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cell replacement

Kai Zhang, Wanting Huang, Yue Huang, Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Minhao Xie
The authors present a fluorometric method for ultrasensitive determination of the activity of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). It is based on the use of two-tailed reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and an entropy-driven reaction. The assay involves the following steps: (1) UDG-driven uracil excision repair, (2) two-tailed RT-qPCR-mediated amplification, (3) RNA polymerase-aided amplification, and (4) DNA-modified silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) as a transducer to produce a fluorescent signal...
February 15, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Elizabeth J Price, Alan N Baer
SS is a chronic, autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology for which there is no known curative treatment. Although dryness of the eyes and mouth are the classically described features, patients often experience drying of other mucosal surfaces and systemic manifestations, including fatigue and arthralgia. There is an association with other autoimmune diseases, especially thyroid disease, coeliac disease and primary biliary cholangitis. Systemic features may affect up to 70% and include inflammatory arthritis, skin involvement, haematological abnormalities, neuropathies, interstitial lung disease and a 5-10% lifetime risk of B cell lymphoma...
February 15, 2019: Rheumatology
Joanna Kozłowska, Ewa Grela, Dagmara Baczyńska, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Mirosław Anioł
In our investigation, we concentrated on naringenin ( NG )-a widely studied flavanone that occurs in citrus fruits. As a result of a reaction with a range of alkyl iodides, 7 novel O -alkyl derivatives of naringenin ( 7a ⁻ 11a , 13a , 17a ) were obtained. Another chemical modification led to 9 oximes of O -alkyl naringenin derivatives ( 7b ⁻ 13b , 16b ⁻ 17b ) that were never described before. The obtained compounds were evaluated for their potential antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus subtilis ...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alessandro Trentini, Francesca Murganti, Valentina Rosta, Carlo Cervellati, Maria Cristina Manfrinato, Savino Spadaro, Franco Dallocchio, Carlo Alberto Volta, Tiziana Bellini
Several studies showed that hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a synthetic colloid used in volume replacement therapies, interferes with leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Although still unclear, the mechanism seems to involve the inhibition of neutrophils' integrin. With the aim to provide direct evidence of the binding of HES to neutrophils and to investigate the influence of HES on neutrophil chemotaxis, we isolated and treated the cells with different concentrations of fluorescein-conjugated HES (HES-FITC), with or without different stimuli (N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine, fMLP, or IL-8)...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vera Greiner, Regina Bou Puerto, Suying Liu, Christoph Herbel, Ellese M Carmona, Michael S Goldberg
Vaccination approaches have generally focused on the antigen rather than the resultant antibodies generated, which differ greatly in quality and function between individuals. The ability to replace the variable regions of the native B cell receptor (BCR) heavy and light chain loci with defined recombined sequences of a preferred monoclonal antibody could enable curative adoptive cell transfer. We report CRISPR-mediated homologous recombination (HR) into the BCR of primary human B cells. Ribonucleoprotein delivery enabled editing at the model CXCR4 locus, as demonstrated by T7E1 assay, flow cytometry, and TIDE analysis...
