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“Stress fracture”

Paul Johan Høl, Nils R Gjerdet, Torbjörn Jonung
Intra-arterial stenosis due to atherosclerosis is often treated with endovascular balloon dilatation with a metal stent. Restenosis is common and is frequently treated with a new stent placed inside the existing one or the stents are placed with overlap to cover a larger area of the vessels. Observations of stent fractures, stent compression, accumulation of immunocompetent cells around stents have suggested the possibility of immunologic reactions to substances released from stents. An accelerated corrosion model was developed to study corrosion behaviour of commonly used surgical peripheral stents...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sigal Levy, Irit Heruti, Ronit Avitsur
Physical injuries are common occurrences that can have substantial implications for personal, emotional and social functioning. A recent study reported higher prevalence of common illnesses and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) in injury victims. Based on these findings, the present study examined the role of the antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)A and the stress hormone cortisol in the association between injury and health. Additionally, the role of daily life stress and dispositional optimism in this association was examined...
February 15, 2019: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Yasen Cao, Yong Zhang, Lixin Huang, Xiaowei Huang
BACKGROUND: Tibial shaft fractures account for approximately 15% of long bone fractures. Locked plates with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis techniques are used widely by surgeons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of factors meaning the plate length, fibula integrity, and placement of the plate on the stability of tibial shaft fracture fixation. METHODS: A finite element model of the tibial shaft fracture was built. An axial force of 2500 N was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Kazuha Kizaki, Fumiharu Yamashita, Daisuke Mori, Noboru Funakoshi
Despite a high incidence of proximal diaphyseal stress fractures of the fifth metatarsal (zone 3) in soccer (football) players, studies that examine risk factors of the fractures in professional soccer players are scarce; in particular, ankle structures have not yet been investigated. This study was designed to investigate ankle structures of professional soccer players with proximal diaphyseal stress fractures of the fifth metatarsal. We reviewed the ankle radiographs of 100 professional soccer players (stress fractures n = 15; controls n = 85) and measured the medial malleolar slip angle (MMSA), the ratio of the medial malleolar length to the width of the talar dome (MML:TD ratio), the ratio of the lateral malleolar length to the width of the TD (LML:TD ratio), and the ratio of the MML to the LML (MML:LML ratio)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Jin-Woo Kim
In this study, effects of variations in the fiber orientation for GFRP tension test on strength and temperature distributions were experimentally investigated. The temperature measurement method for test specimen was proposed in an IR thermography. Lock-in method, which is one of technique in IR thermography to measure the temperature of specimen as a function of time, was utilized to monitor changes in the temperature distribution during crack propagation process. At the maximum stress point, the temperature was significantly increased...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Min-Seok Baek, Hyung-Jun Kim, Kee-Ahn Lee
This study is related to cold spray 3D printing (kinetic metallization) capable of manufacturing near-net shape material. Anisotropy on the compressive deformation behavior of pure copper materials manufactured using cold spray process was investigated. In addition, the deformed microstructures that change according to strain were analyzed with different direction (spraying direction, perpendicular direction). Cu bulk material manufactured through cold spray processes showed distinctive structures wherein high-density dislocations had been accumulated because individual powder particles collided at high speed...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
N C Ramos, M R Kaizer, T M B Campos, J Kim, Y Zhang, R M Melo
Novel silica-based infiltrations on the surface of zirconia have the potential to improve their bondability, allowing for the etching/silane adhesive bonding technique. Nonetheless, adhesively bonded joints are subject to mixed tensile and shear stresses when the restoration is in occlusal service. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of 2 novel silica-based infiltrations on the interfacial toughness of adhesively bonded zirconia using the Brazil nut method, which allows for controlled types of stresses to be applied at the interfaces...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
Mehmet Yücens, Kadir Bahadır Alemdaroğlu, Ahmet Özmeriç, Serkan İltar, Ahmet Özgür Yıldırım, Nevres H Aydoğan
Background/aim: The aim of this study is to compare the stability and implant stresses of suprapectineal plate with infrapectineal plate in three subconfigurations of the screw types. Materials and methods: The stabilities of different fixation methods were compared by finite element analysis on six models. Three infrapectineal and three suprapectineal models each with locked, unlocked, or combined screws were employed. Three-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed by using isotropic materials with a load of 2...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
S L Chen
Hydraulic fracturing is the primary method of stimulation in unconventional reservoirs, playing a significant role in oil and gas production enhancement. A key issue for the analysis of hydraulic fracture initiation is to accurately determine the stress distributions in the vicinity of the borehole caused by the injection of pressurized fluids. This paper develops an exact, three-dimensional, poroelastic coupled analytical solution for such stress analysis of an arbitrarily inclined borehole subjected concurrently to a finite-length fluid discharge and in situ stresses, using Fourier expansion theorem and the Laplace-Fourier integral transform technique...
January 2019: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Alison F Banwell, Ian C Willis, Grant J Macdonald, Becky Goodsell, Douglas R MacAyeal
Global sea-level rise is caused, in part, by more rapid ice discharge from Antarctica, following the removal of the restraining forces of floating ice-shelves after their break-up. A trigger of ice-shelf break-up is thought to be stress variations associated with surface meltwater ponding and drainage, causing flexure and fracture. But until now, there have been no direct measurements of these processes. Here, we present field data from the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, showing that the filling, to ~2 m depth, and subsequent draining, by overflow and channel incision, of four surface lakes causes pronounced and immediate ice-shelf flexure over multiple-week timescales...
