santtu Heinilehto, Janne Ruokolainen, Jukka Hast
Understanding the phenomena at interfaces is crucial for producing efficient and stable flexible organic solar cell modules. Minimized energy barriers enable efficient charge transfer, and good adhesion allows mechanical and environmental stability and thus increased lifetime. We utilize here the inverted organic solar module stack and standard photoactive materials (a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) to study the interfaces in a pilot scale large-area roll-to-roll (R2R) process...
November 26, 2018: ACS applied energy materials
L Qian, L Lu, L Huang, Q Wen, J Xie, W Jin, H Li, L Jiang
BACKGROUND: To investigate neonatal maternal separation (NMS) effects on airway inflammation of asthma and potential mechanism using a mouse model. METHODS: 80 Balb/c neonatal male mice were randomly assigned to NMS and non-NMS groups. Feces were collected on PND21, 28, 35 and 42 to analyze microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Non-NMS group were then divided into control (group A) and asthma groups (group B), while NMS group was assigned to NMS+asthma (group C) and NMS+SCFAs+asthma groups (group D)...
November 17, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Weiran Li, Yu Zhu, Yiyuan Li, Min Shu, Yang Wen, Xiaolin Gao, Chaomin Wan
AIM: This study explored the gut microbiota of children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: We enrolled 15 cases with HFMD admitted to the West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, China, from July to September 2016 at a median age of three years. The controls were 15 healthy children of a similar age who underwent routine health examinations at the hospital during the same period. Gut microbiota was analysed using high throughput 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing...
November 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Jindong Zhang, Lijin Song, Yujing Wang, Chang Liu, Lu Zhang, Shiwei Zhu, Shuangjiang Liu, Liping Duan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emerging evidence indicates that psychological stress is involved in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity and may be accompanied by gut dysbiosis. However, how such stress contributes to the development of visceral hypersensitivity is incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the influence that stress-induced microbial changes exert on visceral sensitivity, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms associated with this effect...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We have recently reported that soluble dietary fibre, glucomannan, increased colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression without affecting the small-intestinal activity and that colonic ALP was correlated with gut mucins (index of intestinal barrier function). We speculated that dietary fermentable carbohydrates including oligosaccharides commonly elevate colonic ALP and gene expression as well as increase mucin secretion and microbial fermentation. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30 % lard with or without 4 % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), raffinose (RAF) and lactulose (LAC), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOS; some digestible oligosaccharides) for 2 weeks...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Clara S A Sugizaki, Maria Margareth V Naves
Obesity is a global epidemic chronic condition and is progressing at a rapid rate. This review focuses on the potential prebiotic properties of nuts and edible seeds and the plausible mechanisms that their consumption may help the prevention and the management of overweight and obesity. The literature review was performed by searching papers about the topic in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. The healthy attributes of nuts and edible seeds, especially dietary fibers and polyphenols contents, indicate that their mechanism of weight gain prevention may occur through interaction with the gut microbiota, by means of prebiotic effects...
November 3, 2018: Nutrients
Qianqian Li, Xinchen Huang, Guijin Su, Minghui Zheng, Chunhua Huang, Mengjing Wang, Chunyan Ma, Da Wei
The role of regular/persistent free radicals on the catalytic activity of K+ -tuned MnO2 tunnel structures is poorly understood to date. Herein, three MnO2 polymorphs (α-, β-, and δ-MnO2 ) were synthesized and examined toward the degradation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TrCBz) at 300 °C. δ-MnO2 , with a two-dimensional-layered tunnel structure tuned by K+ , exhibited the highest activity among the three MnO2 polymorphs. The electron spin resonance spectroscopy results confirmed that δ-MnO2 featured the most abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2 -• , •OH, and 1 O2 ), followed by α-MnO2 (O2 -• and 1 O2 ), and β-MnO2 (O2 -• ), being supported by the calculated energy barrier...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Janice E Drew, Nicole Reichardt, Lynda M Williams, Claus-Dieter Mayer, Alan W Walker, Andrew J Farquharson, Stavroula Kastora, Freda Farquharson, Graeme Milligan, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Harry J Flint, Petra Louis
Dietary fibers (DF) can prevent obesity in rodents fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Their mode of action is not fully elucidated, but the gut microbiota have been implicated. This study aimed to identify the effects of seven dietary fibers (barley beta-glucan, apple pectin, inulin, inulin acetate ester, inulin propionate ester, inulin butyrate ester or a combination of inulin propionate ester and inulin butyrate ester) effective in preventing diet-induced obesity and links to differences in cecal bacteria and host gene expression...
October 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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