February 1, 2019: iScience
Selvam Sathiyavimal, Seerangaraj Vasantharaj, Felix LewisOscar, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Rathinasamy Subashkumar
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive and biocompatible material possessing osteoconductive properties used widely in the biomedical sector. In the present study, synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) using a Klebsiella pneumoniae SM24 (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) isolated from the fish bone waste. HAp synthesized using biological source showed efficient and positive enzymatic activity in the National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate medium (NBRIP). Characterization of HAp using FTIR revealed the presence of phosphate group hydroxyapatite and XRD spectra showed polycrystalline nature...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Marina Sagnou, Barbara Mavroidi, Antonio Shegani, Maria Paravatou-Petsotas, Catherine P Raptopoulou, Vassilis Psycharis, Ioannis Pirmettis, Minas S Papadopoulos, Maria Pelecanou
The synthesis and evaluation of three novel 99m Tc complexes (99m Tc-1 - 99m Tc-3), and their corresponding Re complexes (Re-1 - Re-3) in which the phenyl ring of 2-phenylbenzothiazole or 2-phenylbenzimidazole is replaced by the cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl [Cp 99m Tc(CO)3 ] core, is reported. Both 99m Tc and Re complexes were prepared from the corresponding ferrocenyl derivatives and the Re complexes were fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. The complexes exhibit effective in vitro binding to β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and fibrils, inhibit Aβ fibril formation, significantly reduce Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and ROS production in neuronal cell cultures...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Manila Sharma, Aymen Yangui, Vincent R Whiteside, Ian R Sellers, Dan Han, Shiyou Chen, Mao-Hua Du, Bayrammurad Saparov
Replacement of the toxic heavy element lead in metal halide perovskites has been attracting a great interest because the high toxicity and poor air stability are two of the major barriers for their widespread utilization. Recently, mixed-cation double perovskite halides, also known as elpasolites, were proposed as an alternative lead-free candidate for the design of nontoxic perovskite solar cells. Herein, we report a new nontoxic and air stable lead-free all-inorganic semiconductor Rb4 Ag2 BiBr9 prepared using the mixed-cation approach; however, Rb4 Ag2 BiBr9 adopts a new structure type (Pearson's code oP32) featuring BiBr6 octahedra and AgBr5 square pyramids that share common edges and corners to form a unique 2D layered non-perovskite structure...
February 15, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Joshua D Walters, Sanjitpal S Gill, Jeremy J Mercuri
Intervertebral disc degeneration is a complex, cell-mediated process originating in the nucleus pulposus (NP) and is associated with extracellular matrix catabolism leading to disc height loss and impaired spine kinematics. Previously, we developed an acellular bovine NP (ABNP) for NP replacement that emulated human NP matrix composition and supported cell seeding; however, its mechanical properties were lower than those reported for human NP. To address this, we investigated ethanol-mediated compaction and cross-linking to enhance the ABNP's dynamic mechanical properties and degradation resistance while maintaining its cytocompatibility...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Na Jin, Qing Zhang, Manyi Yang, Mingying Yang
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have attracted widespread attention in the last few decades due to their potential applications in cancer photothermal therapy (CPTT). However, the utilization of AuNRs is restricted because of their high toxicity for cells and tissues. Numerous methods have been developed to solve this problem, among which the most convenient one is to coat AuNRs with biocompatible materials or replace their original toxic surfactant such as the hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Organic polymers (OPs) are intensively researched due to their low toxicity and easy access to modification with functional groups (e...
February 14, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Elena Bondioli, Valeria Purpura, Catuscia Orlandi, Andrea Carboni, Paola Minghetti, Giovanna Cenacchi, Giovanni De Luca, Daniela Capirossi, Evandro Nigrisoli, Davide Melandri
Full-thickness skin wounds occur in many different clinical cases and the use of biological acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) to reconstruct the damaged area is increasing in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. In particular, the ability of ADMs to maintain the structural properties of extracellular matrix as well as to provide a suitable environment for cell growth makes their use suitable for the improvement of wound healing and the reduction of side effects deriving from contracture and scar tissue formation...
February 14, 2019: Cell and Tissue Banking
Jae-Hyun Park, Jeong-Kee Yoon, Jung Bok Lee, Young Min Shin, Kang-Woog Lee, Sang-Woo Bae, JunHee Lee, JunJie Yu, Cho-Rok Jung, Young-Nam Youn, Hwi-Yool Kim, Dae-Hyun Kim
Various treatment methods for tracheal defects have been attempted, such as artificial implants, allografts, autogenous grafts, and tissue engineering; however, no perfect method has been established. We attempted to create an effective artificial trachea via a tissue engineering method using 3D bio-printing. A multi-layered scaffold was fabricated using a 3D printer. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydrogel were used with nasal epithelial and auricular cartilage cells in the printing process. An artificial trachea was transplanted into 15 rabbits and a PCL scaffold without the addition of cells was transplanted into 6 rabbits (controls)...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Çiğdem Yücel, Yeşim Altintaş, Zelihagül Değim, Şükran Yılmaz, Taibe Arsoy, Levent Altıntaş, Can Çokçalışkan, Mahmut Sözmen
This study aims to investigate and compare the effects of insulin and embryonic stem-cell (ESC) loaded liposomes (LPs) and nanocochleate formulations and their PEGylated forms on the glucose levels. All formulations were characterized considering particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiencies. In-vitro insulin that releases from the formulations was determined using Franz-type diffusion cells. A cytotoxicity test revealed that none of the formulations was toxic to cells in any concentrations...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Marcus Augusto-Oliveira, Gabriela P F Arrifano, João O Malva, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez
Adult neurogenesis occurs in many species, from fish to mammals, with an apparent reduction in the number of both neurogenic zones and new neurons inserted into established circuits with increasing brain complexity. Although the absolute number of new neurons is high in some species, the ratio of these cells to those already existing in the circuit is low. Continuous replacement/addition plays a role in spatial navigation (migration) and other cognitive processes in birds and rodents, but none of the literature relates adult neurogenesis to spatial navigation and memory in primates and humans...