February 13, 2019: Nature Communications
Ping Ding, Xin Wang
Conventional sensor structure design and related fracture mechanics analysis are based on the single J -integral parameter approach of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). Under low crack constraint cases, the EPFM one-parameter approach generally gives a stress overestimate, which results in a great cost waste of labor and sensor components. The J-A two-parameter approach overcomes this limitation. To enable the extensive application of the J-A approach on theoretical research and sensor engineering problem, under small scale yielding (SSY) conditions, the authors developed an estimate method to conveniently and quickly obtain the constraint (second) parameter A values directly from T -stress...
February 12, 2019: Sensors
Giampaolo Rinaldi, Dario Capitani, Fabio Maspero, Valentina Scita
INTRODUCTION: This prospective study aims to evaluate the mid-term clinical and radiological performance of a new short, neck-preserving femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 178 consecutive patients (190 hips) underwent THA from November 2008 to July 2016. Mean follow-up is 62.4 months. Women make up 41% of the cohort at a mean age of 50 ± 4 years, with primary hip osteoarthritis as the main complaint. All patients underwent radiological evaluation using the modified Gruen method, and clinical assessment via the Harris Hip Score (HHS), preoperatively and at 1, 6, 12, 24, 60, 80 and 106 months post-op...
November 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Yutao Jian, Li Dao, Xiaodong Wang, Xinping Zhang, Michael V Swain, Ke Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To identify the conditions under which fabrication pore defects within veneering porcelain in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns will influence and jeopardize the mechanical integrity of the structure. METHODS: Thirty standardized molar crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated and microCT scanned to 3D-analyze the size, morphology and distribution of pores in veneering porcelain, followed by in vitro fracture test and SEM fractographic observation...
February 8, 2019: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ping Ding, Xin Wang
To implement a sensor structure analysis and design (as well as other engineering applications), a two-parameter approach using elastic⁻plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) could be applied to analyze a structure more accurately than a one-parameter approach, especially for structures with low crack constraint. The application of the J-A two-parameter approach on sensors and other structures depends on the obtainment of a constraint parameter A . To conveniently and effectively obtain the A parameter values, the authors have developed a T -stress-based estimate method under a small-scale yielding (SSY) condition...
February 10, 2019: Sensors
Gunilla Pousette Lundgren, Tove Hasselblad, Anna Stigsdotter Johansson, Anna Johansson, Göran Dahllöf
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary developmental disorder affecting the enamel of teeth. Affected patients present with tooth hypersensitivity, rapid tooth wear, or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in color and shape, all of which compromise esthetic appearance and masticatory function. Chronic conditions in childhood severely impact the whole family, affecting normal family routines and/or increasing the family's financial burden. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and the impact on daily life of being a parent to a child with severe forms of amelogenesis imperfecta...
February 9, 2019: Dentistry journal
Grzegorz Lesiuk
This paper presents the problem of the description of fatigue cracking development in metallic constructional materials. Fatigue crack growth models (mostly empirical) are usually constructed using a stress intensity factor Δ K in linear-elastic fracture mechanics. Contrary to the kinetic fatigue fracture diagrams (KFFDs) based on stress intensity factor K , new energy KFFDs show no sensitivity to mean stress effect expressed by the stress ratio R . However, in the literature there is a lack of analytical description and interpretation of this parameter in order to promote this approach in engineering practice...
February 9, 2019: Materials
Dimitrios Kitridis, Georgia Bei, Konstantinos Dogramatzis, Panagiotis Givissis
Introduction: Traumatic and atraumatic rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon has been described as a result of mechanical or biological stresses. Common mechanisms include fractures of the distal radius, rheumatoid arthritis, local injection of steroids, and repetitive motion activities at the wrist. Case Report: We report a case involving the spontaneous rupture of the EPL tendon in a relative of a deceased person who carried her coffin in a wrong way with no other predisposing factors...
September 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
L Pearce McCarty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament is the most common, significant injury affecting the medial elbow of the overhead athlete. However, there are many other significant sources of pathology that should be considered. This review seeks to present a broad range of conditions that providers should consider when evaluating the overhead athlete with medial elbow pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent biomechanical studies have deepened understanding of the anatomy and function of the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament germane to the overhead athlete...
February 9, 2019: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Cristina Falcinelli, Alberto Di Martino, Alessio Gizzi, Giuseppe Vairo, Vincenzo Denaro
This paper proposes a computational model based on a finite-element formulation for describing the mechanical behavior of femurs affected by metastatic lesions. A novel geometric/constitutive description is introduced by modelling healthy bone and metastases via a linearly poroelastic constitutive approach. A Gaussian-shaped graded transition of material properties between healthy and metastatic tissues is prescribed, in order to account for the bone-metastasis interaction. Loading-induced failure processes are simulated by implementing a progressive damage procedure, formulated via a quasi-static displacement-driven incremental approach, and considering both a stress- and a strain-based failure criterion...
January 30, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Tianqi Li, Yang Li, Xiaohan Wang, Xiang Li, Junqi Sun
The fabrication of shape memory polymers that are mechanically robust, capable of being induced by near-infrared (NIR) light and healing mechanical damage and the fatigued shape memory function remains a challenge. In this study, thermally and NIR-light-induced shape memory polymers with self-healing ability and satisfactory mechanical robustness are fabricated by dispersing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-grafted graphene oxide (GO) (PAA-GO) into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. The PVA/PAA-GO3% films with a PAA-GO content of 3...
February 8, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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