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ectopic variceal bleeding

Andrew Nett, Kenneth F Binmoeller
Gastrointestinal bleeding as a sequela of portal hypertension can be catastrophic and fatal. Endoscopic and endosonographic therapy play a critical role in management of such bleeding- both for hemostasis of active bleeding and bleeding prophylaxis. Variceal band ligation is established as the standard intervention for esophageal varices. For other sources of portal hypertension-related bleeding, or for salvage therapy for esophageal varices, a variety of endoscopic techniques are available. Endoscopic ultrasound may be used to enhance endoscopic management, particularly for gastric and ectopic varices...
April 2019: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Alina Cristiana Gheorghiu, Michele Proserpio, Luca Regusci, Alberto Pagnamenta
A middle-aged woman previously in good health arrived to hospital with severe haemorrhagic shock. An abdominal and pelvic CT scan showed hepatomegaly, fluid in the sigmoid colon, perigastric and right sided pelvic varices without a clear source of bleeding. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy excluded gastric varices and active upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the colonoscopy was inconclusive due to haemodynamic instability and massive bleeding which made it impossible to proceed with a full colonoscopy. An explorative laparotomy identified liver cirrhosis and bleeding from varices of the right fallopian tube which had formed a fistula with the caecum...
January 31, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Umesha Boregowda, Chandraprakash Umapathy, Nasir Halim, Madhav Desai, Arpitha Nanjappa, Subramanyeswara Arekapudi, Thimmaiah Theethira, Helen Wong, Marina Roytman, Shreyas Saligram
Cirrhosis of liver is a major problem in the western world. Portal hypertension is a complication of cirrhosis and can lead to a myriad of pathology of which include the development of porto-systemic collaterals. Gastrointestinal varices are dilated submucosal veins, which often develop at sites near the formation of gastroesophageal collateral circulation. The incidence of varices is on the rise due to alcohol and obesity. The most significant complication of portal hypertension is life-threatening bleeding from gastrointestinal varices, which is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality...
January 21, 2019: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tien-Ching Lin, Wei-Lun Chang
Multifocal gastrointestinal varices are uncommon and often associated with liver cirrhosis. They consist of varices at the gastroesophageal region and the other sites (i.e., ectopic varices) simultaneously. The etiology includes venous system anomalies or thrombosis (congenital or acquired), vascular injury (iatrogenic or traumatic), or portal hypertension (either intrahepatic or extrahepatic). The clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic lesions to life-threatening variceal hemorrhage. The identification of bleeding foci, as well as the etiology of varices, can be challenging...
January 11, 2019: Postgraduate Medicine
P A Kupczyk, S Fischer, M Praktiknjo, J Stein, S C Müller, C Meyer
Life-threatening bleeding from portosystemic varices is a feared complication of portal hypertension. Particularly, varices in atypical locations-so-called ectopic varices-pose a challenge for diagnosis and therapy. In the present article, we describe the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis and recurrent bleeding from an ileal conduit resulting from peristomal varicosis. The difficult and hence delayed diagnosis led to a life-threatening hemorrhage that was successfully treated with interventional radiological variceal embolization and TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) implantation...
January 2019: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Ajit Yadav, Gaurav Gangwani, Nitin Mishra, Arun Gupta
Occlusion of Portal Vein (PV) and Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) is a known effect of local infiltration by pancreatic or mesenteric neuroendocrine tumors. Venous occlusion leads to formation of collateral pathways to restore hepatopetal flow in main PV and these collateral pathways can be seen in the form of ectopic (duodenal or jejunal) varices. We present a case of bleeding duodenal varices secondary to SMV occlusion by a locally infiltrating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor which was successfully treated by coil embolization of varices and SMV stenting of the occluded venous segment after failure of endoscopic glue injection...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Filipe Andrade, Akash Shukla, Christophe Bureau, Marco Senzolo, Louis D'Alteroche, Alexandra Heurgué, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Fanny Turon, Frédéric Oberti, Dhiraj Tripathi, Olivier Roux, Pierre-François Ceccaldi, Emmanuelle de Raucourt, Audrey Payancé, Dominique Valla, Aurélie Plessier, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A total of 15% of patients with idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) are women of childbearing age. We aimed to determine maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancies occurring in women with INCPH. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the charts of women with INCPH followed in the centers of the VALDIG network, having had ≥1 pregnancy during the follow-up of their liver disease. Data are represented as median (interquartile range)...
December 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Rosalie C Oey, Koos de Wit, Adriaan Moelker, Tugce Atalik, Otto M van Delden, Geert Maleux, Nicole S Erler, R Bart Takkenberg, Robert A de Man, Frederik Nevens, Henk R van Buuren
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the efficacy of TIPSS in ectopic variceal bleeding (EctVB) is largely based on relatively small series. AIM: To define the efficacy of TIPSS in EctVB. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with chronic liver disease who presented with EctVB and received TIPSS in three tertiary centres in 1992-2016. RESULTS: The study included 53 patients (70% male, median age 61 years, median model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score 11)...