February 5, 2019: Cells
Steffen Dickopf, Matthias E Lauer, Philippe Ringler, Christian Spick, Peter Kern, Ulrich Brinkmann
A novel bispecific antibody format was applied to generate T cell-engaging antibodies. The TriFab format is a trivalent IgG-shaped entity composed of two Fab arms that bind to antigens on the surface of tumor cells, which are linked via flexible peptides to a CD3 binding moiety that replaces the CH2 domains of conventional IgGs. The distinctive feature of these T cell recruiting bispecifics is that their CD3 variable regions are incorporated between domains, rather than N- or C-terminally fused to an Fc or antibody fragments...
February 25, 2019: Biological Chemistry
Mariana A Ajalla Aleixo, Victor L Rangel, Joane K Rustiguel, Ricardo A P de Pádua, M Cristina Nonato
Fumarate hydratases (FHs, fumarases) catalyze the reversible conversion of fumarate into L-malate. FHs are distributed over all organisms and play important roles in energy production, DNA repair and as tumor suppressors. They are very important targets both in the study of human metabolic disorders and as potential therapeutic targets in neglected tropical diseases and tuberculosis. In this study, human FH (HsFH) was characterized by using enzyme kinetics, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and X-ray crystallography...
February 14, 2019: FEBS Journal
Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Jole Mariella, Carolina Castagnetti, Eleonora Iacono
A complex feedback of growth factors, secreted by a variety of cell types, is responsible for the mediation of skin healing. Despite the recent advances in wound healing management, this fails up to 50% and skin wounds can still be considered one of the main causes of morbidity, both in human and veterinary medicine. Regenerative medicine, involving mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is nowadays a promising solution for skin wound healing. Indeed, MSCs are involved in the modulation of the inflammatory local response and cell replacing, by a paracrine mode of action...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Tetsuya Asakawa, Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Tetsuro Sameshima, Susumu Kobayashi, Liang Wang, Zhen Hong, Shujiao Chen, Candong Li, Hiroki Namba
Dramatic breakthroughs in the treatment and assessment of neurological diseases are lacking. We believe that conventional methods have several limitations. Computerized technologies, including virtual reality, augmented reality, and robot assistant systems, are advancing at a rapid pace. In this study, we used Parkinson's disease (PD) as an example to elucidate how the latest computerized technologies can improve the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. Dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation remain the most effective interventions for treating PD...
February 13, 2019: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Delany Rodriguez, Shane Nourizadeh, Anthony W De Tomaso
The extracorporeal vasculature of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri plays a key role in several biological processes: transporting blood, angiogenesis, regeneration, self-nonself recognition, and parabiosis. The vasculature also interconnects all individuals in a colony and is composed of a single layer of ectodermally-derived cells. These cells form a tube with the basal lamina facing the lumen, and the apical side facing an extracellular matrix that consists of cellulose and other proteins, known as the tunic...
October 25, 2018: Developmental Biology
Rohit Srivastava, Anna Jablonska, Chengyan Chu, Lydia Gregg, Jeff Bulte, Raymond C Koehler, Piotr Walczak, Miroslaw Janowski
White matter damage persists in hypoxic-ischemic newborns even when treated with hypothermia. We have previously shown that intra-ventricular delivery of human glial progenitors (GPs) at the neonatal stage is capable of replacing abnormal host glia and rescuing the lifespan of dysmyelinated mice. However, such transplantation in the human brain poses significant challenges as related to high-volume ventricles and long cell migration distances. These challenges can only be studied in large animal model systems...
February 14, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
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