November 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shuhei Ishiyama, Junji Shiode, Masao Yoshioka, Junichirou Nasu, Akiko Fujiwara, Mamoru Itoh, Masakuni Fujii, Shusuke Saitoh, Mitsuhiro Kanetoh, Hisanori Oka
Rectal varices are ectopic varices that occur in patients with portal hypertension and cause abrupt gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic variceal ligation is a minimally invasive treatment used for patients with bleeding from rectal varices. Endoscopic treatment of colorectal tumors accompanied by rectal varices has been rarely reported. It is very important to control bleeding during treatment. The patient was a 76-year-old man who had a chief complaint of bloody stools. A flat-elevated-type neoplastic lesion measuring about 20 mm was found above the rectal varices...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Meisheng Li, Qinghan Li, Qiucheng Lei, Jianyuan Hu, Fengjie Wang, Huanwei Chen, Zuojun Zhen
RATIONALE: Ectopic variceal bleeding due to hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) is unusual and difficult to manage. Reports on the use of side-to-side splenorenal shunt for severe bleeding from varices at HJ anastomosis are lacking. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with repeated episodes of hematemesis. He has a history of right hemihepatectomy with HJ reconstruction to the left hepatic duct for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Two years after surgery, he presented with repeated episodes of hematemesis and underwent blood transfusion...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chang Lae Kim, Taehong Kim, Won Hyuk Lee, Joo Wan Seo, Seung Ha Park, Joon Hyuk Choi, Nae Yun Heo
Ectopic varices are rare among patients with portal hypertension, especially in the ascending colon. It is difficult to evaluate massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis by colonoscopy due to hemodynamic instability and poor bowel preparation. In Korea, there has only been one case report about ascending colon variceal bleeding, in which hemostasis was performed by venous coil embolization. We report another rare case of ascending colon variceal bleeding in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis, who was successfully treated via two sessions of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection through colonoscopy...
July 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Holger Strunk, Milka Marinova
BACKGROUND: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a non-selective portosystemic shunt created using endovascular techniques. During recent years technical improvements and new insights into pathophysiology have modified indications for TIPS placement. In this article we therefore want to discuss current knowledge. METHOD: A literature review was performed to review and discuss the pathophysiology, indications and results of the TIPS procedure. RESULTS: Established TIPS indications are persistent bleeding despite combined pharmacological and endoscopic therapy and rebleeding during the first five days...
August 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Vincent Khor, Yuen Soon, Lwin Aung
INTRODUCTION: Ectopic variceal bleeding is uncommon, accounts for 2-5% of variceal bleeding, of which 17% is in duodenum. PRESENTATION OF CASE: 62-year-old lady with newly diagnosed liver cirrhosis on admission, presented with severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), was ultimately diagnosed with bleeding duodenal varices with single-balloon enteroscopy, after multiple oesophagogastroduodenoscopies (OGDs) and CT scans which failed to identify the varices. She was treated successfully with duodenectomy...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
H A Rudman, M C Stott, M Y Loh, E C Clark
A 79-year-old woman presented with a large fresh rectal bleed. Computed tomography revealed that she had a large type IV hiatus hernia, which contained the stomach and pancreas. Compression of the inferior mesenteric vein and splenic vein had led to thrombosis within these vessels and retrograde flow within the inferior mesenteric vein. This had led to the formation of portosystemic rectal varices. Ectopic varices occasionally form in the rectum, often in the context of liver cirrhosis. At the time of writing, ours is the first reported case of portosystemic rectal varices formulated in response to obstruction of vessels within a hiatus hernia...
September 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Indira Bhavsar, Anthony W Rooney, Brooke Corning, Neeral L Shah
A newly diagnosed 53-year-old woman with cirrhosis has repeated gastrointestinal bleeding with resulting symptomatic anaemia. She underwent routine diagnostic endoscopic evaluation without localisation of the aetiology of her bleed. Ultimately, she was found to have ectopic varices in the small bowel as a result of underlying high portal pressures. She underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal system decompression with resolution in her bleeding.
June 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Camille A Kezer, Neil Gupta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to review current therapeutic endoscopic treatments available for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding related to cirrhosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endoscopic band ligation is an effective treatment for primary prophylaxis, acute bleeding, and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices as well as for acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of select gastric varices. Sclerotherapy is a treatment option for acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices when band ligation is technically difficult...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Mathieu Struyve, Geert Robaeys
Ectopic varices are dilated portosystemic venous collaterals located outside of the gastro-esophageal region. Whereas they are common endoscopic findings in patients with portal hypertension, ectopic variceal bleeding is rather rare and accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all variceal bleedings. The rectum and the duodenum are the most common sites for ectopic varices, but they can be present along the whole intestinal tract and neighborhood. At present, there is no consensus well established on diagnostic workup for ectopic variceal bleeding and their therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
M Struyve, G Robaeys
Ectopic varices are dilated portosystemic venous collaterals located outside of the gastro-esophageal region. Whereas they are common endoscopic findings in patients with portal hypertension, ectopic variceal bleeding is rather rare and accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all variceal bleedings. The rectum and the duodenum are the most common sites for ectopic varices, but they can be present along the whole intestinal tract and neighborhood. At present, there is no consensus well established on diagnostic workup for ectopic variceal bleeding and their therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Keita Minowa, Shuhei Komatsu, Kenichiro Takashina, Sachie Tanaka, Tatsuya Kumano, Kenichiro Imura, Katsumi Shimomura, Jun Ikeda, Fumihiro Taniguchi, Yasuo Ueshima, Tecchuu Lee, Eito Ikeda, Eigo Otsuji, Yasuhiro Shioaki
Massive gastrointestinal bleeding from gastrointestinal varices is one of the most serious complications in patients with portal hypertension. However, if no bleeding point can be detected by endoscopy in the predilection sites of gastrointestinal varices, such as the esophagus and stomach, ectopic gastrointestinal variceal bleeding should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of ectopic ileal variceal bleeding in a 57-year-old woman, which was successfully diagnosed by multi-detector row CT (MDCT) and angiography and treated by segmental ileum resection...
December 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Xiuyan Wu, Wei Xuan, Lei Song
Portal hypertension can lead to ectopic varices, which occur most frequently in the rectum. Rectal variceal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension is rare but can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. However, no specific treatment guidelines have been established for rectal variceal bleeding. We herein report a case involving a woman with portal hypertension due to autoimmune liver disease who was successfully treated with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt and variceal embolization...
April 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
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